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Encyclopedia > Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Austrobaileyales
Family: Illiciaceae
Genus: Illicium
Species: I. verum
Binomial name
Illicium verum
Hook.f.

Star anise, star aniseed or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn") is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also one of the ingredients used to make the broth for the Vietnamese noodle soup called phở. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a south Indian State. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x722, 324 KB)[edit] Summary Photograph of fruits of star anise (Illiciem verum), taken 17th Octeber 2006 by Brian Arthur and released under the GNU Free Documentation License. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families See text The Austrobaileyales are an order of basal flowering plants comprising the following families: Family Austrobaileyaceae Family Trimeniaceae Family Illiciaceae (star anise) Family Schisandraceae (schisandra, kadsura) This essentially corresponds to the order Illiciales in the older Cronquist system, which only included the last two families. ... Species 42 species; see article Illicium is a genus of flowering plants containing 42 species of evergreen shrubs and small trees, and is the sole genus in family Illiciaceae. ... Species 42 species; see article Illicium is a genus of flowering plants containing 42 species of evergreen shrubs and small trees, and is the sole genus in family Illiciaceae. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Joseph Dalton Hooker Dr. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI , OM , FRS , MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Chinese cuisine (Chinese: 中國菜) originated from different regions of China and has become widespread in many other parts of the world — from East Asia to North America, Australasia and Western Europe. ... The multiple families of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many spices and herbs. ... Garam masala is a blend of ground spices common in the Indian cuisine, whose literal meaning is hot (or warm) spice. There are many variants: most traditional mixes use just cinnamon, roasted cumin, cloves, nutmeg (and/or mace) and green cardamom seed or black cardamom pods. ... Indonesian cuisine reflects the vast variety of people that live on the 13,000 islands that make up Indonesia. ... Five-spice powder (五香粉, wÇ”xiāngfÄ›n in hanyu pinyin) is a convenient seasoning for Chinese cuisine, particularly Cantonese cuisine. ... Typical beef phở (phở bò ) A chicken-based phở (phở gà) with basil leaves, hoisin sauce, and Sriracha hot sauce, before mixing. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ...


Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca and pastis. Anethole Anethole (or trans-anethole) is an aromatic compound that accounts for the distinctive licorice flavor of anise, fennel, and star anise. ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Occident redirects here. ... Spirits redirects here. ... Galliano is an alcoholic drink created in 1896 by Italian distiller Arturo Vaccari, by blending local and exotic ingredients such as star anise and vanilla. ... Sambuca is an Italian aniseed-flavored, usually colorless liqueur. ... A glass of diluted pastis French pastis Pastis is an anise-flavored liqueur and apéritif from France, typically containing 40-45% alcohol by volume, although there exist alcohol-free varieties. ...


Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for colic and rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. Colic may refer to: Baby colic – a condition, usually in infants, characterized by incessant crying. ... Rheumatism or Rheumatic disorder is a non-specific term for medical problems affecting the heart, bones, joints, kidney, skin and lung. ...


Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. Tamiflu is regarded as the most promising drug to mitigate the severity of bird flu (H5N1); however, reports indicate that some forms of the virus have already adapted to Tamiflu. Shikimic acid, more commonly known as its anionic form shikimate, is an important biochemical intermediate in plants and microorganisms. ... A feedstock is a petrochemical used as a raw material to be fed into a machine or processing plant. ... Tamiflu manufactured by ROCHE active principle Oseltamivir Phosphate Drug Nomenclature Synonyms: GS-4104/002; Oseltamivir, fosfato de; Ro-64-0796/002 USAN: Oseltamivir Phosphate rINNM: Oseltamivir Phosphate erINNM: Fosfato de oseltamivir Chemical name: Ethyl (3R,4R,5S)-4-acetamido-5-amino-3-(1-ethylpropoxy)-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate phosphate (1... An autotroph (in Greek eauton = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces its own cell mass and organic compounds from carbon dioxide as sole carbon source, using either light or chemical compounds as a source of energy. ... For the H5N1 subtype generating the concern see H5N1. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ...


In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. A drug company named Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting e-coli bacteria. There is no longer any shortage of star anise and it is readily available and is relatively cheap. Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ...


Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ« Zhuàngzú ZìzhìqÅ«) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... Yunan redirects here. ...


Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic; instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum, also Illicium japonicum and Illicium religiosum), is a tree similar to Chinese star anise. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The urinary system is a system of organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry, urine. ...

Contents

Identification

The European Pharmacopoeia is a listing of a wide range of active substances and excipients used to prepare pharmaceutical products in Europe. ...

Differentiation with other species

Joshi et al. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography [1] to distinguished the species, while Lederer et al. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS [2].


Toxicity

It has been reported that the herb is prone to get contaminated with Japanese star anise, resulted in many cases of neurologic problems in infants, which is quite thrilling to challenge the drug governing bodies [3]. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum, also Illicium japonicum and Illicium religiosum), is a tree similar to Chinese star anise. ...


References

  1. ^ Joshi, Vaishali C. et al. (2005). "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. f. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". Journal of AOAC International 88 (3): 703 - 706. AOAC International. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-0058. Retrieved on 10 November 2007. 
  2. ^ Lederer, Ines et al. (2006). "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (6): 1970 - 1974. American Chemical Society. doi:10.1021/jf058156b. Retrieved on 10 November 2007. 
  3. ^ Ize-Ludlow, Diego et al. (2004). "Neurotoxicities in Infants Seen With the Consumption of Star Anise Tea". Pediatrics 114 (5): e653 - e656. American Academy of Pediatrics. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-0058. Retrieved on 10 November 2007. 
  • ITIS 505892
  • FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas"

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

See also

Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum, also Illicium japonicum and Illicium religiosum), is a tree similar to Chinese star anise. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Anise - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (354 words)
Anise (stressed the first syllable, rhyming with "Janice"), or less common anís (stressed on the second syllable, as "a niece") (Pimpinella anisum) is an herb in the family Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) whose seed-like fruit (also called aniseed) is used in sweet baking as well as in anise-flavored liqueurs (for example, ouzo).
Anise seed is also used in some curries and seafood dishes, and is used as a breath sweetener and digestive aid.
Anise is believed to be a galactagogue, or a substance that increases lactation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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