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Encyclopedia > Star
The Pleiades, an open cluster of stars in the constellation of Taurus. NASA photo
The Pleiades, an open cluster of stars in the constellation of Taurus. NASA photo

A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on Earth. Other stars are visible in the night sky, when they are not outshone by the Sun. For most of its life, a star shines because thermonuclear fusion in its core releases energy that traverses the star's interior and then radiates into outer space. Almost all elements heavier than hydrogen and helium were created by fusion processes in stars. Astronomical objects are significant physical entities, associations or structures which current science has confirmed to exist in space. ... Look up star in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4877x3515, 2034 KB) The Pleiades. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4877x3515, 2034 KB) The Pleiades. ... A shorter exposure shows less nebulosity. ... Galactic cluster redirects here. ... This article is about the star grouping. ... Taurus (IPA: , Latin: , symbol , ) is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Sol redirects here. ... In physics, nuclear fusion (a thermonuclear reaction) is a process in which two nuclei join, forming a larger nucleus and releasing energy. ... The structure of the Sun The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 0. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ...


Astronomers can determine the mass, age, chemical composition and many other properties of a star by observing its spectrum, luminosity and motion through space. The total mass of a star is the principal determinant in its evolution and eventual fate. Other characteristics of a star are determined by its evolutionary history, including the diameter, rotation, movement and temperature. A plot of the temperature of many stars against their luminosities, known as a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (H–R diagram), allows the age and evolutionary state of a star to be determined. Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... The globular cluster M80. ... High resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Projected timeline of the Suns life In astronomy, stellar evolution is the process by which a star undergoes a sequence of radical changes during its lifetime. ... The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (usually referred to by the abbreviation H-R diagram or HRD, also known as a Colour-Magnitude diagram, or CMD) shows the relationship between absolute magnitude, luminosity, classification, and effective temperature of stars. ...


A star begins as a collapsing cloud of material composed primarily of hydrogen, along with helium and trace amounts of heavier elements. Once the stellar core is sufficiently dense, some of the hydrogen is steadily converted into helium through the process of nuclear fusion.[1] The remainder of the star's interior carries energy away from the core through a combination of radiative and convective processes. The star's internal pressure prevents it from collapsing further under its own gravity. Once the hydrogen fuel at the core is exhausted, those stars having at least 0.4 times the mass of the Sun[2] expand to become a red giant, in some cases fusing heavier elements at the core or in shells around the core. The star then evolves into a degenerate form, recycling a portion of the matter into the interstellar environment, where it will form a new generation of stars with a higher proportion of heavy elements.[3] For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... According to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a red giant is a large non-main sequence star of stellar classification K or M; so-named because of the reddish appearance of the cooler giant stars. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ...


Binary and multi-star systems consist of two or more stars that are gravitationally bound, and generally move around each other in stable orbits. When two such stars have a relatively close orbit, their gravitational interaction can have a significant impact on their evolution.[4] For the band, see Binary Star (band). ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ...

Observation history

Historically, stars have been important to civilizations throughout the world. They have been used in religious practices and for celestial navigation and orientation. Many ancient astronomers believed that stars were permanently affixed to a heavenly sphere, and that they were immutable. By convention, astronomers grouped stars into constellations and used them to track the motions of the planets and the inferred position of the Sun.[5] The motion of the Sun against the background stars (and the horizon) was used to create calendars, which could be used to regulate agricultural practices.[6] The Gregorian calendar, currently used nearly everywhere in the world, is a solar calendar based on the angle of the Earth's rotational axis relative to the nearest star, the Sun. Central New York City. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... For the episode of The West Wing, see Celestial Navigation (The West Wing). ... This drawing from an Icelandic manuscript dated around 1750 shows the Earth surrounded by the eight classical spheres. ... Orion is a remarkable constellation, visible from most places on the globe (but not always the whole year long). ... A planet (from the Greek πλανήτης, planetes or wanderers) is a body of considerable mass that orbits a star and that produces very little or no energy through nuclear fusion. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ...


The oldest accurately-dated star chart appeared in Ancient Egypt in 1,534 BCE.[7] Islamic astronomers gave Arabic names to many stars which are still used today, and they invented numerous astronomical instruments which could compute the positions of the stars. In the 11th century, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī described the Milky Way galaxy as multitude of fragments having the properties of nebulous stars, and also gave the latitudes of various stars during a lunar eclipse in 1019.[8] The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Arabic redirects here. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... For other uses, see Milky Way (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galaxy (disambiguation). ... The Triangulum Emission Nebula NGC 604 The Pillars of Creation from the Eagle Nebula For other uses, see Nebula (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Time lapse movie of the 3 March 2007 lunar eclipse A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earth’s shadow. ...


In spite of the apparent immutability of the heavens, Chinese astronomers were aware that new stars could appear.[9] Early European astronomers such as Tycho Brahe identified new stars in the night sky (later termed novae), suggesting that the heavens were not immutable. In 1584 Giordano Bruno suggested that the stars were actually other suns, and may have other planets, possibly even Earth-like, in orbit around them,[10] an idea that had been suggested earlier by such ancient Greek philosophers as Democritus and Epicurus.[11] By the following century the idea of the stars as distant suns was reaching a consensus among astronomers. To explain why these stars exerted no net gravitational pull on the solar system, Isaac Newton suggested that the stars were equally distributed in every direction, an idea prompted by the theologian Richard Bentley.[12] The Dunhuang map from the Tang Dynasty (North Polar region). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the astronomer. ... Giordano Bruno Giordano Bruno (1548, Nola – February 17, 1600, Rome) was an Italian philosopher, priest, cosmologist, and occultist. ... An extrasolar planet, or exoplanet, is a planet beyond the Solar System. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek materialist philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace ca. ... Epicure redirects here. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Richard Bentley (January 27, 1662 – July 14, 1742) was an English theologian, Classics scholar and critic. ...


