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Encyclopedia > Starling
Starlings
European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris
European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sturnidae
Rafinesque, 1815
Genera

Nearly 30, see text.
Starling may refer to Ernest Starling: an english physiologist known for developing the Starling equation Jim Starling: a series of novels for children written by Edmund Wallace Hildick Starlings: small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae. ... Download high resolution version (800x973, 169 KB)Photograph of a Common Starling (an immature female apparently) Taken by user PaulLomax in London. ... Binomial name Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 The European Starling or Common Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, is a passerine bird in the family Sturnidae. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a grouping in the classification of living organisms having one or more related and morphologically similar species. ...

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae. The name "Sturnidae" comes from the Latin word for Starling, sturnus. Starlings occur naturally only in the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa), some forms as far east as Australia, but several European and Asian species have been introduced to North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


Starlings have strong feet, their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. Several species live around human habitation, and are effectively omnivores. Many species search for food by opening the bill after probing it into dense vegetation; this behavior is called "open-bill probing" or is referred to by the German word "zirkeln" (IPA: ['tsɪʁkl̩n]). Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ...


Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. Most species nest in holes, laying blue or white eggs. In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ...


Many Asian species, particularly the larger ones, are called mynas, and many African species are known as glossy starlings because of their iridescent plumage. † See also Starling, Oxpecker The mynas are part of the family Sturndidae, along with the starlings and oxpeckers. ... The iridescence of the Blue Morpho butterfly wings. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ...


The shortest-bodied species is Kenrick's Starling (Poeoptera kenricki), at 15 centimetres (6 in), but the lightest-weight species is Abbott's Starling (Poeoptera femoralis), at 34 grams (1.2 oz). The largest starlings are the mynas of the genus Mino, especially the Yellow-faced (Mino dumontii) and Long-tailed Mynas (Mino kreffti). These mynas can exceed 30 centimetres (1 ft) and weigh over 225 grams (8& oz). Binomial name Shelley, 1894 The Kenricks Starling (Poeoptera kenricki) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Binomial name (Richmond, 1897) The Abbotts Starling (Cinnyricinclus femoralis) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... The ounce (abbreviation: oz) is the name of a unit of mass in a number of different systems, including various systems of mass that form part of English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... † See also Starling, Oxpecker The mynas are part of the family Sturndidae, along with the starlings and oxpeckers. ... Mino can mean: Mino is a city in Gifu prefecture, Japan Mino is an alternate spelling of Minoo, Osaka prefecture, Japan Mino was also an old province of Japan, which today composes nearly the southern part of Gifu prefecture. ... Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Yellow-faced Myna (Mino dumontii) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...

Contents


European Starlings are in decline in Europe. However, when introduced to North America they have been a factor in reducing native cavity nesting bird populations (such as Bluebirds and Red-headed Woodpeckers) by competing aggressively for nesting cavities. Binomial name Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 The European Starling or Common Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, is a passerine bird in the family Sturnidae. ... Binomial name Sialia sialis (Linnaeus,, 1758) The Eastern Bluebird, Sialia sialis, is a medium-sized thrush found in open woodlands, farmlands and orchards. ... Binomial name Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus, is a small or medium-sized woodpecker. ...


Starlings were first brought to North America in the 1890s by Eugene Schieffelin, a wealthy New York pharmacologist and Shakespeare enthusiast (NGS 2002). It is said (though no evidence supports this) that his purpose was to introduce into North America all the birds mentioned in William Shakespeare's plays.[citation needed] As starlings receive a brief mention in Henry IV, Part 1, Schieffelin introduced 60 of the birds in Central Park, New York. Eugene Schieffelin (b. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Title page of the first quarto (1598) Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare. ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... “NY” redirects here. ...


Starlings have diverse and complex vocalizations, and have been known to imbed sounds from their surroundings into their own calls, including car alarms, and human speech patterns. The birds can recognize particular individuals by their calls, and are currently the subject of research into the evolution of human language.[1] In mathematics, an embedding (or imbedding) is one instance of some mathematical object contained within another instance, such as a group that is a subgroup. ... A car alarm is an electronic device installed in a vehicle in an attempt to discourage theft. ... The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ...


