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Encyclopedia > State

A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. It usually includes the set of institutions that claim the authority to make the rules that govern the people of the society in that territory, though its status as a state often depends in part on being recognized by a number of other states as having internal and external sovereignty over it. In sociology, the state is normally identified with these institutions: in Max Weber's influential definition, it is that organization that has a "monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory," which may include the armed forces, civil service or state bureaucracy, courts, and police. The term state may refer to: Look up state in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of two or more individuals. ... This article is about authority as a concept. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... The monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force designs an essential attribute of the states sovereignty. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ...

Usage

Although the term often includes broadly all institutions of government or rule—ancient and modern—the modern state system bears a number of characteristics that were first consolidated in western Europe, beginning in earnest in the 15th century, when the term "state" also acquired its current meaning. Thus the word is often used in a strict sense to refer only to modern political systems. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Within a federal system, the term state also refers to political units, not completely sovereign themselves, but in some cases partially or co-sovereign, which are subject to the authority of a constitution defining a federal union. Thus we find the "states and territories of Australia" and the "states" in the United States of America. For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...


In casual usage, the terms "country," "nation," and "state" are often used as if they were synonymous; but in a more strict usage they can be distinguished: Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ...

  • Country denotes a geographical area
  • Nation denotes a people who are believed to or deemed to share common customs, origins, and history. However, the adjectives national and international also refer to matters pertaining to what are strictly states, as in national capital, international law
  • State refers to the set of governing institutions that has sovereignty over a definite territory

For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...

Etymology

The word state and its cognates in other European languages (stato in Italian, état in French, Staat in German) ultimately derive from the Latin status, meaning "condition" or "status."[1] With the revival of the Roman law in the 14th century in Europe, this Latin term was used to refer to the legal standing of persons (such as the various "estates of the realm" - noble, common, and clerical), and in particular the special status of the king. The word was also associated with Roman ideas (dating back to Cicero) about the "status rei publicae", the "condition of the republic." In time, the word lost its reference to particular social groups and became associated with the legal order of the entire society and the apparatus of its enforcement.[2] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries[] down to the present day, the estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


In other languages meaning can be different. Polish 'państwo' can be derived from the word 'pan'=lord, the one who has power ('Lord Jesus'='Pan Jezus'). 'Państwo' therefore denotes a state, when someone is governing (is in charge). The word 'państwo' also suggest some kind of social organisation, as its second meaning in Polish relates to "family" (państwo Smith = the Smiths).


It has also been claimed that the word "state" originates from the medieval state or regal chair upon which the head of state (usually a monarch) would sit. By process of metonymy, the word state became used to refer to both the head of state and the power entity he represented (though the former meaning has fallen out of use).[citation needed] Two quotations which reference these different meanings, both commonly, though probably apocryphally, attributed to King Louis XIV of France, are "L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the State") and "Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours." ("I am going away, but the State will always remain"). A similar association of terms can today be seen in the practice of referring to government buildings as having authority, for example "The White House today released a press statement...". The thrones for The Queen of Canada, and the Duke of Edinburgh in the Canadian Senate, Ottawa is usually occupied by the Governor General and her spouse at the annual State Opening of Parliament. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... In rhetoric, metonymy is the substitution of one word for another word with which it is associated. ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Empirical and juridical senses of the word state

The word state has both an empirical and a juridical sense, i.e., entities can be states either de facto or de jure or both.[3] A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Empirically (or de facto), an entity is a state if, as in Max Weber's influential definition, it is that organization that has a 'monopoly on legitimate violence' over a specific territory.[4] Such an entity imposes its own legal order over a territory, even if it is not legally recognized as a state by other states (e.g., the Somali region of Somaliland). For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... An organisation (or organization — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. ... The monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force designs an essential attribute of the states sovereignty. ... A territory (from the word terra, meaning land) is a defined area (including land and waters), usually considered to be a possession of an animal, person, organization, or institution. ... For other territories formerly called Somaliland, see Somaliland (disambiguation). ...