The Italian astronomer Geminiano Montanari recorded observing variations in luminosity of the star Algol in 1667. Edmond Halley published the first measurements of the proper motion of a pair of nearby "fixed" stars, demonstrating that they had changed positions from the time of the ancient Greek astronomers Ptolemy and Hipparchus. The first direct measurement of the distance to a star (61 Cygni at 11.4 light-years) was made in 1838 by Friedrich Bessel using the parallax technique. Parallax measurements demonstrated the vast separation of the stars in the heavens.[10] Geminiano Montanari. ... It has been suggested that ALGOL object code be merged into this article or section. ... Edmond Halley FRS (IPA: ) (November 8, 1656 – January 14, 1742) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. ... The proper motion of a star is the motion of the position of the star in the sky (the change in direction in which we see it, as opposed to the radial velocity) after eliminating the improper motions of the stars, which affect their measured coordinates but are not real... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... For the Athenian tyrant, see Hipparchus (son of Pisistratus). ... 61 Cygni is a star in the constellation Cygnus. ... Alternate cover Tour Edition Cover Light Years is also the American name of the Rene Laloux animated film Gandahar. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (July 22, 1784 – March 17, 1846) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and systematizer of the Bessel functions (which, despite their name, were discovered by Daniel Bernoulli). ... For other uses, see Parallax (disambiguation). ...


William Herschel was the first astronomer to attempt to determine the distribution of stars in the sky. During the 1780s, he performed a series of gauges in 600 directions, and counted the stars observed along each line of sight. From this he deduced that the number of stars steadily increased toward one side of the sky, in the direction of the Milky Way core. His son John Herschel repeated this study in the southern hemisphere and found a corresponding increase in the same direction.[13] In addition to his other accomplishments, William Herschel is also noted for his discovery that some stars do not merely lie along the same line of sight, but are also physical companions that form binary star systems. For other persons named William Herschel, see William Herschel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Milky Way (disambiguation). ... For the series of books, see Galactic Center Saga. ... John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ... For the band, see Binary Star (band). ...


The science of stellar spectroscopy was pioneered by Joseph von Fraunhofer and Angelo Secchi. By comparing the spectra of stars such as Sirius to the Sun, they found differences in the strength and number of their absorption lines—the dark lines in a stellar spectra due to the absorption of specific frequencies by the atmosphere. In 1865 Secchi began classifying stars into spectral types.[14] However, the modern version of the stellar classification scheme was developed by Annie J. Cannon during the 1900s. High resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines). ... Joseph von Fraunhofer Joseph von Fraunhofer (March 6, 1787 – June 7, 1826) was a German physicist. ... Pietro Angelo Secchi (June 18, 1818 – February 26, 1878) was an Italian astronomer. ... This article is about the brightest star in the night sky of Earth. ... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ... In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated spectral characteristics, and subsequently refined in terms of other characteristics. ... Annie Jump Cannon (December 11, 1863 – April 13, 1941) was an American astronomer whose cataloguing work was instrumental in the development of contemporary stellar classification. ...


Observation of double stars gained increasing importance during the 19th century. In 1834, Friedrich Bessel observed changes in the proper motion of the star Sirius, and inferred a hidden companion. Edward Pickering discovered the first spectroscopic binary in 1899 when he observed the periodic splitting of the spectral lines of the star Mizar in a 104 day period. Detailed observations of many binary star systems were collected by astronomers such as William Struve and S. W. Burnham, allowing the masses of stars to be determined from computation of the orbital elements. The first solution to the problem of deriving an orbit of binary stars from telescope observations was made by Felix Savary in 1827.[15] Edward Charles Pickering (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist, brother of William Henry Pickering. ... A spectroscopic binary star is a binary star which cannot be resolved as a visual binary, even with telescopes of the highest existing resolving power. ... Mizar (ζ UMa) is a star in the constellation Ursa Major and is the second star from the end of the Big Dippers handle. ... Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve (1793-1864) Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve (Russian: Vasily Yakovlevich Struve) (April 15, 1793 – November 23, 1864 (Julian calendar: November 11)) was a Baltic-German astronomer from a famous dynasty of astronomers. ... Sherburne Wesley Burnham (December 12, 1838 – March 11, 1921) was an American astronomer. ... The elements of an orbit are the parameters needed to specify that orbit uniquely, given a model of two ideal masses obeying the Newtonian laws of motion and the inverse-square law of gravitational attraction. ...


The twentieth century saw increasingly rapid advances in the scientific study of stars. The photograph became a valuable astronomical tool. Karl Schwarzschild discovered that the color of a star, and hence its temperature, could be determined by comparing the visual magnitude against the photographic magnitude. The development of the photoelectric photometer allowed very precise measurements of magnitude at multiple wavelength intervals. In 1921 Albert A. Michelson made the first measurements of a stellar diameter using an interferometer on the Hooker telescope.[16] For other uses, see Photograph (disambiguation). ... Karl Schwarzschild (October 9, 1873 - May 11, 1916) was a noted German Jewish physicist and astronomer, father of astrophysicist Martin Schwarzschild. ... The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from matter upon the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, such as visible light or ultraviolet radiation. ... In the broadest sense, a photometer is any instrument used to measure illuminance or irradiance. ... His signature. ... Interferometry is the applied science of combining two or more input points of a particular data type, such as optical measurements, to form a greater picture based on the combination of the two sources. ... The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California. ...


Important conceptual work on the physical basis of stars occurred during the first decades of the twentieth century. In 1913, the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram was developed, propelling the astrophysical study of stars. Successful models were developed to explain the interiors of stars and stellar evolution. The spectra of stars were also successfully explained through advances in quantum physics. This allowed the chemical composition of the stellar atmosphere to be determined.[17] The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (usually referred to by the abbreviation H-R diagram or HRD, also known as a Colour-Magnitude diagram, or CMD) shows the relationship between absolute magnitude, luminosity, classification, and effective temperature of stars. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ...