Systematics

The starlings belong to the superfamily Muscicapoidea, together with thrushes, flycatchers and chats, as well as dippers which are quite distant and Mimidae (thrashers and mockingbirds). The latter are apparently the Sturnidae's closest living relatives, replace them in the Americas, and have a rather similar but more solitary lifestyle. They are morphologically quite similar too - a partly albinistic specimen of a mimid, mislabelled as to suggest an Old World origin, was for many decades believed to represent an extinct starling (see Rodrigues Starling for details). In biology, a superfamily is a taxonomic grade intermediate between suborder and family. ... Look up thrush in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Genera many:see text The Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae is a large family of small passerine birds restricted to the Old World. ... Genera See text. ... Species Cinclus cinclus Cinclus leucocephalus Cinclus mexicanus Cinclus pallasii Cinclus schulzi Dippers are members of the genus Cinclus in the bird family Cinclidae. ... Genera Cinclocerthia Dumetella Margarops Melanoptila Melanotis Mimodes Mimus Nesomimus Oreoscoptes Ramphocinclus Toxostoma The Mimids are a New World family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... “Albino” redirects here. ... Binomial name Necropsar rodericanus (Slater, A. Günther & A. Newton, 1879) The Rodrigues Starling (Necropsar rodericanus), also known as White Mascarene Starling, is a hypothetical species whose existence is based on an old travel report, a few subfossil bones, and a museum skin from Liverpool which was later identified by...


The oxpeckers are sometimes placed here as a subfamily, but the weight of evidence has shifted towards granting them full family ststus as a more basal member of the Sturnidae-Mimidae group, derived from an early expansion into Africa. Species See text. ... ... In phylogenetics, basal members of a group diverged earlier than a subgroup of others (or vice versa). ...


Usually the starlings are considered a family, as is done here. Sibley & Monroe (1990) included the mimids in the family and demoted the starlings to tribe rank, as Sturnini. This treatment was used by Zuccon et al. (2006). However, the grouping of Sibley & Monroe (besides leaving the subfamily rank vacant[verification needed]) is overly coarse due to methodological drawbacks of their DNA-DNA hybridization technique and most of their proposed revisions of taxonomic rank have not been accepted (see for example Ciconiiformes). The all-inclusive Sturnidae grouping is all but noninformative as regards biogeography, and obscures the evolutionary distinctness of the three lineages. Establishing a valid name for the clade consisting of Sibley/Monroe's "pan-Sturnidae" would nonetheless be desirable to contrast them with the other major lineages of Muscicapoidea. In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic classification in between family and genus. ... DNA-DNA hybridization is a method in genetics to measure the degree of genetic similarity between DNA sequences. ... In zoology, a taxon is usually assigned to a rank in a hierarchy. ... Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae (the Boat-billed Heron) Balaenicipitidae (the Shoebill) Scopidae (the Hammerkop) Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Cathartidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ...


Starlings probably originated in the general area of the East Asia, perhaps towards the southwestern Pacific, as evidenced by the number of plesiomorphic lineages to occur there. Expansion into Africa appears to have occurred later, as most derived forms are found there. An alternative scenario would be African origin for the entire "sturnoid" (as per Zuccon et al. 2006) group, with the oxpeckers representing an ancient relict and the mimids arriving in South America. This is contradicted by the North American distribution of the most basal Mimidae.(Cibois & Cracraft 2004, Zuccon et al. 2006) East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The term relict is used to refer to surviving remnants of natural phenomena. ... In phylogenetics, basal members of a group diverged earlier than a subgroup of others (or vice versa). ...


As the fossil record is limited to quite Recent forms, the proposed Early Miocene (about 25-20 mya) divergence dates for the "sturnoids" lineages must be considered extemely tentative. Given the overall evidence for origin of most Passeri families in the first half of the Miocene, it appears to be not too far off the mark however.(Zuccon et al. 2006) The Early Miocene (also known as Lower Miocene) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages: the Aquitanian and Burdigalian stages. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Oscines of Passeriformes (ca. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ...

