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Encyclopedia > State terrorism in Sri Lanka
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Tamil youth who was attacked by the Sinhalese mobs, stripped naked during the Black July pogrom
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Several groups have alleged that there have been instances of state terrorism in Sri Lanka.[1][2] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Victims of state terrorism from Cambodia State terrorism is terrorism that is perpetrated or sponsored by a national government or proxy state. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...

Contents

Response to JVP uprisings

Most of the victims of state violence during JVP uprisings were civilians from the majority Sinhalese community. During the first JVP uprising, in 1971, over 15,000 civilians were killed by the armed forces. [3] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Peoples Liberation Front (Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna) is a marxist Sinhalese political party in Sri Lanka was involved in 1971 youth uprising in Sri Lanka which were lost around 15,000 youth lives. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ...


During the second JVP uprising, in 1987-89, an estimated 50,000 civilians disappeared or were killed.[4] The Peoples Liberation Front (Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna) is a marxist Sinhalese political party in Sri Lanka was involved in 1987-89 insurrection in Sri Lanka which were lost around 50,000 lives. ...


Attacks on Tamil civilians, pre-1983

On the 6th of June 1956, members of the Federal Party, sat on the Galle Face Green, as a silent protest against The Sinhala Only Act, led by S. J. V. Chelvanayakam. Nearly 300 Tamil people were involved in the protest, similar to the Satyagraha, popularised by Mahatma Gandhi. Subsequently, the protest ws broken up by the Sri Lankan police, who proceded to beat the protesters[citation needed]. The violence spread onto the streets of Colombo and eventually erupted into arson and looting of Tamil property. In the next few days, violence was also observed in Amparai and Gal Oya, resulting in the death of 150 Tamil civilians[citation needed]. Samuel James Veluppillai Chelvanayakam (March 31, 1898-April 27, 1977) was a Sri Lankan politician and leader of the Tamil community. ...


The fourth World Tamil Research Conference was held in the city of Jaffna between January 3 and 9, 1974, during which due to police action it resulted in the loss of nine lives, the loss of civilian property and more than 50 civilians sustaining severe injuries. The police officers involved were subsequently promoted by the government.[5] Jaffna District. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1974 Tamil conference incident is when during the fourth World Tamil Research Conference was held in the city of Jaffna between January 3 and 9, 1974, police action resulted in the tragic loss of nine lives, the loss of civilian property and more than 50 civilians sustaining severe injuries. ...

Burnt shell of the post event library

With the increase in political tensions the next watershed event was the destruction of the Jaffna Public Library due to the actions of a mob sponsored by government agents. The library lost over 97,000 volumes of rare manuscripts, books and journals, in the process four Tamils were also killed. Nancy Murray, a director with ACLU wrote in a journal article in 1984, that several high ranking security officers and two cabinet ministers were present in the town of Jaffna, when uniformed security men and plainclothes[6] mob carried out organized acts of destruction and termed it an act of state terror.[7] During this event the Jaffna was burned. [8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Burning of Jaffna library was a watershed event in the ongoing Sri Lankan civil war. ... The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... Jaffna District. ... For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ... Plainclothes often refers to a member of law enforcement, such as a detective or police officer, who, instead of wearing a uniform typically associated with the occupation, will wear ordinary clothes, in order to avoid detection or identification as a member of law enforcement. ...

Sri Lankan Conflict Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri...