With the exception of supernovae, individual stars have primarily been observed in our Local Group of galaxies,[18] and especially in the visible part of the Milky Way (as demonstrated by the detailed star catalogues available for our galaxy[19]). But some stars have been observed in the M100 galaxy of the Virgo Cluster, about 100 million light years from the Earth.[20] In the Local Supercluster it is possible to see star clusters, and current telescopes could in principle observe faint individual stars in the Local Cluster—the most distant stars resolved have up to hundred million light years away[21] (see Cepheids). However, outside the Local Supercluster of galaxies, neither individual stars nor clusters of stars have been observed. The only exception is a faint image of a large star cluster containing hundreds of thousands of stars located one billion light years away[22]—ten times the distance of the most distant star cluster previously observed. For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ... A member of the Local Group of galaxies, irregular galaxy Sextans A is 4. ... For other uses, see Galaxy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Milky Way (disambiguation). ... A star catalogue, or star catalog, is an astronomical catalog that lists stars. ... A sky field near some of the brighter galaxies in the Virgo cluster. ... The Virgo Supercluster or Local Supercluster is the supercluster of galaxies that contains the Local Group and with it our galaxy, the Milky Way. ... Map of the local group The Local Group is the group of galaxies that includes our galaxy, the Milky Way. ... Cepheid in the Spiral Galaxy M100 A Cepheid variable or Cepheid is a member of a particular class of variable stars, notable for a fairly tight correlation between their period of variability and absolute luminosity. ... The Virgo Supercluster or Local Supercluster is the supercluster of galaxies that contains the Local Group and with it our galaxy, the Milky Way. ...


Star designations

The concept of the constellation was known to exist during the Babylonian period. Ancient sky watchers imagined that prominent arrangements of stars formed patterns, and they associated these with particular aspects of nature or their myths. Twelve of these formations lay along the band of the ecliptic and these became the basis of astrology. Many of the more prominent individual stars were also given names, particularly with Arabic or Latin designations. Designations of stars (and other celestial bodies) are done by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). ... In ancient times, only the Sun and Moon, a few hundred stars and the most easily visible planets had names. ... A star catalogue, or star catalog, is an astronomical catalog that lists stars. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


As well as certain constellations and the Sun itself, stars as a whole have their own myths.[23] They were thought to be the souls of the dead or gods. An example is the star Algol, which was thought to represent the eye of the Gorgon Medusa. For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek mythological monster. ... For other uses, see Medusa (disambiguation). ...


To the Ancient Greeks, some "stars," known as planets (Greek πλανήτης (planētēs), meaning "wanderer"), represented various important deities, from which the names of the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were taken.[23] (Uranus and Neptune were also Greek and Roman gods, but neither planet was known in Antiquity because of their low brightness. Their names were assigned by later astronomers). Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ...


Circa 1600, the names of the constellations were used to name the stars in the corresponding regions of the sky. The German astronomer Johann Bayer created a series of star maps and applied Greek letters as designations to the stars in each constellation. Later the English astronomer John Flamsteed came up with a system using numbers, which would later be known as the Flamsteed designation. Numerous additional systems have since been created as star catalogues have appeared. Johann Bayer (1572 – March 7, 1625) was a German astronomer. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... John Flamsteed - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Flamsteed designations for stars are similar to Bayer designations, except that they use numbers instead of Greek letters. ... A star catalogue, or star catalog, is an astronomical catalog that lists stars. ...


The only body which has been recognized by the scientific community as having the authority to name stars or other celestial bodies is the International Astronomical Union (IAU).[24] A number of private companies (for instance, the "International Star Registry") purport to sell names to stars; however, these names are neither recognized by the scientific community nor used by them,[24] and many in the astronomy community view these organizations as frauds preying on people ignorant of star naming procedure.[25] IAU redirects here. ... ISR Certificate The International Star Registry (ISR) was founded in 1979 and allows people to name a star as a gift or memorial. ...


Units of measurement

Most stellar parameters are expressed in SI units by convention, but CGS units are also used (e.g., expressing luminosity in ergs per second). Mass, luminosity, and radii are usually given in solar units, based on the characteristics of the Sun: “SI” redirects here. ... CGS is an acronym for centimetre-gram-second. ... An erg is the unit of energy and mechanical work in the centimetre-gram-second (CGS) system of units, symbol erg. Its name is derived from the Greek word meaning work. The erg is a small unit, equal to a force of one dyne exerted for a distance of one... This article is about an authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol. ...

solar mass: M_odot = 1.9891 times 10^{30} kg[26]
solar luminosity: L_odot = 3.827 times 10^{26} watts[26]
solar radius: R_odot = 6.960 times 10^{8} m[27]

Large lengths, such as the radius of a giant star or the semi-major axis of a binary star system, are often expressed in terms of the astronomical unit (AU)—approximately the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun (150 million km or 93 million miles). In astronomy, the solar mass is a unit of mass used to express the mass of stars and larger objects such as galaxies. ... Kg redirects here. ... The solar luminosity, , is a unit of luminosity (power emitted in the form of photons) conventionally used by astronomers to give the luminosities of stars. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... In astronomy, the solar radius is a unit of length used to express the size of stars and larger objects such as galaxies. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The semi-major axis of an ellipse In geometry, the term semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ...


Formation and evolution

Main article: Stellar evolution

Stars are formed within molecular clouds; large regions of high density (though still less dense than the inside of an earthly vacuum chamber) in the interstellar medium. These clouds consist mostly of hydrogen, with about 23–28% helium and a few percent heavier elements. One example of such a star-forming nebula is the Orion Nebula.[28] As massive stars are formed from these clouds, they powerfully illuminate and ionize the clouds from which they formed, creating an H II region. Projected timeline of the Suns life In astronomy, stellar evolution is the process by which a star undergoes a sequence of radical changes during its lifetime. ... A molecular cloud is a type of interstellar cloud whose density and size permits the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2). ... A large vacuum chamber. ... The interstellar medium (or ISM) is the name astronomers give to the tenuous gas and dust that pervade interstellar space. ... The Triangulum Emission Nebula NGC 604 The Pillars of Creation from the Eagle Nebula For other uses, see Nebula (disambiguation). ... The Orion Nebula (also known as Messier 42, M42, or NGC 1976) is a diffuse nebula situated south of Orions Belt. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... NGC 604, a giant H II region in the Triangulum Galaxy. ...


