FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > State atheism
Part of a series on
Atheism

Concepts
Religion · Nontheism
Antireligion · Antitheism
Agnosticism · Humanism
Metaphysical naturalism
Weak and strong atheism
Implicit and explicit atheism
Atheist redirects here. ... Nontheism is a term that covers a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of—or the rejection of—theism or any belief in a personal god or gods. ... Antireligion is opposition to some or all religions in some or all contexts. ... Antitheism (sometimes anti-theism) is active opposition to theism. ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable due to... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ... Metaphysical naturalism is any worldview in which nature is all there is and all things supernatural (which stipulatively includes as well as spirits and souls, non-natural values, and universals as they are commonly conceived) do not exist. ... Strong atheism is a term generally used to describe atheists who accept as true the proposition, gods do not exist. Weak atheism refers to any type of non-theism which falls short of this standard. ... Implicit atheism and explicit atheism are subcategories of atheism coined by George H. Smith (1979, p. ...


History
History of atheism
Enlightenment · Freethought
Although the term atheism originated in the 16th century, based on Ancient Greek ἄθεος godless, denying the gods, ungodly[1] and open admission to positive atheism in modern times was not made earlier than in the late 18th century, atheistic ideas and beliefs, as well as their political influence, have a... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ...


Arguments
Against religion · For nontheism
Against god · Criticism
The criticism of religion includes criticism of the concept of religion, the validity of religion, the practice of religion, and the consequences of religion for humanity. ... Religious belief refers to a faith or creed concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine. ... Criticism of atheism is made chiefly by theistic sources, though some forms of atheism also receive criticism from nontheistic sources. ...


Demographics
Atheism · Irreligion
Famous atheists · State atheism
Discrimination · Persecution It is difficult to quantify the number of atheists in the world. ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley, author of The Necessity of Atheism. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Many atheists have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians and Muslims. ...

Atheism Portal · v  d  e 

State atheism is the official promotion of atheism by a government, often accompanied by active suppression of religious belief and practice.[1] State atheism has been implemented in communist countries, such as the former Soviet Union,[1] China, North Korea, and Communist Mongolia. In these nations, the governments viewed atheism as an intrinsic part of communist ideology. Consequences of state atheism in these countries include active (and, sometimes, violent) opposition to religion, and persecution of religious institutions, leaders and believers. The Soviet Union had a long history of state atheism,[2] in which social success largely required individuals to proclaim atheism and stay away from churches; this attitude was especially militant under Stalin.[3][4][5] The Soviet Union imposed atheism over wide areas of its influence, including places like central Asia.[6] The only country to officially ban religion was Albania under Enver Hoxha. Atheist redirects here. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Marxism-Leninism, strictly speaking, refers to the version of Marxist theory developed by Vladimir Lenin; see Leninism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Poland under communist rule promoted state atheism and suppressed religion.[7]


State atheism should not be confused either with anti-clericalism – the effort to reduce the power of the clergy, especially in politics – or with state secularism in which a state decides to refrain from having an established religion or to take a neutral view toward religious matters[citation needed]. A state established religion within a political system implies preferential treatment of one tradition at the expense of others. Finally, state atheism should not be confused with selective persecution of some religious beliefs or their adherents in favor of some other, more dominant religion. Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or imagined[1], in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Laïcité be merged into this article or section. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Religion under Communist regimes

Communist states have defined fealty to the state in such a way that religion can be proscribed or suppressed. Because the religious faithful typically believe their highest loyalty is to a power above their state, such states have commonly treated this as a basis for suppression or prohibition of the faith. For example, the state would claim Jews were considered beholden to the State of Israel, Catholics to the Vatican City, Buddhists in Tibet to the Dalai Lama, and thereby attach the charge of sedition to certain religions.


Communist Albania

Further information: Religion in Albania

Albania was declared an atheist state by Enver Hoxha,[8] and remained so from 1967 until 1991 .[9] The trend toward state atheism in Albania was taken to an extreme during the totalitarian regime, when religions, identified as imports foreign to Albanian culture, were banned altogether.[9] This policy was mainly applied and felt within the borders of the present Albanian state, thus producing a nonreligious majority in the population. The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... Irreligion, irreligiousness, or nonreligion is an umbrella term which, depending on context, may be understood as referring to atheism, agnosticism, deism, skepticism, freethought, secular humanism, general secularism, or heresy. ...