Background
Sri Lanka • History of Sri Lanka
Origins of the Civil War
Origins of the Civil War
Black JulyRiots and pogroms
Human rightsState terrorism
Tamil militant groups
LTTE
LTTENotable attacks Terrorist attacksAttributed assassinationsChild soldiers
Expulsion of Muslims from Jaffna
Major figures
Mahinda Rajapakse
Velupillai Prabhakaran
Karuna Amman
Sarath Fonseka
Indian Involvement
Operation Poomalai
Indo-Sri Lanka Accord
Indian Peace Keeping Force
Rajiv GandhiRAW
See also
Military of Sri Lanka
TMVPEPDP
Notable assassinations
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The transition from the political confrontation to military action came in 1983, with the Black July pogrom. It started on July 23. Nearly 1000 Tamils were killed. More than 18,000 houses and commercial establishments were destroyed and a wave of Sri Lankan Tamils sought refugee in other countries. It is seen as the start of full-scale armed struggle between the Tamil militants and the state of Sri Lanka. During the pogrom, in Colombo, 53 political prisoners were killed inside a high security prison. No individuals have been convicted of crimes relating to these organized pogrom.[1][2](see pics here) Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... The recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries. ... The origins of the Sri Lankan civil war lie in sharp disagreements over language, access to universities, and riots between Sri Lankas majority Sinhalese and minority Tamil community. ... Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... Following is a List of riots and pogroms in Sri Lanka. ... The situation of human rights in Sri Lanka is generally considered to be very poor[1]. Major human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have repeatedly expressed concern about the states of human rights in Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ... LTTE is a rebel group active in Sri Lanka that is banned as a terrorist group by 29 countries. ... The following is a list of terrorist attacks attributed to the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (commonly known as the Tamil Tigers or simply the LTTE). ... Assassinations, murders and wholesale massacres of civilians in Sri Lanka have become an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war since 1983. ... Military use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mahinda Rajapaksa Mahinda Rajapaksa (born November 18, 1945), Sri Lankan politician, became Prime Minister of Sri Lanka on April 6, 2004, following the victory of the United Peoples Freedom Alliance in the April 2, 2004 Sri Lankan legislative elections. ... Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்; born November 26, 1954), sometimes referred to as V. Prabhakaran or Pirabaharan or as Thambi,[] was born in the northern coastal town of Velvettithurai, Sri Lanka to Thiruvenkadam Velupillai and Vallipuram Parvathy. ... Karuna Amman was the second highest commanding officer of the LTTE who broke away due to Tigers attacks on civilians in Batticaloa, corruption within LTTE and the recruitment of child soldiers. ... Category: ... Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mercy mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop humanitarian relief supplies over the town of Jaffna and Jaffna Peninsula on 4 June 1987. ... Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J.R. Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. ... Rājiv Ratna GāndhÄ« (DevanāgarÄ«: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW)[1] is Indias external intelligence agency. ... The Military of Sri Lanka consists of Three Branches which are the Army, Navy, Air Force. ... Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (Tamil: தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், English: Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers) is a political party and paramilitary group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Assassinations, murders and massacres of civilians in Sri Lanka have become an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war since 1983. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups began appearing in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... The Welikada prison massacre happened during the 1983 Black July pogrom against the Sri Lankan Tamil minority in Colombo, Sri Lanka. ...

Response to the post 1983 civil conflict

As part of the military actions against the rebel LTTE group many massacres of civilians and series of prison massacres, assassinations of political opponents have taken place. LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Massacres are individual events of deliberate mass killing, especially of noncombatant civilians or other innocents. ... Prison massacres in Sri Lanka have occured in regular intervals since the inception of the civil conflict from 1983. ... assassin, see Assassin (disambiguation) Jack Ruby assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in a very public manner. ...


1983 to 1996

Civilian massacres

The alleged 1990 Batticaloa massacre consisted of 380 Tamil civilians being massacred by the Sri Lankan Army after being pulled from their native villages. Two commissions of inquiry appointed by the Sri Lankan government to inquire into disappearances have investigated this massacre in the villages of Sathurukkondaan, Kokkuvil and Pillaiyaradi. They have identified and named the perpetrators as Sri Lanka army personnel,[9] including an Eurasian officer. But so far no police investigation has been conducted, nor legal proceedings instituted, against those responsible.[10] 1990 Batticaloa massacre also known as Sathurukondan massacre is an infamous massacre of 180 or 184 refugees including infants from 3 villages close to Batticaloa by the LTTE personnel on September 9, 1990. ... Sri Lankan Army Flag The Sri Lankan Army is a branch of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces with the responsbility of overseeing land-based operations. ...


On the 13th of November, 1993, the Sri Lankan Air Force dropped bombd on St. James Church, in Gurunagar, Jaffna Town. 10 civilian worshippers were killed instantly.[11] The Sri Lanka Air Force is the Airborne Wing of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces, and its key role is to provide tacical support to naval and land divisions. ...