Protostar formation

Main article: Star formation

The formation of a star begins with a gravitational instability inside a molecular cloud, often triggered by shockwaves from supernovae (massive stellar explosions) or the collision of two galaxies (as in a starburst galaxy). Once a region reaches a sufficient density of matter to satisfy the criteria for Jeans Instability it begins to collapse under its own gravitational force. Star formation is the process by which dense parts of molecular clouds collapse into a ball of plasma to form a star. ... For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galaxy (disambiguation). ... The Antennae Galaxies are an example of a very high starburst galaxy occurring from the collision of NGC 4038/NGC 4039. ... It has been suggested that Jeans mass be merged into this article or section. ...

Artist's conception of the birth of a star within a dense molecular cloud. NASA image
Artist's conception of the birth of a star within a dense molecular cloud. NASA image

As the cloud collapses, individual conglomerations of dense dust and gas form what are known as Bok globules. These can contain up to 50 solar masses of material. As a globule collapses and the density increases, the gravitational energy is converted into heat and the temperature rises. When the protostellar cloud has approximately reached the stable condition of hydrostatic equilibrium, a protostar forms at the core.[29] These pre-main sequence stars are often surrounded by a protoplanetary disk. The period of gravitational contraction lasts for about 10–15 million years. Image File history File linksMetadata 123107main_image_feature_371_ys_4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 123107main_image_feature_371_ys_4. ... An image of Bok globules in the H II region IC 2944, taken with the WFPC2 instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope A Bok globule is a dark cloud of dense dust and gas in which star formation is sometimes taking place. ... Hydrostatic equilibrium occurs when compression due to gravity is balanced by a pressure gradient which creates a pressure gradient force in the opposite direction. ... A Protostar is an object that forms by contraction out of the gas of a giant molecular cloud in the interstellar medium. ... Pre-main sequence star is a star in the stage when it has not yet reached the main sequence. ... A protoplanetary disc (also protoplanetary disk, proplyd) is an accretion disc surrounding a T Tauri star. ...


Early stars of less than 2 solar masses are called T Tauri stars, while those with greater mass are Herbig Ae/Be stars. These newly-born stars emit jets of gas along their axis of rotation, producing small patches of nebulosity known as Herbig-Haro objects.[30] Drawing of a T-Tauri star with a circumstellar accretion disk T Tauri stars are a class of variable stars named after their prototype - T Tauri. ... Herbig Ae/Be stars are pre-main sequence stars - young (<10Myr) stars of spectral types A and B. They are still embedded in the gas-dust envelopes and may be surrounded by circumstellar disks. ... Herbig-Haro object HH47, imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. ...


Main sequence

Main article: Main sequence

Stars spend about 90% of their lifetime fusing hydrogen to produce helium in high-temperature and high-pressure reactions near the core. Such stars are said to be on the main sequence and are called dwarf stars. Starting at zero-age main sequence, the proportion of helium in a star's core will steadily increase. As a consequence, in order to maintain the required rate of nuclear fusion at the core, the star will slowly increase in temperature and luminosity.[31] The Sun, for example, is estimated to have increased in luminosity by about 40% since it reached the main sequence 4.6 billion years ago.[32] Hertzsprung-Russell diagram The main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is the curve where the majority of stars are located in this diagram. ... Hertzsprung-Russell diagram The main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is the curve where the majority of stars are located in this diagram. ... Hertzsprung-Russell diagram The main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is the curve where the majority of stars are located in this diagram. ...


Every star generates a stellar wind of particles that causes a continual outflow of gas into space. For most stars, the amount of mass lost is negligible. The Sun loses 10−14 solar masses every year,[33] or about 0.01% of its total mass over its entire lifespan. However very massive stars can lose 10−7 to 10−5 solar masses each year, significantly affecting their evolution.[34] Stars that begin with more than 50 solar masses can lose over half their total mass while they remain on the main sequence.[35] A solar wind is a stream of particles (mostly high-energy protons ~ 500 keV) which are ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star (in the case of a star other than the Earths Sun, it may be called a stellar wind instead). ...

An example of a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for a set of stars that includes the Sun (center). (See "Classification" below.)

The duration that a star spends on the main sequence depends primarily on the amount of fuel it has to burn and the rate at which it burns that fuel. In other words, its initial mass and its luminosity. For the Sun, this is estimated to be about 1010 years. Large stars burn their fuel very rapidly and are short-lived. Small stars (called red dwarfs) burn their fuel very slowly and last tens to hundreds of billions of years. At the end of their lives, they simply become dimmer and dimmer.[2] However, since the lifespan of such stars is greater than the current age of the universe (13.7 billion years), no such stars are expected to exist yet. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 534 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (723 × 811 pixel, file size: 26 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram from Richard Powells diagram at http://(remove this, site is blacklisted)anzwers. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 534 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (723 × 811 pixel, file size: 26 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram from Richard Powells diagram at http://(remove this, site is blacklisted)anzwers. ... The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (usually referred to by the abbreviation H-R diagram or HRD, also known as a Colour-Magnitude diagram, or CMD) shows the relationship between absolute magnitude, luminosity, classification, and effective temperature of stars. ... This article is about the British sitcom. ...


Besides mass, the portion of elements heavier than helium can play a significant role in the evolution of stars. In astronomy all elements heavier than helium are considered a "metal", and the chemical concentration of these elements is called the metallicity. The metallicity can influence the duration that a star will burn its fuel, control the formation of magnetic fields[36] and modify the strength of the stellar wind.[37] Older, population II stars have substantially less metallicity than the younger, population I stars due to the composition of the molecular clouds from which they formed. (Over time these clouds become increasingly enriched in heavier elements as older stars die and shed portions of their atmospheres.) For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... The globular cluster M80. ... Stars observed in our galaxy appear to group into two general types called Population I and Population II. (A hypothetical third group, Population III, does not occur in our galaxy. ... Atmosphere may refer to: a celestial body atmosphere, e. ...


Post-main sequence

As stars of at least 0.4 solar masses[2] exhaust their supply of hydrogen at their core, their outer layers expand greatly and cool to form a red giant. For example, in about 5 billion years, when the Sun is a red giant, it will expand out to a maximum radius of roughly 1 AU (150,000,000 km), 250 times its present size. As a giant, the Sun will lose roughly 30% of its current mass.[32][38] According to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a red giant is a large non-main sequence star of stellar classification K or M; so-named because of the reddish appearance of the cooler giant stars. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... “km” redirects here. ...