Juridically (or de jure), an entity is a state in international law if it is recognized as such by other states, even if it does not actually have a monopoly on the legitimate use of force over a territory. Only an entity juridically recognized as a state can enter into many kinds of international agreements and be represented in a variety of legal forums, such as the United Nations. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


States, government types, and political systems

The concept of the state can be distinguished from two related concepts with which it is sometimes confused: the concept of a form of government or regime, such as democracy or dictatorship, and the concept of a political system. The form of government identifies only one aspect of the state, namely, the way in which the highest political offices are filled and their relationship to each other and to society. It does not include other aspects of the state that may be very important in its everyday functioning, such as the quality of its bureaucracy. For example, two democratic states may be quite different if one has a capable, well-trained bureaucracy while the other does not. Thus generally speaking the term "state" refers to the instruments of political power, while the term regime or form of government refers more to the way in which such instruments can be accessed and employed.[5] GOVERNEMENT IS NOT A VIRGIN! Its F***ed Up We Pray To god that he give virginity back Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A form of government is a term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... A political system is a system of politics and government. ... GOVERNEMENT IS NOT A VIRGIN! Its F***ed Up We Pray To god that he give virginity back Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A form of government is a term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... GOVERNEMENT IS NOT A VIRGIN! Its F***ed Up We Pray To god that he give virginity back Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A form of government is a term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state...


Some scholars have suggested that the term "state" is too imprecise and loaded to be used productively in sociology and political science, and ought to be substituted by the more comprehensive term "political system." The "political system" refers to the ensemble of all social structures that function to produce collectively binding decisions in a society. In modern times, these would include the political regime, political parties, and various sorts of organizations. The term "political system" thus denotes a broader concept than the state.[6] See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... Political Parties redirects here. ... An organisation (or organization — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. ... A political system is a system of politics and government. ...


The historical development of the state

The earliest forms of the state emerged whenever it became possible to centralize power in a durable way. Agriculture and writing are almost everywhere associated with this process: agriculture because it allowed for the emergence of a class of people who did not have to spend most of their time providing for their own subsistence, and writing (or the equivalent of writing, like Inca quipus) because it made possible the centralization of vital information.[7] For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Inca Quipu. ...


Some political philosophers believe the origins of the state lie ultimately in the tribal culture which developed with human sentience, the template for which was the alleged primal "alpha-male" microsocieties of our earlier ancestors, which were based on the coercion of the weak by the strong. [citation needed] Others point out that extant band- and tribe-level societies are notable for their lack of centralized authority, and that highly stratified societies--i.e., states--constitute a relatively recent break with the course of human history.[8]


The state in classical antiquity

The history of the state in the West usually begins with classical antiquity. During that period, the state took a variety of forms, none of them very much like the modern state. There were monarchies whose power (like that of the Egyptian Pharaoh) was based on the religious function of the king and his control of a centralized army. There were also large, quasi-bureaucratized empires, like the Roman empire, which depended less on the religious function of the ruler and more on effective military and legal organizations and the cohesion of an aristocracy. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ...


Perhaps the most important political innovations of classical antiquity came from the Greek city-states and the Roman Republic. The Greek city-states before the 4th century granted citizenship rights to their free population, and in Athens these rights were combined with a directly democratic form of government that was to have a long afterlife in political thought and history. The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Athenian democracy (sometimes called Direct democracy) developed in the Greek city-state of Athens. ... Athenian democracy (sometimes called Direct democracy) developed in the Greek city-state of Athens. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ...


In contrast, Rome developed from a monarchy into a republic, governed by a senate dominated by the Roman aristocracy. The Roman political system contributed to the development of law, constitutionalism and to the distinction between the private and the public spheres. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law. ... Privacy has no definite boundaries and it has different meanings for different people. ... Public is of or pertaining to the people; belonging to the people; relating to, or affecting, a nation, state, or community; opposed to private; as, the public treasury, a road or lake. ...


From the feudal state to the modern state in the West

The story of the development of the specifically modern state in the West typically begins with the dissolution of the western Roman empire. This led to the fragmentation of the imperial state into the hands of private lords whose political, judicial, and military roles corresponded to the organization of economic production. In these conditions, according to Marxists, economic unit of society—was the state. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Marxist theory is an academic specialization in Western academias. ...


The state-system of feudal Europe was an unstable configuration of suzerains and anointed kings. A monarch, formally at the head of a hierarchy of sovereigns, was not an absolute power who could rule at will; instead, relations between lords and monarchs were mediated by varying degrees of mutual dependence, which was ensured by the absence of a centralized system of taxation. This reality ensured that each ruler needed to obtain the 'consent' of each estate in the realm. This was not quite a 'state' in the Weberian sense of the term, since the king did not monopolize either the power of lawmaking (which was shared with the church) or the means of violence (which were shared with the nobles). Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ...


