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Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). These are both complex carbohydrate polymers of glucose (chemical formula of glucose C6H12O6), making starch a glucose polymer as well, as seen by the chemical formula for starch, regardless of the ratio of amylose:amylopectin. CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Amylose (CAS# 9005-82-7) is a linear polymer of glucose linked with mainly α(1→4) bonds. ... Amylopectin is a highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ...


The word is derived from Middle English sterchen, meaning to stiffen, which is appropriate since it can be used as a thickening agent when dissolved in water and heated. Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the...

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Starch in Food

In terms of human nutrition, starch is by far the most consumed polysaccharides in the human diet. It constitutes more than half of the carbohydrates even in many affluent diets, and much more in poorer diets. Traditional staple foods such as cereals, roots and tubers are the main source of dietary starch. Nutrition is interpreted as the study of the organic process by which an organism assimilates and uses food and liquids for normal functioning, growth and maintenance and to maintain the balance between health and disease. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ...


Starch (in particular cornstarch) is used in cooking for thickening foods such as sauces. In industry, it is used in the manufacturing of adhesives, paper, textiles and as a mold in the manufacture of sweets such as wine gums and jelly beans. It is a white powder, and depending on the source, may be tasteless and odourless. Products treated with cornstarch Cornstarch, or cornflour, is the starch of the maize grain, commonly known as corn. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Wine gums are chewy, firm sweets similar to gumdrops, except they are not sugar-coated. ... Jelly beans or jelly eggs are a type of confectionery that comes in many different (primarily fruit) flavors. ... Powder is a substance that has been crushed into very fine grains. ... Taste is one of the traditional five senses and refers to the ability to detect the flavor of foodstuffs and other substances (e. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ...


Starch is often found in the fruit, seeds, rhizomes or tubers of plants and is what gives us energy when we eat these. The major resources for starch production and consumption worldwide are rice, wheat, corn, and potatoes. Cooked foods containing starches include boiled rice, various forms of bread and noodles (including pasta). For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rhizome (disambiguation). ... For fungal genus, see tuber (genus). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, grown for its starchy tuber. ... RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... A cook making hand-pulled noodles. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


As an additive for food processing, arrowroot and tapioca are commonly used as well. Commonly used starches around the world are: arracacha, buckwheat, banana, barley, cassava, kudzu, oca, sago, sorghum, regular household potatoes sweet potato, taro and yams. Edible beans, such as favas, lentils and peas, are also rich in starch. Look up Additive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary When used as a noun, additive refers to something that is introduced to a larger quantity of something else, usually to alter characteristics of the larger quantity. ... Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans or animals. ... Binomial name Maranta arundinacea L. Arrowroot, or obedience plant, (Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial herb of genus Maranta found in rainforest habitats. ... For other uses, see Tapioca (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft The arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) is a garden root vegetable originally from the Andes, somewhat intermediate between the carrot and celery. ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... “Yuca” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Kudzu (disambiguation). ... OCA can mean: Observatoire de la Côte dAzur Orthodox Church in America Oxford Capacity Analysis Online Crash Analysis See also Oca This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... For other uses, see Sago (disambiguation). ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article is about the plant. ... Yams at Brixton market For the term yam as used in the United States, see sweet potato. ... This article is on the plant. ... Binomial name L. Vicia faba, the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, horse bean, field bean, tic bean, or foul is a species of bean (Fabaceae) native to north Africa and southwest Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere. ... Binomial name Lens culinaris Medikus Red lentils Lentils (Lens culinaris, Fabaceae) are lens-shaped pulses that grow on an annual, bushlike plant. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum A pea (Pisum sativum) is the small, edible round green seed which grows in a pod on a leguminous vine, hence why it is called a legume. ...


When a starch is pre-cooked, it can then be used to thicken cold foods. This is referred to as a pregelatinized starch. Otherwise starch requires heat to thicken, or "gelatinize." The actual temperature depends on the type of starch.


A modified food starch undergoes one or more chemical modifications that allow it to function properly under high heat and/or shear frequently encountered during food processing. Food starches are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, but have many other uses. Modified starch is a food additive which is prepared by treating starch or starch granules, causing the starch to be partially degraded. ...


Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Resistant starch (RS) is starch that escapes digestion by enzymatic hydrolysis in the small intestine but can be fermented in the large intestine by microflora[1]. There are several health benefits associated with RS-based diets. ...


Plants use starch as a way to store excess glucose, and thus also use starch as food during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ...