In a red giant of up to 2.25 solar masses, hydrogen fusion proceeds in a shell-layer surrounding the core.[39] Eventually the core is compressed enough to start helium fusion, and the star now gradually shrinks in radius and increases its surface temperature. For larger stars, the core region transitions directly from fusing hydrogen to fusing helium.[40] Helium fusion is a kind of nuclear fusion, with the nuclei involved being helium. ...


After the star has consumed the helium at the core, fusion continues in a shell around a hot core of carbon and oxygen. The star then follows an evolutionary path that parallels the original red giant phase, but at a higher surface temperature.


Massive stars

Betelgeuse is a red supergiant star approaching the end of its life cycle
Betelgeuse is a red supergiant star approaching the end of its life cycle

During their helium-burning phase, very high mass stars with more than nine solar masses expand to form red supergiants. Once this fuel is exhausted at the core, they can continue to fuse elements heavier than helium. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (950x950, 35 KB) This is the first direct image of a star other than the Sun. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (950x950, 35 KB) This is the first direct image of a star other than the Sun. ... This article is about the star. ... Betelgeuse, viewed from a distance of 8 AU. By comparison, this is our own Sun, and how it would appear when viewed from the same distance. ...


The core contracts until the temperature and pressure are sufficient to fuse carbon (see carbon burning process). This process continues, with the successive stages being fueled by neon (see neon burning process), oxygen (see oxygen burning process), and silicon (see silicon burning process). Near the end of the star's life, fusion can occur along a series of onion-layer shells within the star. Each shell fuses a different element, with the outermost shell fusing hydrogen; the next shell fusing helium, and so forth.[41] For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... The carbon burning process is a nuclear fusion reaction that occurs in massive stars (at least 4 MSun at birth) that have used up the lighter elements in their cores. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... Neon burning process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars (at least 8 MSun). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The oxygen burning process is a nuclear fusion reaction that occurs in massive stars that have used up the lighter elements in their cores. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... In astrophysics, silicon burning is a nuclear fusion reaction which occurs in massive stars. ...


The final stage is reached when the star begins producing iron. Since iron nuclei are more tightly bound than any heavier nuclei, if they are fused they do not release energy—the process would, on the contrary, consume energy. Likewise, since they are more tightly bound than all lighter nuclei, energy cannot be released by fission.[39] In relatively old, very massive stars, a large core of inert iron will accumulate in the center of the star. The heavier elements in these stars can work their way up to the surface, forming evolved objects known as Wolf-Rayet stars that have a dense stellar wind which sheds the outer atmosphere. General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Binding energy is the energy required to disassemble a whole into separate parts. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ... Hubble Space Telescope image of nebula M1-67 around Wolf Rayet star WR 124 Wolf-Rayet stars (often referred to as WR stars) are evolved, massive stars (over 20 solar masses), and are losing their mass rapidly by means of a very strong stellar wind, with speeds up to 2000...


Collapse

An evolved, average-size star will now shed its outer layers as a planetary nebula. If what remains after the outer atmosphere has been shed is less than 1.4 solar masses, it shrinks to a relatively tiny object (about the size of Earth) that is not massive enough for further compression to take place, known as a white dwarf.[42] The electron-degenerate matter inside a white dwarf is no longer a plasma, even though stars are generally referred to as being spheres of plasma. White dwarfs will eventually fade into black dwarfs over a very long stretch of time. NGC 6543, The Cats Eye Nebula NGC 6853, The Dumbbell Nebula A planetary nebula is an astronomical object consisting of a glowing shell of gas and plasma formed by certain types of stars at the end of their lives. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Degenerate matter is matter which has sufficiently high density that the dominant contribution to its pressure arises from the Pauli exclusion principle. ... A black dwarf is a hypothetical astronomical object: a white dwarf so old that it has cooled down so that it no longer emits significant heat or light. ...

The Crab Nebula, remnants of a supernova that was first observed around 1050 AD
The Crab Nebula, remnants of a supernova that was first observed around 1050 AD

In larger stars, fusion continues until the iron core has grown so large (more than 1.4 solar masses) that it can no longer support its own mass. This core will suddenly collapse as its electrons are driven into its protons, forming neutrons and neutrinos in a burst of inverse beta decay, or electron capture. The shockwave formed by this sudden collapse causes the rest of the star to explode in a supernova. Supernovae are so bright that they may briefly outshine the star's entire home galaxy. When they occur within the Milky Way, supernovae have historically been observed by naked-eye observers as "new stars" where none existed before.[43] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2224x2212, 3149 KB) Summary Image: A Giant Hubble Mosaic of the Crab Nebula Source: http://hubblesite. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2224x2212, 3149 KB) Summary Image: A Giant Hubble Mosaic of the Crab Nebula Source: http://hubblesite. ... The Crab Nebula (catalogue designations M 1, NGC 1952, Taurus A) is a supernova remnant in the constellation of Taurus. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ... For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ...


Most of the matter in the star is blown away by the supernovae explosion (forming nebulae such as the Crab Nebula[43]) and what remains will be a neutron star (which sometimes manifests itself as a pulsar or X-ray burster) or, in the case of the largest stars (large enough to leave a stellar remnant greater than roughly 4 solar masses), a black hole.[44] In a neutron star the matter is in a state known as neutron-degenerate matter, with a more exotic form of degenerate matter, QCD matter, possibly present in the core. Within a black hole the matter is in a state that is not currently understood. For the story by Larry Niven, see Neutron Star (story). ... It has been suggested that Radio pulsar be merged into this article or section. ... X-ray bursters are a class of binary stars which have periodic outbursts luminous in X-rays. ... For other uses, see Black hole (disambiguation). ... Degenerate matter is matter which has sufficiently high density that the dominant contribution to its pressure arises from the Pauli exclusion principle. ... Quark matter or QCD matter refers to any of a number of phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons. ...