The formalization of the struggles over taxation between the monarch and other elements of society (especially the nobility and the cities) gave rise to what is now called the Standestaat, or the state of Estates, characterized by parliaments in which key social groups negotiated with the king about legal and economic matters. These estates of the realm sometimes evolved in the direction of fully-fledged parliaments, but sometimes lost out in their struggles with the monarch, leading to greater centralization of lawmaking and coercive (chiefly military) power in his hands. Beginning in the 15th century, this centralizing process gave rise to the absolutist state.[9] Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used by left-wing historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries[] down to the present day, the estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ...


The modern state

The state's (government's) position in the economy
The state's (government's) position in the economy

The rise of the "modern state" as a public power constituting the supreme political authority within a defined territory is associated with western Europe's gradual institutional development beginning in earnest in the late 15th century, culminating in the rise of absolutism and capitalism. Image File history File links Circulation_in_macroeconomics. ... Image File history File links Circulation_in_macroeconomics. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


As Europe's dynastic states — England under the Tudors, Spain under the Hapsburgs, and France under the Bourbons — embarked on a variety of programs designed to increase centralized political and economic control, they increasingly exhibited many of the institutional features that characterize the "modern state." This centralization of power involved the delineation of political boundaries, as European monarchs gradually defeated or co-opted other sources of power, such as the Church and lesser nobility. In place of the fragmented system of feudal rule, with its often indistinct territorial claims, large, unitary states with extensive control over definite territories emerged. This process gave rise to the highly centralized and increasingly bureaucratic forms of absolute monarchical rule of the 17th and 18th centuries, when the principal features of the contemporary state system took form, including the introduction of a standing army, a central taxation system, diplomatic relations with permanent embassies, and the development of state economic policy—mercantilism. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... This article is about negotiations. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... Mercantile redirects here. ...


Cultural and national homogenization figured prominently in the rise of the modern state system. Since the absolutist period, states have largely been organized on a national basis. The concept of a national state, however, is not synonymous with nation-state. Even in the most ethnically homogeneous societies there is not always a complete correspondence between state and nation, hence the active role often taken by the state to promote nationalism through emphasis on shared symbols and national identity.[10] For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


It is in this period that the term "the state" is first introduced into political discourse in more or less its current meaning. Although Niccolò Machiavelli is often credited with first using the term to refer to a territorial sovereign government in the modern sense in The Prince, published in 1532, it is not until the time of the British thinkers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke and the French thinker Jean Bodin that the concept in its current meaning is fully developed.[2] Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... This article is about the book by Niccolò Machiavelli. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Hobbes redirects here. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Jean Bodin (1530-1596) was a French jurist, member of the Parliament of Paris and professor of Law in Toulouse. ...


Today, most Western states more or less fit the influential definition of the state in Max Weber's Politics as a Vocation.[4] According to Weber, the modern state monopolizes the means of legitimate physical violence over a well-defined territory. Moreover, the legitimacy of this monopoly itself is of a very special kind, "rational-legal" legitimacy, based on impersonal rules that constrain the power of state elites. For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Politics as a Vocation (Politik als Beruf) is an 1918 essay written by Maximilian Weber, a German economist and sociologist. ... Legitimacy in political science, is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law as an authority. ... Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy. ...


However, in some other parts of the world states do not fit Weber's definition as well.[3] They may not have a complete monopoly over the means of legitimate physical violence over a definite territory, or their legitimacy may not be adequately described as rational-legal. But they are still recognizably distinct from feudal and absolutist states in the extent of their bureaucratization and their reliance on nationalism as a principle of legitimation. Legitimacy in political science, is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law as an authority. ... Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Since Weber, an extensive literature on the processes by which the "modern state" emerged from the feudal state has been generated. Marxist scholars, for example, assert that the formation of modern states can be explained primarily in terms of the interests and struggles of social classes.[11] Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


Scholars working in the broad Weberian tradition, by contrast, have often emphasized the institution-building effects of war. For example, Charles Tilly has argued that the revenue-gathering imperatives forced on nascent states by geopolitical competition and constant warfare were mostly responsible for the development of the centralized, territorial bureaucracies that characterize modern states in Europe. States that were able to develop centralized tax-gathering bureaucracies and to field mass armies survived into the modern era; states that were not able to do so did not.[12] For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Charles Tilly (born 1929) is a well known sociologist who has written a large number of books on the relationship between politics, economics and society. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ...