The Agrarian Reform Law of August 1945 nationalized most property of religious institutions, including the estates of monasteries, orders, and dioceses. By May 1967, religious institutions had relinquished all 2,169 churches, mosques, cloisters, and shrines, many of which were converted into cultural centers for young people. Many Muslim imams and Orthodox priests renounced their "parasitic" past. More than 200 clerics of various faiths were imprisoned, while others were forced to seek work in either industry or agriculture. As the literary monthly "Nëndori" reported the event, the youth had thus "created the first Atheist nation in the world." From year 1967 to the end of the totalitarian regime, religious practices were banned and the country was proclaimed officially Atheist, marking an event that happened for the first time in world history. Albanians born during the regime were never taught religion, so they grew up to become either Atheists or Agnostics. Agrarian laws (from the Latin ager, meaning land) were laws among the Romans regulating the division of the public lands, or ager publicus. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... A cultural center is an organization, usually located in a building or complex, that promotes cultural arts. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Totalitarianism is a typology employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Agnosticism is the philosophical and theological view that the existence of God, gods or deities is either unknown or inherently unknowable. ...


Old non-institutional Pagan practices in rural areas, which were seen as identifying with the national culture, were left intact. As a result the current Albanian state has also brought pagan festivals to life, like the lunar Spring festival (Albanian: Dita e Verës) held yearly on March 14th in the city of Elbasan, which is a national holiday. Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: local only to that school district, as far as I can tell. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in Leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... Elbasan (Albanian: Elbasan or Elbasani) is a city in central Albania. ...


The Soviet Union

Further information: Religion in the Soviet Union
USSR. 1922 issue of the Bezbozhnik (The Atheist) magazine. By 1934, 28% of Christian Orthodox churches, 42% of Muslim mosques and 52% of Jewish synagogues were shut down in the USSR.
USSR. 1922 issue of the Bezbozhnik (The Atheist) magazine. By 1934, 28% of Christian Orthodox churches, 42% of Muslim mosques and 52% of Jewish synagogues were shut down in the USSR.[10]

State atheism in the Soviet Union was known as "gosateizm,[1] and was based on the ideology of Marxism-Leninism. As the founder of the Soviet state V. I. Lenin put it: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ...

Religion is the opium of the people: this saying of Marx is the cornerstone of the entire ideology of Marxism about religion. All modern religions and churches, all and of every kind of religious organizations are always considered by Marxism as the organs of bourgeois reaction, used for the protection of the exploitation and the stupefaction of the working class.[11] Religion is the opium of the people is one of the most frequently quoted statements of Karl Marx. ... Marx is a common German surname. ...

Marxism-Leninism has consistently advocated the control, suppression, and, ultimately, the elimination of religious beliefs. Within about a year of the revolution the state expropriated all church property, including the churches themselves, and in the period from 1922 to 1926, 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and more than 1,200 priests were killed (a much greater number was subjected to persecution). [12] In law, eminent domain is the power of the state to appropriate private property for its own use without the owners consent. ...


In the 1920s and 1930s, such organizations as the League of the Militant Godless ridiculed all religions and harassed believers. Atheism was propagated through schools, communist organizations (such as the Young Pioneer Organization), and the media. Though Lenin originally introduced the Gregorian calendar to the Soviets subsequent efforts to re-organise the week for the purposes of improving worker productivity with the introduction of the Soviet revolutionary calendar had a side-effect that a "holiday will seldom fall on Sunday" [13] Soviet Young Pioneer (right) with her friend from Poland (left) in Artek. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Page of the Soviet revolutionary calendar showing December 12, 1937 The Soviet revolutionary calendar was in use in the USSR from 1929 to 1940. ...


Although all religions were persecuted[14], the regime's efforts to eradicate religion, however, varied over the years with respect to particular religions, and were affected by higher state interests. Official policies and practices not only varied with time but also in their application from one nationality and one religion to another. Although all Soviet leaders had the same long-range goal of developing a cohesive Soviet people, they pursued different policies to achieve it. For the Soviet regime, the questions of nationality and religion were always closely linked. Not surprisingly, therefore, the attitude toward religion also varied from a total ban on some religions to official support of others.