The blown-off outer layers of dying stars include heavy elements which may be recycled during new star formation. These heavy elements allow the formation of rocky planets. The outflow from supernovae and the stellar wind of large stars play an important part in shaping the interstellar medium.[43]


Distribution

A white dwarf star in orbit around Sirius (artist's impression). NASA image
A white dwarf star in orbit around Sirius (artist's impression). NASA image

In addition to isolated stars, a multi-star system can consist of two or more gravitationally bound stars that orbit around each other. The most common multi-star system is a binary star, but systems of three or more stars are also found. For reasons of orbital stability, such multi-star systems are often organized into hierarchical sets of co-orbiting binary stars.[45] Larger groups called star clusters also exist. These range from loose stellar associations with only a few stars, up to enormous globular clusters with hundreds of thousands of stars. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4000x3000, 2379 KB) Summary An Artists Impression of Sirius A and Sirius B Source: http://hubblesite. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4000x3000, 2379 KB) Summary An Artists Impression of Sirius A and Sirius B Source: http://hubblesite. ... Artists impression of the orbits of HD 188753, a triple star system A multiple star consists of three or more stars which appear from the Earth to be close to one another. ... For the band, see Binary Star (band). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A stellar association is a very loose star cluster, looser than both open clusters and globular clusters. ... A globular cluster is a spherical bundle of stars (star cluster) that orbits a galaxy as a satellite. ...


It has been a long-held assumption that the majority of stars occur in gravitationally bound, multiple-star systems. This is particularly true for very massive O and B class stars, where 80% of the systems are believed to be multiple. However the portion of single star systems increases for smaller stars, so that only 25% of red dwarfs are known to have stellar companions. As 85% of all stars are red dwarfs, most stars in the Milky Way are likely single from birth.[46]


Stars are not spread uniformly across the universe, but are normally grouped into galaxies along with interstellar gas and dust. A typical galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars, and there are more than 100 billion (1011) galaxies in the observable universe.[47] While it is often believed that stars only exist within galaxies, intergalactic stars have been discovered.[48] Astronomers estimate that there are at least 70 sextillion (7×1022) stars in the observable universe.[49] That is 230 billion times as many as the 300 billion in the Milky Way. See universe for a general discussion of the universe. ... Main article: Names of large numbers A sextillion is a number written as either: a 1 followed by 21 zeros (10 to the 21st power, as used in the short scale system of numeration. ...


The nearest star to the Earth, apart from the Sun, is Proxima Centauri, which is 39.9 trillion (1012) kilometres, or 4.2 light-years away. Light from Proxima Centauri takes 4.2 years to reach Earth. Travelling at the orbital speed of the Space Shuttle (5 miles per second—almost 30,000 kilometres per hour), it would take about 150,000 years to get there.[50] Distances like this are typical inside galactic discs, including in the vicinity of the solar system.[51] Stars can be much closer to each other in the centres of galaxies and in globular clusters, or much farther apart in galactic halos. Proxima Centauri (Latin proximus, -a, -um: meaning next to or nearest to)[4] is a red dwarf star that is likely a part of the Alpha Centauri star system and is the nearest star to the Sun at a distance of 4. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... The most common form of galxy is the butt plug of doom A disc is a component of disc galaxies, such as spiral galaxies, or lenticular galaxies. ... The Globular Cluster M80 in the constellation Scorpius is located about 28,000 light years from the Sun and contains hundreds of thousands of stars. ... Spiral galaxies have a typical structure related to their history. ...


Due to the relatively vast distances between stars outside the galactic nucleus, collisions between stars are thought to be rare. In denser regions such as the core of globular clusters or the galactic center, collisions can be more common.[52] Such collisions can produce what are known as blue stragglers. These abnormal stars have a higher surface temperature than the other main sequence stars with the same luminosity in the cluster .[53] Blue stragglers are stars in open or globular clusters that are hotter and bluer than other cluster stars having the same luminosity. ...


Characteristics

The Sun is the nearest star to Earth
The Sun is the nearest star to Earth

Almost everything about a star is determined by its initial mass, including essential characteristics such as luminosity and size, as well as the star's evolution, lifespan, and eventual fate. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 38 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 38 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Age

Most stars are between 1 billion and 10 billion years old. Some stars may even be close to 13.7 billion years old—the observed age of the universe. The oldest star yet discovered, HE 1523-0901, is an estimated 13.2 billion years old.[54] This box:      This article is about scientific estimates of the age of the universe. ... HE 1523-0901 is the designation given to a red giant star located in the Milky Way galaxy. ...


The more massive the star, the shorter its lifespan, primarily because massive stars have greater pressure on their cores, causing them to burn hydrogen more rapidly. The most massive stars last an average of about one million years, while stars of minimum mass (red dwarfs) burn their fuel very slowly and last tens to hundreds of billions of years.[55][56]


Chemical composition

See also: Metallicity

When stars form they are composed of about 70% hydrogen and 28% helium, as measured by mass, with a small fraction of heavier elements. Typically the portion of heavy elements is measured in terms of the iron content of the stellar atmosphere, as iron is a common element and its absorption lines are relatively easy to measure. Because the molecular clouds where stars form are steadily enriched by heavier elements from supernovae explosions, a measurement of the chemical composition of a star can be used to infer its age.[57] The portion of heavier elements may also be an indicator of the likelihood that the star has a planetary system.[58] The globular cluster M80. ...


The star with the lowest iron content ever measured is the dwarf HE1327-2326, with only 1/200,000th the iron content of the Sun.[59] By contrast, the super-metal-rich star μ Leonis has nearly double the abundance of iron as the Sun, while the planet-bearing star 14 Herculis has nearly triple the iron.[60] There also exist chemically peculiar stars that show unusual abundances of certain elements in their spectrum; especially chromium and rare earth elements.[61] Mu Leonis (μ Leo / μ Leonis) is a star in the constellation Leo. ... 14 Herculis is an orange dwarf star approximately 59 light-years away in the constellation Hercules. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... Rare earth ore Rare earth elements and rare earth metals are trivial names sometimes applied to a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides. ...