State and civil society

The modern state is both separate from and connected to civil society. The nature of this connection has been the subject of considerable attention in both analyses of state development and normative theories of the state. Earlier thinkers, such as Thomas Hobbes emphasized the supremacy of the state over society. Later thinkers, by contrast, beginning with G. W. F. Hegel, have tended to emphasize the points of contact between them. Jürgen Habermas, for example, has argued that civil society forms a public sphere, that is, a site of extra-institutional engagement with matters of public interest autonomous from the state and yet necessarily connected with it. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... Hobbes redirects here. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Jürgen Habermas (IPA: ; born June 18, 1929) is a German philosopher and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory and American pragmatism. ... The public sphere is a concept in continental philosophy and critical theory that contrasts with the private sphere, and is the part of life in which one is interacting with others and with society at large. ...


Some Marxist theorists, such as Antonio Gramsci, have questioned the distinction between the state and civil society altogether, arguing that the former is integrated into many parts of the latter. Others, such as Louis Althusser, maintain that civil organizations such as church, schools, and even trade unions are part of an 'ideological state apparatus.' In this sense, the state can fund a number of groups within society that, while autonomous in principle, are dependent on state support. Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ... Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation: altuˡseʁ) (October 16, 1918 – October 22, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ...


Given the role that many social groups have in the development of public policy and the extensive connections between state bureaucracies and other institutions, it has become increasingly difficult to identify the boundaries of the state. Privatization, nationalization, and the creation of new regulatory bodies also change the boundaries of the state in relation to society. Often the nature of quasi-autonomous organizations is unclear, generating debate among political scientists on whether they are part of the state or civil society. Some political scientists thus prefer to speak of policy networks and decentralized governance in modern societies rather than of state bureaucracies and direct state control over policy.[13] This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... A regulation is a legal restriction promulgated by government administrative agencies through rulemaking supported by a threat of sanction or a fine. ...


The state and the international system

Since the late 19th century the entirety of the world's inhabitable land has been parceled up into states with more or less definite borders claimed by various states. Earlier, quite large land areas had been either unclaimed or uninhabited, or inhabited by nomadic peoples who were not organized as states. Currently more than 200 states comprise the international community, with the vast majority of them represented in the United Nations. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


These states form what International relations theorists call a system, where each state takes into account the behavior of other states when making their own calculations. From this point of view, states embedded in an international system face internal and external security and legitimation dilemmas. Recently the notion of an 'international community' has been developed to refer to a group of states who have established rules, procedures, and institutions for the conduct of their relations. In this way the foundation has been laid for international law, diplomacy, formal regimes, and organizations. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Look up Procedure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of two or more individuals. ...


The state and supranationalism

In the late 20th century, the globalization of the world economy, the mobility of people and capital, and the rise of many international institutions all combined to circumscribe the freedom of action of states. These constraints on the state's freedom of action are accompanied in some areas, notably Western Europe, with projects for interstate integration such as the European Union. However, the state remains the basic political unit of the world, as it has been since the 16th century. The state is therefore considered the most central concept in the study of politics, and its definition is the subject of intense scholarly debate. Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...


The state and international law

By modern practice and the law of international relations, a state's sovereignty is conditional upon the diplomatic recognition of the state's claim to statehood. Degrees of recognition and sovereignty may vary. However, any degree of recognition, even recognition by a majority of the states in the international system, is not binding on third-party states. The declarative theory of statehood defines a state as a person of international law that meets certain structural criteria. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ...


The legal criteria for statehood are not obvious. Often, the laws are surpassed by political circumstances. However, one of the documents often quoted on the matter is the Montevideo Convention from 1933, the first article of which states: The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States was a treaty signed at Montevideo on December 26, 1933, at the Seventh International Conference of American States. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states.