Recent studies (Cibois & Cracraft 2004, Zuccon et al. 2006) identified two major clades of this family, corresponding to the generally drab, often striped, largish "atypical mynas" and other mainly Asian-Pacific lineages, and the often smaller, sometimes highly apomorphic taxa which are most common in Africa and the Palearctic, usually have metallic coloration, and in a number of species also bright carotinoid plumage colors on the underside. Inside this latter group, there is a clade consisting of species which, again, are usually not too brightly-colored, and which consists of the "typical" myna-Sturnus assemblage. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... † See also Starling, Oxpecker The mynas are part of the family Sturndidae, along with the starlings and oxpeckers. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... A taxon (plural taxa) is an element of a taxonomy, e. ... Carotenoids are organic pigments that are naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. ... Species ) Sturnus is a genus of starlingss. ...


Interestingly, the Philippine creepers, a single genus of 3 species of treecreeper-like birds appear to be highly apomorphic members of the more initial radiation of the Sturnidae (Zuccon et al. 2006). While this may seem odd ad first glance, their placement has always been contentious. In addition, biogeography virtually rules out a close relationship of Philippine creepers and treecreepers, as neither the latter nor their close relatives seem have ever reached the Wallacea, let alone the Philippines. Nonetheless, their inclusion in the Sturnidae is not entirely final and eventually they may remain a separate family. Species The Philippine creepers are a family of small passerines found in the Philippines. ... Species C. familiaris C. brachydactyla C. americana C. himalayana C. nipalensis C. discolor The treecreepers are a group of very similar small passerines found throughout the Northern hemisphere. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Map of Wallacea; upper right corner facing North. ...


Genus sequence follows traditional treatments. This is apparently not entirely correct, with Scissirostrum closer to Aplonis than to Gracula for example, and Acridotheres among the most advanced genera. Too few taxa have already been studied as regards their relationships however, and thus a change in sequence has to wait. Species Acridotheres is a genus of mynas, tropical members of the starling family of birds. ...


The upcoming review by Lovette & Rubenstein (in press) promises to resolve most uncertainties (though not the most pressing question: how Sturnus will be split up). Until it has been published, the following list should be considered preliminary.


Oriental-Australasian clade

  • Genus Rhabdornis - Philippine creepers (3 species; placement here requires confirmation)
  • Genus Aplonis - Pacific starlings (c.20 living species, 4-5 recently extinct)
  • Genus Mino
    • Yellow-faced Myna, Mino dumontii
    • Golden Myna, Mino anais
    • Long-tailed Myna, Mino kreffti
  • Genus Basilornis
    • Sulawesi Myna, Basilornis celebensis
    • Helmeted Myna, Basilornis galeatus
    • Long-crested Myna, Basilornis corythaix
    • Apo Myna, Basilornis mirandus
Hill mynas, Gracula sp.
Hill mynas, Gracula sp.
  • Genus Sarcops
    • Coleto, Sarcops calvus
  • Genus Streptocitta
    • White-necked Myna, Streptocitta albicollis
    • Bare-eyed Myna, Streptocitta albertinae
  • Genus Enodes
    • Fiery-browed Myna, Enodes erythrophris
  • Genus Scissirostrum
    • Finch-billed Myna, Scissirostrum dubium
  • Genus Ampeliceps - Golden-crested Myna
  • Genus Gracula - hill mynas (5 species)