The Jaffna lagoon massacre is another incident where civilains have been killed. 35 Civilians were killed while crossing the lagoon, as Sri Lankan Navy boats intercepted and fired at them. The UNHCR reported that over 350 civilians were killed while crossing the lagoon in January and February.[citation needed] Jaffna lagoon massacre happened on January 02, 1993 when a Sri Lankan Navy Gun boat and a number of smaller speed boats intercepted a number of passenger boats transporting civilians between South and North shores of the Jaffna or Kilaly lagoon in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka and attacked... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ...


The Navaly Church massacre of 1995 occurred when sixty five Tamil refugees were killed and 150 injured when the Sri Lankan Airforce dropped multiple bombs on a church and surrounding grounds being used to shelter the refugees. Navaly Church massacre or Navaly Church bombing was the result of bombing of The Church of St. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sri Lankan Air Force Ensign. ...


The Nagerkovil central school massacre took place on 22nd September 1995. During ongoing military operations, the Sri Lankan Air Force bombed the Nagerkovil Central School on the Jaffna peninsula. This resulted in the immediate death of 40 Tamil civilians, of which 34 were elementary school age children. Over 150 others were injured, and many more eventually succumbed to their wounds. The government has denied allegations that its forces ever bombed the school.[12] Nagerkovil central school massacre or Nagerkovil central school bombing is the masscre of 40 minority Tamil civilians by the LTTE. Categories: | ...


Post 2006 incidents

Civilian massacres

The unfolding 2006 Mannar massacres have allegedly been attributed to the Sri Lankan military forces. On June 8, 2006 a family of four including two children were massacred in the village of Vankalai by the Sri Lankan Army.(See pic here)A prominent Sri Lanka dissident who is majority Sinhalese himself termed the masscre an act of state terror[13] 2006 Mannar massacres is a series of unfolding massacres of minority Tamil civilians in the island of Mannar in Sri Lanka. ...


On June 17, 2006 survivors and witnesses of an attack accused the Sri Lankan Navy of storming and then indiscriminately shooting and lobbing grenades inside a church where hundreds of Tamils were taking shelter. One woman was killed and more than 40 people injured in the incident. The government has denied accusations that it targeted civilians.[14] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Funeral procession of the victims of the bombing, Source:TamilNet.com

The Padahuthurai bombing happened on January 02, 2007 when the Sri Lanka Air Force bombed what they claimed to be rebel LTTE naval base in Illuppaikadavai in Northern Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission, the local Roman Catholic bishop and the LTTE claimed fifteen (15) minority Sri Lankan Tamils including women and children died and 35 were injured due to the bombing.[15][16] The Bishop termed it an act of state terror.[17] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... TamilNet is a news website that provides news and feature articles on current affairs in Sri Lanka, specifically related to the ongoing ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. ... Funeral procession of the victims of the bombing, Source:TamilNet. ... January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... Sri Lankan Air Force Ensign. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... The Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission - SLMM, was established on February 22, 2002 by the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... see Sri Lankan Tamils ...

Involuntary disappearances

Human Rights organization such AHRC[18] and Amnesty International [19] have complained that in 2006 up to 400 people have been disappeared, 245 of who were detained by the army, with another further 25 by the LTTE.


The Amnesty international has said that there is a disturbing pattern of incomplete or ineffective investigations by the government, with the result that perpetrators of such violence generally operate with impunity.[20]. The Tamil daily Uthayan published from Jaffna termed it state terror[21](See Video of White Van abductions)


Backing of paramilitary group

The Karuna fraction knows as TMVP has been abducted and forcibly recruited hundreds of children in eastern Sri Lanka With the complicity or willful blindness of the Sri Lankan government. Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (Tamil: தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், English: Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers) is a political party and paramilitary group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ...


Child rights advocate at Human Rights Watch was quoted saying

"After years of condemning child recruitment by the Tamil Tigers, the government is now complicit in the same crimes,"

and

"The government’s collusion on child abductions by the Karuna group highlights its hypocrisy" தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal or in English Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers, a political party and Para-military group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ...