Contemporary approaches to the study of the state

There are three main traditions within political science and sociology that shape 'theories of the state': the Marxist, the pluralist, and the institutionalist. Each of these theories has been employed to gain understanding on the state, while recognizing its complexity. Several issues underlie this complexity. First, the boundaries of the state are not closely defined, but constantly changing. Second, the state is not only the site of conflict between different organizations, but also internal conflict and conflict within organizations. Some scholars speak of the 'state's interest,' but there are often various interests within different parts of the state that are neither solely state-centered nor solely society-centered, but develop between different groups in civil society and different state actors. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... The political theory of pluralism holds that political power in society does not lie with the electorate but is distributed between a wide number of groups. ... Institutionalism can refer to: Institutionalism: Hierarchical organized social structures, using tactical division to divide the work force, paying wages less than needed, to pay even basic living costs, believing their own rhetoric and propaganda, serving the pinnacle position to the detriment of the whole, group think, gone mad. ...


Marxism

For Marxist theorists, the role of modern states is determined or related to their position in capitalist societies. Many contemporary Marxists offer a liberal interpretation of Marx's comment in The Communist Manifesto that the state is but the executive committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie. Ralph Miliband argued that the ruling class uses the state as its instrument to dominate society by virtue of the interpersonal ties between state officials and economic elites. For Miliband, the state is dominated by an elite that comes from the same background as the capitalist class. State officials therefore share the same interests as owners of capital and are linked to them through a wide array of interpersonal and political ties.[14] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ralph Miliband (January 7, 1924 - May 21, 1994), was a notable left wing political theorist. ...


By contrast, other Marxist theorists argue that the question of who controls the state is irrelevant. Heavily influenced by Gramsci, Nicos Poulantzas, a Greek neo-Marxist theorist argued that capitalist states do not always act on behalf of the ruling class, and when they do, it is not necessarily the case because state officials consciously strive to do so, but because the 'structural' position of the state is configured in such a way to ensure that the long-term interests of capital are always dominant. Poulantzas' main contribution to the Marxist literature on the state was the concept of 'relative autonomy' of the state. While Poulantzas' work on 'state autonomy' has served to sharpen and specify a great deal of Marxist literature on the state, his own framework came under criticism for its 'structural functionalism.' Nicos Poulantzas (1936-1979) was a Greco-French Marxist political sociologist. ... Neo-Marxism was a 20th century school that harked back to the early writings of Marx before the influence of Engels which focused on dialectical idealism rather than dialectical materialism, and thus rejected the economic determinism of early Marx, focusing instead on a non-physical, psychological revolution. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... The article is about functionalism in sociology; for other uses, see functionalism. ...


It should be emphasized that these Marxist theories of the state normally refer only to the capitalist state, since in standard marxist theory the state should "wither away" in a communist society. It should also be understood that no Marxist leader has ever made attempts to move toward a society without a state.


Anarchism

Anarchists consider the State to be the institusionalization of domination and privilege. According to key militants, it emerged to ratify and deepen the preeminence of victors in history by the building of an apparatus supported by the whole society but controlled by a minority. But, while it does reflect class interests in the social regime that it protects it is nor a mere executive comitee of the ruling class but a position of power over the whole society wich many fractions of the ruling classes and even the opressed classes strive to control with different and ever-changing alliances. This competition is explained not only by differences of opinion as to wich is the best way to ensure class interests but also for the preeminence of a sector of the ruling class over others. This nature of the state, as a centralized apparatus controlled by a minority to dominate the majority renders it unusable for those who want to end with capitalism and the injustices it implies. Against the state anarchist propose self-management, the taking over of the means of labour by the workers themselves and the federation fo these organizations in Communes who will then federate in wider reaching units to work for the common good. These organization should be free and truly democratic in the sense that the majority is really in control of them istead of just electing leaders. This they see as the only way socialism could ever work. Anarchists can refer to several things, among which: The movie Anarchists Supporters of the principles of anarchism The Anarchists (Les Anarchistes), a famous song from Léo Ferré A List of anarchists This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


They also believe that society ought to allow all people to flourish and should not ever oppress any individual or group. Anarchists use this belief to justify opposition to all forms of domination and subordination including, but not limited to capitalism, classism, homophobia, patriarchy, the state, and white supremacy. Anarchists, while diverging from Marxist anti-capitalists in many critical ways, largely diverge in that they reject the need for a state to arbitrate the needs of the people and rather see the state as an oppressive force which takes away the ability of people to make decisions about the things that affect their lives. When anarchists reject the state, they are not rejecting decision making processes, but rather hierarchical decision making processes. See anarchism for a more detailed discussion of non-state decision making. Anarchist redirects here. ...