Species Rhabdornis grandis Rhabdornis inornatus Rhabdornis mystacalis The Philippine creepers or rhabdornises are small passerine birds. ... Species see text Aplonis is a genus of starlings. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... species Mino is a genus of mynas, birds in the starling family. ... Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Yellow-faced Myna (Mino dumontii) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Lesson, 1839) The Golden Myna (Mino anais) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Basilornis is a genus of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name Gray, 1861 The Sulawesi Myna (Basilornis celebensis) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name Meyer, 1894 The Helmeted Myna (Basilornis galeatus) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Wagler, 1827) The Long-crested Myna (Basilornis corythaix) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Hartert, 1903) The Apo Myna (Basilornis mirandus) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (897x768, 138 KB) from de:wiki de:Bild:Beo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (897x768, 138 KB) from de:wiki de:Bild:Beo. ... Binomial name Corvus monedula (Linnaeus, 1758) The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula) is one of the smallest species (34-39 cm in length) in the genus of crows and ravens. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Coleto (Sarcops calvus) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Coleto (Sarcops calvus) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Streptocitta is a genus of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Vieillot, 1818) The White-necked Myna (Streptocitta albicollis) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Schlegel, 1866) The Bare-eyed Myna (Streptocitta albertinae) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1824) The Fiery-browed Myna (Enodes erythrophris) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1824) The Fiery-browed Myna (Enodes erythrophris) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Latham, 1802) The Finch-billed Myna (Scissirostrum dubium) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Latham, 1802) The Finch-billed Myna (Scissirostrum dubium) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name Blyth, 1842 The Golden-crested Myna, Ampeliceps coronatus, is a species in the starling and myna family Sturnidae. ... Binomial name Corvus monedula (Linnaeus, 1758) The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula) is one of the smallest species (34-39 cm in length) in the genus of crows and ravens. ...

Afrotropical-Palearctic clade

  • Genus Sturnia (often included in Sturnus)
    • Daurian Starling, Sturnia sturnina
    • Chestnut-cheeked Starling, Sturnia philippensis
    • White-shouldered Starling, Sturnia sinensis
    • White-headed Starling, Sturnia erythropygia
  • Genus Sturnus - typical starlings (about 12 species; includes probably valid genera Gracupica, Pastor and Temenuchus; but highly paraphyletic)
  • Genus Creatophora - Wattled Starling
  • Genus Notopholia (sometimes placed in Lamprotornis)
    • Black-bellied Glossy-starling, Notopholia corrusca[verification needed]
  • Genus Coccycolius - Iris Glossy-starling or Emerald Starling (sometimes placed in Lamprotornis)
Cape Glossy Starling (Lamprotornis nitens)
Cape Glossy Starling (Lamprotornis nitens)
  • Genus Lamprotornis - typical glossy-starlings (20 species; monophyly requires confirmation)
  • Genus Cinnyricinclus
    • Violet-backed Starling, Cinnyricinclus leucogaster
  • Genus Poeoptera (formerly Pholia, sometimes included in Cinnyricinclus)
    • Sharpe's Starling, Poeoptera sharpii
    • Abbott's Starling, Poeoptera femoralis
  • Genus Saroglossa (possibly paraphyletic)
    • Spot-winged Starling, Saroglossa spiloptera
    • Madagascar Starling, Saroglossa aurata
  • Genus Spreo (paraphyletic with Lamprotornis and might be included there)
    • African Pied Starling, Spreo bicolor
    • Fischer's Starling, Spreo fischeri
    • White-crowned Starling, Spreo albicapillus
  • Genus Compsarus
    • Golden-breasted Starling, Compsarus regius (sometimes placed in Lamprotornis)
    • Ashy Starling, Compsarus unicolor (sometimes placed in Spreo)
  • Genus Onychognathus
    • Red-winged Starling, Onychognathus morio
    • Slender-billed Starling, Onychognathus tenuirostris
    • Chestnut-winged Starling, Onychognathus fulgidus
    • Waller's Starling, Onychognathus walleri
    • Somali Starling, Onychognathus blythii
    • Socotra Starling, Onychognathus frater
    • Tristram's Starling, Onychognathus tristramii
    • Pale-winged Starling, Onychognathus nabouroup
    • Bristle-crowned Starling, Onychognathus salvadorii
    • White-billed Starling, Onychognathus albirostris
    • Neumann's Starling, Onychognathus neumanni
  • Genus Poeoptera
    • Narrow-tailed Starling, Poeoptera lugubris
    • Stuhlmann's Starling, Poeoptera stuhlmanni
    • Kenrick's Starling, Poeoptera kenricki
  • Genus Grafisia
    • White-collared Starling, Grafisia torquata
  • Genus Neocichla
    • Babbling Starling, Neocichla gutturalis