. He further added

"Not only do government forces fail to stop the abductions, but they allow the Karuna group to transport kidnapped children through checkpoints on the way to their camps"

The police is complicit in their unwillingness to seriously investigate complaints filed by the parents of abducted members of the family. The poilce also reportedly refused to register parents’ complaints. In some cases, the police registered the complaint but failed to undertake proper investigation. The police has not secured the child’s release in any of these cases.[22].The Sri Lankan government has denied these allegations[23]


Forced return

The government has forced the IDP (internally displaced persons) to return to their homes even though people believe it is not safe to return homes. Even though the government has said "The Sri Lankan government says it will never force civilians to return home after they have been displaced by fighting"


The UN Guiding Principles on IDP states that every internally displaced person has the right to liberty of movement, the right to seek safety in another part of the country, and the right to be protected against forcible return to any place where their safety would be at risk. However, the act of forcefully returning people to return home goes against UN-recognized principles and is a human right violation.[24]


Most of these acts have been termed as acts of state terror by Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora groups[25] The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora also known as Jaffnese diaspora and Ceylonese diaspora refers to the global diaspora of the people of Sri Lankan Tamil origin. ...


References and further reading

References

  1. ^ a b Piyadasa, L. (1986). Sri Lanka: the Holocaust and After. Zed Books. ISBN 0-906334-03-9. 
  2. ^ a b Tambiah, Stanley (1984). Sri Lanka: Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-78952-7. 
  3. ^ http://members.tripod.com/~jvp_srilanka/history/71st1.html
  4. ^ Gunaratna, Rohan (1995). SRI LANKA - A LOST REVOLUTION? The Inside Story of the JVP. Institute of Fundamental Studies, Sri Lanka. ISBN 9-55-26-004-9. 
  5. ^ http://www.atimes.com/ind-pak/DA26Df04.html
  6. ^ Chronology of events in Sri lanka. BBC. Retrieved on 2006-03-14.
  7. ^ Nancy Murray (1984), Sri Lanka: Racism and the Authoritarian State, Issue no. 1, Race & Class, vol. 26 (Summer 1984)
  8. ^ http://www.wsws.org/articles/2001/may2001/sri-m30.shtml
  9. ^ Cyberspace Graveyard for Disappeared Persons. CHAPTER 3: BATTICALOA DISTRICT. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  10. ^ http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=13&artid=5390
  11. ^ http://www.unhcr.org/home/RSDCOI/3ae6a8163.html
  12. ^ http://brcslproject.gn.apc.org/slmonitor/Sept2002/navy.html
  13. ^ http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL0610/S00455.htm
  14. ^ http://www.ahrchk.net/statements/mainfile.php/2006statements/612/
  15. ^ Rebel base hit, says government. Boston.com. Retrieved on 2006-01-07.
  16. ^ Press release on 29 April 2006 SUBJECT: Air strikes violate the Ceasefire Agreement. SLMM. Retrieved on 2007-03-02.
  17. ^ http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=13&artid=20787
  18. ^ http://www.ahrchk.net/statements/mainfile.php/2006statements/729/
  19. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/report2004/lka-summary-eng
  20. ^ http://hrw.org/englishwr2k7/docs/2007/01/11/slanka14837.htm
  21. ^ http://www.ahrchk.net/ahrc-in-news/mainfile.php/2006ahrcinnews/866/
  22. ^ http://hrw.org/english/docs/2007/01/24/slanka15141.htm
  23. ^ http://www.defence.lk/new.asp?fname=20070127_03
  24. ^ http://hrw.org/english/docs/2007/03/16/slanka15497.htm
  25. ^ http://www.ctconline.ca/bro.pdf

Stanley Jeyaraja Tambiah is a leading social anthropologist and Harvard University professor. ... The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the U.S. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals including Critical Inquiry, and a wide array of texts covering... Rohan Gunaratna is a researcher based in Singapore whose field of specialisation is terrorism, particulary Islamic terrorism, and especially groups in South East Asia such as Jemaah Islamiya ( Indonesia ) and Abu Sayyaf ( Phillipines ). He is the authour of Inside Al-Qaeda as well as many other publications. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Lebanese political coalition, see March 14 Alliance. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Myrdal, Gunnar (1968). Asian Drama: an Inquiry into the Poverty of Nations. Pantheon. ASIN B000E80DGO. 
  • Wilson, A. Jeyaratnam (1989). The Break up of Sri Lanka: the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1211-5. 

Gunnar Myrdal (December 6, 1898 – May 17, 1987) was a Swedish economist and politician. ...

External links

Non affliated sites

Pro Sri Lankan government sites

Pro LTTE sites


 
 

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