Pluralism

While neo-Marxist theories of the state were relatively influential in continental Europe in the 1960s and 1970s, pluralism, a contending approach, gained greater adherence in the United States. Within the pluralist tradition, Robert Dahl sees the state as either a neutral arena for contending interests or its agencies as simply another set of interest groups. With power competitively arranged in society, state policy is a product of recurrent bargaining. Although pluralism recognizes the existence of inequality, it asserts that all groups have an opportunity to pressure the state. The pluralist approach suggests that the modern democratic state's actions are the result of pressures applied by a variety of organized interests. Dahl called this kind of state a polyarchy.[15] The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Robert A. Dahl (b. ... An interest group (also called an advocacy group, lobbying group, pressure group (UK), or special interest) is a group, however loosely or tightly organized, doing advocacy: those determined to encourage or prevent changes in public policy without trying to be elected. ... In modern political science, the term Polyarchy (Greek: poly many, arkhe rule)[1] was introduced by Robert A. Dahl, now emeritus professor at Yale University, to describe a form of government that was first implemented in the United States and gradually adopted by many other countries. ...


Institutionalism

Both the Marxist and pluralist approaches view the state as reacting to the activities of groups within society, such as classes or interest groups. In this sense, they have both come under criticism for their 'society-centered' understanding of the state by scholars who emphasize the autonomy of the state with respect to social forces.


In particular, the "new institutionalism," an approach to politics that holds that behavior is fundamentally molded by the institutions in which it is embedded, asserts that the state is not an 'instrument' or an 'arena' and does not 'function' in the interests of a single class. Scholars working within this approach stress the importance of interposing civil society between the economy and the state to explain variation in state forms. New institutionalism is a social theory that focuses on developing a sociological view of institutions, the way they interact and the effects of institutions on society. ...


"New institutionalist" writings on the state, such as the works of Theda Skocpol, suggest that state actors are to an important degree autonomous. In other words, state personnel have interests of their own, which they can and do pursue independently (at times in conflict with) actors in society. Since the state controls the means of coercion, and given the dependence of many groups in civil society on the state for achieving any goals they may espouse, state personnel can to some extent impose their own preferences on civil society.[16] Theda Skocpol (born May 4, 1947 in Detroit, Michigan) is a sociologist and political scientist at Harvard University, presently serving as Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. ...


'New institutionalist' writers, claiming allegiance to Weber, often utilize the distinction between 'strong states' and 'weak states,' claiming that the degree of 'relative autonomy' of the state from pressures in society determines the power of the state—a position that has found favor in the field of international political economy. International political economy (IPE) is a perspective in the social sciences and history that analyzes international relations in combination with political economy. ...


The state in modern political thought

The rise of the modern state system was closely related to changes in political thought, especially concerning the changing understanding of legitimate state power. Early modern defenders of absolutism such as Thomas Hobbes and Jean Bodin undermined the doctrine of the divine right of kings by arguing that the power of kings should be justified by reference to the people. Hobbes in particular went further and argued that political power should be justified with reference to the individual, not just to the people understood collectively. Both Hobbes and Bodin thought they were defending the power of kings, not advocating democracy, but their arguments about the nature of sovereignty were fiercely resisted by more traditional defenders of the power of kings, like Sir Robert Filmer in England, who thought that such defenses ultimately opened the way to more democratic claims. Hobbes redirects here. ... Jean Bodin (1530-1596) was a French jurist, member of the Parliament of Paris and professor of Law in Toulouse. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... Sir Robert Filmer (1588 - 26 May 1653) was an English political writer. ...


These and other early thinkers introduced two important concepts in order to justify sovereign power: the idea of a state of nature and the idea of a social contract. The first concept describes an imagined situation in which the state - understood as a centralized, coercive power - does not exist, and human beings have all their natural rights and powers; the second describes the conditions under which a voluntary agreement could take human beings out of the state of nature and into a state of civil society. Depending on what they understood human nature to be and the natural rights they thought human beings had in that state, various writers were able to justify more or less extensive forms of the state as a remedy for the problems of the state of nature. Thus, for example, Hobbes, who described the state of nature as a "war of every man, against every man,"[17] argued that sovereign power should be almost absolute since almost all sovereign power would be better than such a war, whereas John Locke, who understood the state of nature in more positive terms, thought that state power should be strictly limited.[18] Both of them nevertheless understood the powers of the state to be limited by what rational individuals would agree to in a hypothetical or actual social contract. State of nature is a term in political philosophy used in social contract theories to describe the hypothetical condition of humanity before the states foundation and its monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force. ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ...