Most seminaries were closed, publication of religious writing was bannned. [15] The Russian Orthodox Church, which had 54,000 parishes before World War I, was reduced to 500 by 1940. [16] Although the great majority of Russia was Christian, according to the CIA Factbook, only 17 to 22 percent of the population is now Christian. [17]


The People's Republic of China

Further information: Religion in the People's Republic of China
Chinese poster saying: "Smash the old world / Establish a new world." Classical example of the Red art from the early Cultural Revolution. A worker (or possibly Red Guard) crushes the crucifix, Buddha and classical Chinese texts with his hammer; 1967
Chinese poster saying: "Smash the old world / Establish a new world." Classical example of the Red art from the early Cultural Revolution. A worker (or possibly Red Guard) crushes the crucifix, Buddha and classical Chinese texts with his hammer; 1967

The People's Republic of China was established in 1949 and for much of its early history maintained a hostile attitude toward religion which was seen as emblematic of feudalism and foreign colonialism. Houses of worship, including temples, mosques, and churches, were converted into non-religious buildings for secular use. Image File history File links Destroy_old_world. ... Image File history File links Destroy_old_world. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


In the early years of the People's Republic, religious belief or practice was often discouraged because it was regarded by the government as backward and superstitious and because some Communist leaders, ranging from Vladimir Lenin to Mao Zedong, had been critical of religious institutions. During the Cultural Revolution, religion was condemned as feudalistic and thousands of religious buildings were looted and destroyed. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Mao redirects here. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


This attitude, however, relaxed considerably in the late 1970s, with the end of the Cultural Revolution. The 1978 Constitution of the People's Republic of China guarantees "freedom of religion" with a number of restrictions. Since the mid-1990s there has been a massive program to rebuild Buddhist and Taoist temples that were destroyed in the Cultural Revolution. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1978 Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China was promulgated in 1978. ...


The Communist Party has said that religious belief and membership are incompatible. Party membership is a necessity for many high level careers and posts. That along with other official hostility makes statistical reporting on religious membership difficult. There are five recognized religions by the state: Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholic Christianity, and Protestant Christianity.[18]


Most people report no organized religious affiliation; however, people with a belief in folk traditions and non-religious spiritual beliefs, such as ancestor veneration and feng shui, along with informal ties to local temples and unofficial house churches number in the hundreds of millions. The United States Department of State, in its annual report on International Religious Freedom,[19] gives possibly the most reliable statistics about organized religions. In 2007 it reported the following (citing the Government's 1997 report on Religious Freedom and 2005 White Paper on religion):[20] Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... Department of State redirects here. ...

  • Buddhists 8%. According to other sources at least 50%.
  • Taoists, unknown as a percentage. According to others at least 30%.
  • Muslims, 1.5%, with more than 45,000 Imams. Other estimates state at least 2%.
  • Christians, Protestants at least 2%. Catholics, about 1.5%. Total Christians according to 2008 different polls: 4%.

It should be noted, however, that statistics relating to Buddhism and religious Taoism are to some degree incomparable with statistics for Islam and Christianity. This is due to the traditional Chinese belief system which blends Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, so that a person who follows a traditional belief system would not necessarily identify him- or herself as either Buddhist or Taoist, despite attending Buddhist or Taoist places of worship. Imam is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Taoism (or Daoism) refers to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Taoism (or Daoism) refers to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ...


Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge

Pol Pot suppressed Cambodia’s Buddhist religion: monks were defrocked; temples and artifacts, including statues of Buddha, were destroyed; and people praying or expressing other religious sentiments were often killed. The Christian and Muslim communities were among the most persecuted, as well. The Roman Catholic cathedral of Phnom Penh was completely razed. The Khmer Rouge forced Muslims to eat pork, which they regard as an abomination. Many of those who refused were killed. Christian clergy and Muslim imams were executed.[21][22] Forty-eight percent of Cambodia's Christians were killed because of their religion.[23]