Diameter

Due to their great distance from the Earth, all stars except the Sun appear to the human eye as shining points in the night sky that twinkle because of the effect of the Earth's atmosphere. The Sun is also a star, but it is close enough to the Earth to appear as a disk instead, and to provide daylight. Other than the Sun, the star with the largest apparent size is R Doradus, with an angular diameter of only 0.057 arcseconds.[62] Scintillation or twinkling are generic terms for rapid variations in apparent brightness or color of a distant luminous object viewed through the atmosphere. ... R Doradus is the name for a supergiant star in the constellation Dorado. ... A second of arc or arcsecond is a unit of angular measurement which comprises one-sixtieth of an arcminute, or 1/3600 of a degree of arc or 1/1296000 ≈ 7. ...


The disks of most stars are much too small in angular size to be observed with current ground-based optical telescopes, and so interferometer telescopes are required in order to produce images of these objects. Another technique for measuring the angular size of stars is through occultation. By precisely measuring the drop in brightness of a star as it is occulted by the Moon (or the rise in brightness when it reappears), the star's angular diameter can be computed.[63] Angular size is a measurement of how large or small something is using rotational measurement (degrees of arc, arc_minutes, and arc-seconds). ... Interferometry is the applied science of combining two or more input points of a particular data type, such as optical measurements, to form a greater picture based on the combination of the two sources. ... In this July, 1997 still frame captured from video, the bright star Aldebaran has just reappeared on the dark limb of the waning crescent moon in this predawn occultation. ... This article is about Earths moon. ...


Stars range in size from neutron stars, which vary anywhere from 20 to 40 km in diameter, to supergiants like Betelgeuse in the Orion constellation, which has a diameter approximately 650 times larger than the Sun—about 0.9 billion kilometres. However, Betelgeuse has a much lower density than the Sun.[64] Supergiants are the most massive stars. ... This article is about the star. ... Orion, a constellation often referred to as The Hunter, is a prominent constellation, perhaps the best-known in the sky. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ...


Kinematics

The motion of a star relative to the Sun can provide useful information about the origin and age of a star, as well as the structure and evolution of the surrounding galaxy. The components of motion of a star consist of the radial velocity toward or away from the Sun, and the traverse angular movement, which is called its proper motion. Radial velocity is the velocity of an object in the direction of the line of sight. ... The proper motion of a star is the motion of the position of the star in the sky (the change in direction in which we see it, as opposed to the radial velocity) after eliminating the improper motions of the stars, which affect their measured coordinates but are not real...


Radial velocity is measured by the doppler shift of the star's spectral lines, and is given in units of km/s. The proper motion of a star is determined by precise astrometric measurements in units of milli-arc seconds (mas) per year. By determining the parallax of a star, the proper motion can then be converted into units of velocity. Stars with high rates of proper motion are likely to be relatively close to the Sun, making them good candidates for parallax measurements.[65] The Doppler effect is the apparent change in frequency or wavelength of a wave that is perceived by an observer moving relative to the source of the waves. ... “km” redirects here. ... This article is about the unit of time. ... A second of arc or arcsecond is a unit of angular measurement which comprises one-sixtieth of an arcminute, or 1/3600 of a degree of arc or 1/1296000 ≈ 7. ...


Once both rates of movement are known, the space velocity of the star relative to the Sun or the galaxy can be computed. Among nearby stars, it has been found that population I stars have generally lower velocities than older, population II stars. The latter have elliptical orbits that are inclined to the plane of the galaxy.[66] Comparison of the kinematics of nearby stars has also led to the identification of stellar associations. These are most likely groups of stars that share a common point of origin in giant molecular clouds. [67] // The space velocity of a star is its velocity relative to the Sun or the Local standard of rest. ... A stellar association is a very loose star cluster, looser than both open clusters and globular clusters. ...


Magnetic field

Surface magnetic field of SU Aur (a young star of T Tauri type), reconstructed by means of Zeeman-Doppler imaging
Surface magnetic field of SU Aur (a young star of T Tauri type), reconstructed by means of Zeeman-Doppler imaging

The magnetic field of a star is generated within regions of the interior where convective circulation occurs. This movement of conductive plasma functions like a dynamo, generating magnetic fields that extend throughout the star. The strength of the magnetic field varies with the mass and composition of the star, and the amount of magnetic surface activity depends upon the star's rate of rotation. This surface activity produces starspots, which are regions of strong magnetic fields and lower than normal surface temperatures. Coronal loops are arching magnetic fields that reach out into the corona from active regions. Stellar flares are bursts of high-energy particles that are emitted due to the same magnetic activity.[68] The magnetic field of the Sun is driving this massive ejection of plasma. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Drawing of a T-Tauri star with a circumstellar accretion disk T Tauri stars are a class of variable stars named after their prototype - T Tauri. ... Surface magnetic field of SU Aur (a young star of T Tauri type), reconstructed by means of Zeeman-Doppler Imaging In astrophysics, Zeeman-Doppler Imaging is a tomographic technique dedicated to the cartography of stellar magnetic fields. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... The Dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as the Earth generates a magnetic field. ... 400 year sunspot history A sunspot is a region on the Suns surface (photosphere) that is marked by a lower temperature than its surroundings, and intense magnetic activity. ... Typical coronal loops observed by TRACE Coronal loops form the basic structure of the lower corona and transition region of the Sun. ... A solar flare observed by Hinode in the G-band. ...


Young, rapidly rotating stars tend to have high levels of surface activity because of their magnetic field. The magnetic field can act upon a star's stellar wind, however, functioning as a brake to gradually slow the rate of rotation as the star grows older. Thus, older stars such as the Sun have a much slower rate of rotation and a lower level of surface activity. The activity levels of slowly-rotating stars tend to vary in a cyclical manner and can shut down altogether for periods.[69] During the Maunder minimum, for example, the Sun underwent a 70-year period with almost no sunspot activity. The Maunder minimum in a 400 year history of sunspot numbers The Maunder Minimum is the name given to the period roughly from 1645 to 1715 A.D., when sunspots became exceedingly rare, as noted by solar observers of the time. ...