The idea of the social contract lent itself to more democratic interpretations than Hobbes or Locke would have wanted. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, for example, argued that the only valid social contract would be one were individuals would be subject to laws that only themselves had made and assented to, as in a small direct democracy. Today the tradition of social contract reasoning is alive in the work of John Rawls and his intellectual heirs, though in a very abstract form. Rawls argued that rational individuals would only agree to social institutions specifying a set of inviolable basic liberties and a certain amount of redistribution to alleviate inequalities for the benefit of the worst off. Lockean state of nature reasoning, by contrast, is more common in the libertarian tradition of political thought represented by the work of Robert Nozick. Nozick argued that given the natural rights that human beings would have in a state of nature, the only state that could be justified would be a minimal state whose sole functions would be to provide protection and enforce agreements. Rousseau redirects here. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ... The night watchman state or the minimal state is the state with the least possible amount of powers; these powers cannot be reduced any further without abolishing the state altogether and instituting a form of anarchy. ...


Some contemporary thinkers, such as Michel Foucault, have argued that political theory needs to get away from the notion of the state: "We need to cut off the king's head. In political theory that has still to be done."[19] By this he meant that power in the modern world is much more decentralized and uses different instruments than power in the early modern era, so that the notion of a sovereign, centralized state is increasingly out of date. Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ...


See also

For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Elite theory is a theory of the state which seeks to describe and explain the power relationships in modern society. ... For Noam Chomskys 2006 book, see Failed States (book). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Map showing the earliest date of nationhood listed Below is a list of nations in chronological order of their nationhood. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States was a treaty signed at Montevideo on December 26, 1933, at the Seventh International Conference of American States. ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In political geography, a regional state is a state more centralized than a federation, but less centralized than an unitary state. ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ... Statism (or Etatism) is a term that is used to describe: Specific instances of state intervention in personal, social or economic matters. ... The justification of the state is a term that refers to the source of legitimate authority for the state or government. ... One of the central questions of political philosophy is the purpose of government. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... A map showing the unitary states. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ...

References

  1. ^ "state." Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. 26 February 2007. [Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/state].
  2. ^ a b Skinner, Quentin. 1989. The State. In Political Innovation and Conceptual Change, edited by T. Ball, J. Farr and R. L. Hanson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521359783
  3. ^ a b Jackson, Robert H., and Carl G. Rosberg. 1982. Why Africa's Weak States Persist: The Empirical and The Juridical in Statehood. World Politics 35 (1):1-24.[1]
  4. ^ a b Weber, Max. 1994. The Profession and Vocation of Politics. In Political Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521397197.
  5. ^ Bobbio, Norberto. 1989. Democracy and Dictatorship: The Nature and Limits of State Power. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0816618135.
  6. ^ Easton, David. 1990. The Analysis of Political Structure. New York: Routledge.
  7. ^ Giddens, Anthony. 1987. Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. 3 vols. Vol. II: The Nation-State and Violence. Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN 0520060393. See chapter 2.
  8. ^ Boehm, Christopher. 1999. in the Forest. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 0674006917.
  9. ^ Poggi, G. 1978. The Development of the Modern State: A Sociological Introduction. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  10. ^ Breuilly, John. 1993. Nationalism and the State. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN SBN0719038006.
  11. ^ Anderson, Perry. 1979. Lineages of the absolutist state. London: Verso. ISBN 086091710X.
  12. ^ Tilly, Charles. 1992. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990-1992. Cambridge, Massachusetts: B. Blackwell. ISBN 1557863687.
  13. ^ Kjaer, Anne Mette. 2004. Governance. London: Verso. ISBN 0745629792
  14. ^ Miliband, Ralph. 1983. Class power and state power. London: Verso.
  15. ^ Robert Dahl. 1973. Modern Political Analysis. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0135969816
  16. ^ Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Theda Skocpol, and Peter B. Evans, eds. 1985. Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.ISBN 0521313139.
  17. ^ Hobbes, Thomas. 1651. Leviathan. Part I, chapter 13.
  18. ^ Locke, John. 1689. Two Treatises of Government. Second Treatise, chapter 2.
  19. ^ Foucault, Michel. 2000 [1976]. Truth and Power. In Power, edited by J. D. Fearon. New York: The New Press, p. 123. ISBN 1565847091

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