External links

See also

Antireligion is opposition to some or all religions in some or all contexts. ... Communist terrorism (or Communist terror) is terrorism committed by Communist organizations or Communist states against civilians to achieve political or ideological objectives by creating fear [1] [2][3] After Islamic groups, Communist groups are the largest number of organizations on the U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. ... Society of the Godless (Общество безбожников in Russian); other names include Союз воинствующих безбожников (The Union of Belligerent Atheists) and Союз безбожников (The Union of the Godless), was a mass volunteer antireligious organization of Soviet workers in 1925-1947. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... The majority of Albanians today are either Atheists or Agnostics. ... Chinese monk lighting incense in a temple in Beijing. ... The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow was demolished by Soviet authorities in 1931 to make way for the Palace of Soviets. ... Religion in Poland has changed throughout centuries of history of Poland. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Protest for Religious Rights in the USSR: Characteristics and Consequences, David Kowalewski, Russian Review, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Oct., 1980), pp. 426-441, Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Editors and Board of Trustees of the Russian Review
  2. ^ Greeley, Andrew M. 2003. Religion in Europe at the end of the second millennium: a sociological profile. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
  3. ^ By Pospielovsky, Dimitry, 1935- The Orthodox Church in the History of Russia Published 1998. St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 413 pages, ISBN 0881411795 page 257.
  4. ^ Miner, Steven Merritt. 2003. Stalin's holy war religion, nationalism, and alliance politics, 1941-1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Page 70.
  5. ^ Davies, Norman. 1996. Europe: a history. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Page 962.
  6. ^ Pipes, Daniel. 1989. The long shadow: culture and politics in the Middle East. New Brunswick, U.S.A.: Transaction Publishers. Page 55.
  7. ^ Wolak, Arthur J. 2004. Forced out: the fate of Polish Jewry in Communist Poland. Tucson, Ariz: Fenestra Books. Page 104.
  8. ^ Sang M. Lee writes that Albania was "[o]fficially an atheist state under Hoxha..." Restructuring Albanian Business Education Infrastructure August 2000 (Accessed 6 June 2007)
  9. ^ a b Representations of Place: Albania, Derek R. Hall, The Geographical Journal, Vol. 165, No. 2, The Changing Meaning of Place in Post-Socialist Eastern Europe: Commodification, Perception and Environment (Jul., 1999), pp. 161-172, Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers)
  10. ^ Religions attacked in the USSR (Beyond the Pale)
  11. ^ Lenin, V. I.. About the attitude of the working party toward the religion.. Collected works, v. 17, p.41. Retrieved on 2006-09-09.
  12. ^ Country Studies: Russia-The Russian Orthodox Church U.S. Library of Congress, Accessed Apr. 3, 2008
  13. ^ "Staggerers Unstaggered", Time magazine, December 7, 1931. Retrieved on 2007-10-02. 
  14. ^ Country Studies: Russia-The Russian Orthodox Church U.S. Library of Congress, Accessed Apr. 3, 2008
  15. ^ Country Studies: Russia-The Russian Orthodox Church U.S. Library of Congress, Accessed Apr. 3, 2008
  16. ^ Country Studies: Russia-The Russian Orthodox Church U.S. Library of Congress, Accessed Apr. 3, 2008
  17. ^ Cole, Ethan Gorbachev Dispels 'Closet Christian' Rumors; Says He is Atheist Christian Post Reporter, Mar. 24, 2008
  18. ^ White Paper--Freedom of Religious Belief in China. Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the United States of America (October 1997). Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  19. ^ Annual Report to Congress on International Religious Freedom. U.S.Department of State. Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
  20. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2007 — China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau). U.S.Department of State (2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
  21. ^ Pol Pot - MSN Encarta
  22. ^ http://countrystudies.us/cambodia/29.htm
  23. ^ http://www.lietuvos.net/istorija/communism/communism_2.htm
Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... Theonomy The word theonomy derives from the Greek words “theos” God, and “nomos” law. ... This article is about secularism. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... Christian anarchism (also known as Christian libertarianism) is the belief that the only source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable is God, embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity that calls for Christians to put their faith into action in all areas of life. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Christian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      for Christians... Christianism may refer to: Christianity, or its theory and practice The term Christianist is referred to as early as 1992 in a book by Rémi Brague. ... Dominion Theology is a term used by some social scientists and journalists to describe a theological form of political ideology, which they claim has influenced the Christian Right in the United States, Canada, and Europe, within Protestant Christian evangelicalism and fundamentalism. ... This article is on the political-religious concept of dominionism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Noahide laws are the mitzvot (commandments) that Judaism teaches that all of humankind is morally bound to follow. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... Roman polytheism was the religion of the Etruscans, Romans, and most of their subjects. ... Atheist redirects here. ... Christian Exodus (the brainchild of a Neo-Confederate financial advisor, Cory Burnell) is a group promoting a mass emigration of Christian fundamentalists to South Carolina in hopes of influencing the governmental process in the United States. ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... Atheist redirects here. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley, author of The Necessity of Atheism. ... It is difficult to quantify the number of atheists in the world. ... Although the term atheism originated in the 16th century, based on Ancient Greek ἄθεος godless, denying the gods, ungodly[1] and open admission to positive atheism in modern times was not made earlier than in the late 18th century, atheistic ideas and beliefs, as well as their political influence, have a... Criticism of atheism is made chiefly by theistic sources, though some forms of atheism also receive criticism from nontheistic sources. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Many atheists have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians and Muslims. ... Strong atheism is a term generally used to describe atheists who accept as true the proposition, gods do not exist. Weak atheism refers to any type of non-theism which falls short of this standard. ... Agnostic atheism is a philosophical doctrine that encompasses both atheism and agnosticism. ... Implicit atheism and explicit atheism are subcategories of atheism coined by George H. Smith (1979, p. ... Antitheism (sometimes anti-theism) is active opposition to theism. ... Antireligion is opposition to some or all religions in some or all contexts. ... Atheist Alliance International (AAI) is an alliance of atheist organisations around the world. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (504x656, 106 KB) Ludwig Feuerbach is a german philosopher. ... This article refers to the philosopher. ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable due to... Thomas Huxley, coiner of the term agnostic. ... Agnostic Theism is the philosophical view that encompasses both theism and agnosticism. ... Agnostic atheism is a philosophical doctrine that encompasses both atheism and agnosticism. ... Weak agnosticism, or empirical agnosticism (also negative agnosticism), is the belief that the existence or nonexistence of deities is currently unknown, but is not necessarily unknowable, therefore one will withhold judgment until more evidence is available. ... Strong agnosticism or positive agnosticism is the belief that it is impossible for humans to know whether or not any God or gods exist. ... Ignosticism is a word coined by Rabbi Sherwin Wine to indicate one of two related views about the existence of God. ... Apatheism (a portmanteau of apathy and theism/atheism), also known as pragmatic or critically as practical atheism, is acting with apathy, disregard, or lack of interest towards belief, or lack of belief in a deity. ... Nontheism is a term that covers a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of—or the rejection of—theism or any belief in a personal god or gods. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ... This article is about secularism. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... The criticism of religion includes criticism of the concept of religion, the validity of religion, the practice of religion, and the consequences of religion for humanity. ... The Freedom From Religion Foundation is an American Freethought organization based in Madison, Wisconsin. ... Bobby Henderson redirects here. ... A depiction of the Invisible Pink Unicorn, in the style of a heraldic animal rampant, though the nearest heraldic color to pink is purpure (purple). ... Russells teapot, sometimes called the Celestial Teapot, was an analogy first coined by the philosopher Bertrand Russell, intended to refute the idea that the burden of proof lies upon the sceptic to disprove unfalsifiable claims of religions. ... Below are words that designate a set or subset of beliefs. ... Acosmism, in contrast to pantheism, denies the reality of the universe, seeing it as ultimately illusory, (the prefix a- in Greek meaning negation; like un- in English), and only the infinite unmanifest Absolute as real. ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable due to... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Antireligion is opposition to some or all religions in some or all contexts. ... Atheist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect spirit, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... This article discusses Humanism as a non-theistic life stance. ... In philosophical debates about free will and determinism, libertarianism is generally held to be the combination of the following beliefs: that free will is incompatible with determinism that human beings do possess free will, and that determinism is false All libertarians subscribe to the philosophy of incompatibilism which states that... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... The New Thought Movement or New Thought is comprised of a loosely allied group of denominations, organizations, authors, philosophers, and individuals who share a set of metaphysical beliefs concerning healing, life force, visualization, and personal power. ... The term nondual is a literal translation of the Sanskrit term advaita, (meaning not two). ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Thelema is the English transliteration of the Ancient Greek noun : will, from the verb θέλω: to will, wish, purpose. ... Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ... In religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses, and is independent of, physical existence. ... Below are words that designate a set or subset of beliefs. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Atheism: An Introduction to Atheism (6446 words)
Atheism is characterized by an absence of belief in the existence of gods.
Atheism is the position that runs logically counter to theism; in that sense, it can be said to be "anti-religion." However, when religious believers speak of atheists being "anti-religious" they usually mean that the atheists have some sort of antipathy or hatred towards theists.
The principle of the separation of church and state is that the state shall not legislate concerning matters of religious belief.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m