Non-food applications

Starch adhesive
Starch adhesive

Papermaking is the largest non-food application for starches globally, consuming millions of metric tons annually. In a typical sheet of copy paper for instance, the starch content may be as high as 8%. Both chemically modified and unmodified starches are used in papermaking. In the wet part of the papermaking process, generally called the “wet-end”, starches that have been chemically modified to contain a cationic or positive charge bound to the starch polymer, and are utilized to associate with the anionic or negatively charged paper fibers and inorganic fillers. These cationic starches impart the necessary strength properties for the paper web to be formed in the papermaking process (wet strength), and to provide strength to the final paper sheet (dry strength). In the dry end of the papermaking process the paper web is rewetted with a solution of starch paste that has been chemically, or enzymatically depolymerized. The starch paste solutions are applied to the paper web by means of various mechanical presses (size press). The dry end starches impart additional strength to the paper web and additionally provide water hold out or “size” for superior printing properties. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1036 × 777 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1036 × 777 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Diamond Sutra of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the oldest dated printed book in the world, found at Dunhuang, from 868 AD. Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is ubiquitous today for writing and packaging. ...


Corrugating glues are the next largest consumer of non-food starches globally. These glues are used in the production of corrugated fiberboard (sometimes called corrugated cardboard), and generally contain a mixture of chemically modified and unmodified starches that have been partially gelatinized to form an opaque paste. This paste is applied to the flute tips of the interior fluted paper to glue the fluted paper to the outside paper in the construction of cardboard boxes. This is then dried under high heat, which provides the box board strength and rigidity. Look up glue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Corrugated Fiberboard. ...


Another large non-food starch application is in the construction industry where starch is used in the or wall board manufacturing process. Chemically modified or unmodified starches are added to the rock mud containing primarily gypsum. Top and bottom heavyweight sheets of paper are applied to the mud formulation and the process is allowed to heat and cure to form the eventual rigid wall board. The starches act as a glue for the cured gypsum rock with the paper covering and also provide rigidity to the board. For the musical group Drywall, see Drywall (musical project) Example of drywall with joint compound, the common interior building material. ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ...


Clothing starch or laundry starch is a liquid that is prepared by mixing a vegetable starch in water (earlier preparations also had to be boiled), and is used in the laundering of clothes. Starch was widely used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries to stiffen the wide collars and ruffs of fine linen which surrounded the necks of the well-to-do. During the 19th century and early 20th century, it was stylish to stiffen the collars and sleeves of men's shirts and the ruffles of girls' petticoats by applying starch to them as the clean clothes were being ironed. Italian street, with laundry hung to dry Laundry can be: items of clothing and other textiles that require washing the act of washing clothing and textiles the room of a house in which this is done // Man and woman washing linen in a brook, from William Henry Pynes Microcosm... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... == Ruff of c. ... Business shirt In American English, shirt can refer to almost any upper-body garment other than coats and bras (the term top is sometimes used in ladieswear). ... Madame de Pompadour in an elaborately embroidered gown with matching petticoat, 1760s A petticoat or underskirt is an article of clothing for women; specifically an undergarment to be worn under a skirt, dress or sari. ... An iron Ironing or smoothing is the work of using a heated tool to remove wrinkles from washed clothes. ...


Aside from the smooth, crisp edges it gave to clothing, it served practical purposes as well. Dirt and sweat from a person's neck and wrists would stick to the starch rather than fibers of the clothing, and would easily wash away along with the starch. After each laundering, the starch would be reapplied. Look up dust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... SWEAT is an OLN/TSN show hosted by Julie Zwillich that aired in 2003-2004. ...


Starch is also used to make some packing peanuts, and some dropped ceiling tiles. Foam peanuts Foam peanuts, also known as packing peanuts, are a common loose-fill packing material used to prevent damage to fragile objects during shipping. ... Dropped (aka suspended) ceiling. ...


Printing industry - in the printing industry food grade starch[2] is used in the manufacture of anti-set-off spray powder used to separate printed sheets of paper to avoid wet ink being set off. Starch is also used in the manufacture of glues[3] for book-binding. For other uses, see Print. ... In printing, anti-set-off spray powder is used to make an air gap between printed sheets of paper, this enables the ink to dry naturally and therefore avoid the unwanted transfer of ink from one printed sheet[1] to another. ... In printing, set-off is the term given to the unwanted transfer of ink from one printed sheet[1] to another. ...


Hydrogen production - Starch can be used to produce Hydrogen.[4] General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ...


Oddyseus from the Oddysey was a large starch supporter.


Use as a mold

Gummed sweets such as jelly beans and wine gums are not manufactured using a mold in the conventional sense. A tray is filled with starch and leveled. A positive mold is then pressed into the starch leaving an impression of 1000 or so jelly beans. The mix is then poured into the impressions and then put into a stove to set. This method greatly reduces the number of molds that must be manufactured. Jelly beans or jelly eggs are a type of confectionery that comes in many different (primarily fruit) flavors. ... Wine gums are chewy, firm sweets similar to gumdrops, except they are not sugar-coated. ...