Species Acridotheres is a genus of mynas, tropical members of the starling family of birds. ... Binomial name Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912 The Bali Starling, Leucopsar rothschildi also known as Rothschild’s Mynah, Bali Myna or Bali Mynah is a medium-sized, up to 25cm long, stocky myna, almost wholly white with a long, drooping crest, black tips on the wing and tail. ... Sturnus is a genus of birds in the family Sturnidae. ... Binomial name (Pallas, 1776) The Purple-backed Starling (Sturnus sturninus) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Forster, 1781) The Chestnut-cheeked Starling (Sturnus philippensis) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1788) The White-shouldered Starling (Sturnus sinensis) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Blyth, 1846) The White-headed Starling (Sturnus erythropygius) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Species ) Sturnus is a genus of starlingss. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Binomial name (Meuschen, 1787) The Wattled Starling, Creatophora cinerea, is a nomadic resident in eastern and southern Africa. ... Binomial name Nordmann, 1835 The Black-bellied Glossy-starling (Lamprotornis corruscus) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name Oustalet, 1879 Synonyms Lamprotornis iris The Iris Glossy-starling, Coccycolius iris, is also known as the Emerald Starling. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x646, 126 KB) Lamprotornis nitens Glossy Starling - Kruger National Park URL:http://albums. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x646, 126 KB) Lamprotornis nitens Glossy Starling - Kruger National Park URL:http://albums. ... Species About 20, see text Lamprotornis is a large genus of glossy-starlings all of which occur in Africa south of the Sahara. ... Cinnyricinclus is a genus of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Boddaert, 1783) The Violet-backed Starling (Cinnyricinclus leucogaster) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Synonyms Pholia Poeoptera is a genus of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Jackson, 1898) The Sharpes Starling (Cinnyricinclus sharpii) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Richmond, 1897) The Abbotts Starling (Cinnyricinclus femoralis) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Saroglossa is a genus of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Vigors, 1831) The Spot-winged Starling (Saroglossa spiloptera) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Müller, 1776) The Madagascar Starling (Saroglossa aurata) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Spreo is a genus of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name Gmelin, 1789 The African Pied Starling, Spreo bicolor, is a bird endemic to South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. ... Binomial name (Reichenow, 1884) The Fischers Starling, Spreo fischeri, is a bird which is an uncommon resident breeder from southern Ethiopia and Somalia to eastern Kenya and Tanzania. ... Binomial name Blyth, 1856 The White-crowned Starling (Spreo albicapillus) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name Compsarus regius (Reichenow, 1879) Golden-breasted Starling or Golden Breasted Starling (Compsarus regius or Lamprotornis regius) is a starling. ... Binomial name Shelley, 1881 The Ashy Starling (Cosmopsarus unicolor) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Onychognathus is a genus of starlings in the family Sturnidae. ... Binomial name Onychognathus morio (Linnaeus, 1766) The Red-winged Starling, Onychognathus morio, is a bird native to eastern Africa from Ethiopia to the Cape in South Africa. ... Binomial name (Rüppell, 1836) The Slender-billed Starling (Onychognathus tenuirostris) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name Hartlaub, 1849 The Chestnut-winged Starling (Onychognathus fulgidus) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Shelley, 1880) The Wallers Starling (Onychognathus walleri) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Hartlaub, 1859) The Somali Starling (Onychognathus blythii) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881) The Socotra Starling (Onychognathus frater) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name Onychognathus tristramii (Sclater, 1858) Tristrams Grackle or Tristrams Starling, Onychognathus tristramii, is native to Israel, Jordan, and south-western Saudi Arabia, nesting mainly on rocky cliff faces. ... Binomial name (Daudin, 1800) The Pale-winged Starling (Onychognathus nabouroup) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Sharpe, 1891) The Bristle-crowned Starling (Onychognathus salvadorii) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Rüppell, 1836) The White-billed Starling (Onychognathus albirostris) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Synonyms Pholia Poeoptera is a genus of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name Bonaparte, 1854 The Narrow-tailed Starling (Poeoptera lugubris) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Reichenow, 1893) The Stuhlmanns Starling (Poeoptera stuhlmanni) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name Shelley, 1894 The Kenricks Starling (Poeoptera kenricki) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Reichenow, 1909) The White-collared Starling (Grafisia torquata) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Reichenow, 1909) The White-collared Starling (Grafisia torquata) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name Speculipastor bicolor Reichenow, 1879 The Magpie Starling, Speculipastor bicolor is 6. ... Binomial name (Barboza du Bocage, 1871) The Babbling Starling (Neocichla gutturalis) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Barboza du Bocage, 1871) The Babbling Starling (Neocichla gutturalis) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ...

Unresolved

The extinct Mascarene starlings are of uncertain relationships. Only one species is known from specimens taken while the bird was still extant; the other remains only known from subfossil bones and apparently one early traveller's description. The supposed "Leguat's Starling" ("Necropsar leguati") was eventually determined to be a mislabelled albino specimen of the Martinique Trembler (Cinclocerthia gutturalis), a mimid. In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... The Mascarene Islands (or Mascarenhas Archipelago) is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar, which includes Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, and Cargados Carajos shoals. ... Subfossil is attributed to bones or whole skeletons (and, in general all materials having living parts that can become fossil) whose fossilization process is not complete, either for lack of time or because the condition in which bones were buried were non optimal for fossilization. ... Binomial name (Lafresnaye, 1843) The Grey Trembler (Cinclocerthia gutturalis) is a species of bird in the Mimidae family. ...


As the avifauna of the Mascarenes is predominantly of Indian origin though as old as to be highly distinct, it is not clear to which clade these starlings belong - or even if they are indeed starlings, as the Réunion Starling at least was highly aberrant and there have always been lingering dounbts about whether they are correctly placed here. For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ...

Binomial name Fregilupus varius (Boddaert, 1783) The Bourbon Crested Starling (Fregilupus varius), sometimes regarded as Huppe, Crested Starling, or Réunion Starling is an extinct bird from the family of Sturnidae. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... Binomial name Necropsar rodericanus (Slater, A. Günther & A. Newton, 1879) The Rodrigues Starling (Necropsar rodericanus), also known as White Mascarene Starling, is a hypothetical species whose existence is based on an old travel report, a few subfossil bones, and a museum skin from Liverpool which was later identified by... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...

References

  • Cibois, A. & Cracraft, J. (2004). Assessing the passerine 'tapestry': phylogenetic relationships of the Muscicapoidea inferred from nuclear DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32(1): 264–273. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.12.002 (HTML)
  • Lovette, I.J. & Rubenstein, D.R. (in press): A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the starlings (Aves: Sturnidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.03.017 Preprint PDF fulltext
  • National Geographic Society (2002): Field Guide to the Birds of North America. National Geographic, Washington DC. ISBN 0-792-26877-6
  • Sibley, Charles Gald & Monroe, Burt L. Jr. (1990): Distribution and taxonomy of the birds of the world: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. ISBN 0-300-04969-2
  • Zuccon, Dario; Cibois, Anne; Pasquet, Eric & Ericson, Per G.P. (2006): Nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data reveal the major lineages of starlings, mynas and related taxa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41(2): 333-344. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.007 (HTML abstract)

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The National Geographic Society, headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States, is one of the worlds largest not-for-profit educational and scientific organizations. ... Charles Sibley (August 7, 1917 - April 12, 1998) was an American ornithologist and molecular biologist. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ New York Times, May 2, 2006

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sturnidae
  • Starling videos on the Internet Bird Collection
  • RSPB starling page from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
  • [1] a huge flock of starlings enjoys playing with two resilient trees.
  • [2] Bird formations in San Rafael California

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