Tests

Starch solution is used to test for iodine. A blue-black color indicates the presence of iodine in the starch solution. It is thought that the iodine fits inside the coils of amylose.[5] A 0.3% w/w solution is the standard concentration for a dilute starch indicator solution. It is made by adding 4 grams of soluble starch to 1 litre of heated water; the solution is cooled before use (starch-iodine complex becomes unstable at temperatures above 35 °C). This complex is often used in redox titrations: in presence of an oxidizing agent the solution turns blue, in the presence of reducing agent, the blue color disappears because triiodide (I3) ions break up into three iodide ions, disassembling the complex. For the record label, see Iodine Recordings. ... Amylose (CAS# 9005-82-7) is a linear polymer of glucose linked with mainly α(1→4) bonds. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ... A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a redox (reduction-oxidation) reaction (see electrochemistry) that reduces another species. ... Space-filling model of the triiodide anion Triiodide is an anion composed of three iodine atoms. ...


Under the microscope, starch grains show a distinctive Maltese cross effect (also known as 'extinction cross' and birefringence) under polarized light. Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... Maltese cross The insignia of a Serving Brother of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem The Maltese Cross is featured on the badge of the Bermuda Regiment, heir to the BVRC. Typical St. ... This article treats polarization in electrodynamics. ...


Starch derivatives

Starch can be hydrolyzed into simpler carbohydrates by acids, various enzymes, or a combination of the two. The extent of conversion is typically quantified by dextrose equivalent (DE), which is roughly the fraction of the glycoside bonds in starch that have been broken. Food products made in this way include: Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is cleaved into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...

  • Maltodextrin, a lightly hydrolyzed (DE 10–20) starch product used as a bland-tasting filler and thickener.
  • Various corn syrups (DE 30–70), viscous solutions used as sweeteners and thickeners in many kinds of processed foods.
  • Dextrose (DE 100), commercial glucose, prepared by the complete hydrolysis of starch.
  • High fructose syrup, made by treating dextrose solutions to the enzyme glucose isomerase, until a substantial fraction of the glucose has been converted to fructose. In the United States, high fructose corn syrup is the principal sweetener used in sweetened beverages because fructose tastes sweeter than glucose, and less sweetener may be used.

Maltodextrin is a moderately sweet polysaccharide used as a food additive, unrelated to barley malt. ... Tate & Lyle brand Corn Syrup being moved by tank car Corn syrup is a syrup, made using corn (maize) starch as a [feedstock], and composed mainly of [glucose]. A series of two [enzyme|enzymatic] reactions are used to convert the corn starch to corn syrup. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Glucose Isomerase is an enzyme (EC 5. ... High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) refers to a group of corn syrups which have undergone enzymatic processing in order to increase their fructose content and are then mixed with pure corn syrup (100% glucose) to reach their final form. ...

References

  1. ^ Raven, P.; Evert, R.; Eichhorn, S. (1999) Biology of Plants (6th edition) p. 910 Worth Publishers. ISBN 1-57259-041-6
  2. ^ Spray Powder. - Russell-Webb. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  3. ^ Starch based glue. - ICI.
  4. ^ High-Yield Hydrogen Production from Starch and Water by a Synthetic Enzymatic Pathway. PLoS. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  5. ^ [1]

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a nonprofit open access scientific publishing project aimed at creating a library of scientific journals and other scientific literature under an open content license. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up Starch in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Jones, Orlando, "US2000 Improvement in the manufacture of starch". (Class: 127/68; 48/119; 127/69). Middlesex, England, USPTO.
  • Detailed description and pictures of starch molecular structure

  Results from FactBites:
 
Starch (1597 words)
Starch is the major carbohydrate reserve in plant tubers and seed endosperm where it is found as granules [330], each typically containing several million amylopectin molecules accompanied by a much larger number of smaller amylose molecules.
A significant proportion of starch in the normal diet escapes degradation in the stomach and small intestine and is labeled 'resistant starch' (for a recent review see [991]), but this portion is difficult to measure and depends on a number of factors including the form of starch and the method of cooking prior to consumption.
Starch with structure intermediate between the more crystalline resistant starch (for example, RS in staled bread) and more amorphous rapidly digestible starch (for example, in boiled potato) is slowly digestible starch [293] (for example, in boiled millet).
Starch - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1035 words)
Starch (in particular cornstarch) is used in cooking for thickening sauces.
When starch is used dietetically it is normally cooked or prepared with ingredients such as lemon, tomato, vinegar, hot pepper, onion or garlic to change its characteristic 'starchiness.' An example of this would be the use of ketchup or vinegar in the presentation of french fries or chips.
Clothing starch or laundry starch is a liquid that is prepared by mixing a vegetable starch in water (earlier preparations also had to be boiled), and is used in the laundering of clothes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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