Mass

One of the most massive stars known is Eta Carinae,[70] with 100–150 times as much mass as the Sun; its lifespan is very short—only several million years at most. A recent study of the Arches cluster suggests that 150 solar masses is the upper limit for stars in the current era of the universe.[71] The reason for this limit is not precisely known, but it is partially due to the Eddington luminosity which defines the maximum amount of luminosity that can pass through the atmosphere of a star without ejecting the gases into space. Eta Carinae (η Carinae or η Car) is a highly luminous hypergiant double star. ... // The Arches Cluster is the most densest star cluster in the Milky Way. ... Eddington luminosity (sometimes also called the Eddington limit) is the largest luminosity that can pass through a layer of gas in hydrostatic equilibrium, supposing spherical symmetry. ...

The reflection nebula NGC 1999 is brilliantly illuminated by V380 Orionis (center), a variable star with about 3.5 times the mass of the Sun. NASA image
The reflection nebula NGC 1999 is brilliantly illuminated by V380 Orionis (center), a variable star with about 3.5 times the mass of the Sun. NASA image

The first stars to form after the Big Bang may have been larger, up to 300 solar masses or more,[72] due to the complete absence of elements heavier than lithium in their composition. This generation of supermassive, population III stars is long extinct, however, and currently only theoretical. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1563x1590, 1159 KB) Source: http://hubblesite. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1563x1590, 1159 KB) Source: http://hubblesite. ... The Witch Head reflection nebula (IC2118), about 1000 light years from earth, is associated with the bright star Rigel in the constellation Orion. ... NGC, courtesy of NASA NGC 1999 is a dust filled bright nebula. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Population III stars are a hypothetical population of extremely massive stars that are believed to have been formed in the early universe. ...


With a mass only 93 times that of Jupiter, AB Doradus C, a companion to AB Doradus A, is the smallest known star undergoing nuclear fusion in its core.[73] For stars with similar metallicity to the Sun, the theoretical minimum mass the star can have, and still undergo fusion at the core, is estimated to be about 75 times the mass of Jupiter.[74][75] When the metallicity is very low, however, a recent study of the faintest stars found that the minimum star size seems to be about 8.3% of the solar mass, or about 87 times the mass of Jupiter.[76][75] Smaller bodies are called brown dwarfs, which occupy a poorly-defined grey area between stars and gas giants. Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... AB Doradus is a pre-main sequence trinary star system in the constellation Dorado. ... This brown dwarf (smaller object) orbits the star Gliese 229, which is located in the constellation Lepus about 19 light years from Earth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The combination of the radius and the mass of a star determines the surface gravity. Giant stars have a much lower surface gravity than main sequence stars, while the opposite is the case for degenerate, compact stars such as white dwarfs. The surface gravity can influence the appearance of a star's spectrum, with higher gravity causing a broadening of the absorption lines.[17] A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ...


Rotation

Main article: Stellar rotation

The rotation rate of stars can be approximated through spectroscopic measurement, or more exactly determined by tracking the rotation rate of starspots. Young stars can have a rapid rate of rotation greater than 100 km/s at the equator. The B-class star Achernar, for example, has an equatorial rotation velocity of about 225 km/s or greater, giving it an equatorial diameter that is more than 50% larger than the distance between the poles. This rate of rotation is just below the critical velocity of 300 km/s where the star would break apart.[77] By contrast, the Sun only rotates once every 25 – 35 days, with an equatorial velocity of 1.994 km/s. The star's magnetic field and the stellar wind serve to slow down a main sequence star's rate of rotation by a significant amount as it evolves on the main sequence.[78] This illustration shows the oblate appearance of the star Achernar caused by rapid rotation. ... Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism. ... 400 year sunspot history A sunspot is a region on the Suns surface (photosphere) that is marked by a lower temperature than its surroundings, and intense magnetic activity. ... The position of Achernar Achernar (α Eri / α Eridani / Alpha Eridani) is the brightest star in the constellation Eridanus and the ninth brightest star in the nighttime sky. ... Hertzsprung-Russell diagram The main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is the curve where the majority of stars are located in this diagram. ...


Degenerate stars have contracted into a compact mass, resulting in a rapid rate of rotation. However they have relatively low rates of rotation compared to what would be expected by conservation of angular momentum—the tendency of a rotating body to compensate for a contraction in size by increasing its rate of spin. A large portion of the star's angular momentum is dissipated as a result of mass loss through the stellar wind.[79] In spite of this, the rate of rotation for a pulsar can be very rapid. The pulsar at the heart of the Crab nebula, for example, rotates 30 times per second.[80] The rotation rate of the pulsar will gradually slow due to the emission of radiation. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Compact star. ... This gyroscope remains upright while spinning due to its angular momentum. ... The Crab Nebula (catalogue designations M 1, NGC 1952, Taurus A) is a supernova remnant in the constellation of Taurus. ...


Temperature

The surface temperature of a main sequence star is determined by the rate of energy production at the core and the radius of the star and is often estimated from the star's color index.[81] It is normally given as the effective temperature, which is the temperature of an idealized black body that radiates its energy at the same luminosity per surface area as the star. Note that the effective temperature is only a representative value, however, as stars actually have a temperature gradient that decreases with increasing distance from the core.[82] The temperature in the core region of a star is several million kelvins.[83] In astronomy, the color index is a simple numerical expression that determines the color of an object, which in the case of a star gives its temperature. ... The effective temperature of a star is the temperature of a black body with the same luminosity (L) as the star and is defined according to the Stefan-Boltzman law L = sigma T_{eff}^{4}. The effective temperature of our Sun is around 5,800 kelvins (K) and correspond to... As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ...


The stellar temperature will determine the rate of energization or ionization of different elements, resulting in characteristic absorption lines in the spectrum. The surface temperature of a star, along with its visual absolute magnitude and absorption features, is used to classify a star (see classification below).[17] In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance away from us, in the absence of interstellar extinction. ...


Massive main sequence stars can have surface temperatures of 50,000 K. Smaller stars such as the Sun have surface temperatures of a few thousand degrees. Red giants have relatively low surface temperatures of about 3,600 K, but they also have a high luminosity due to their large exterior surface area.[84] For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ...


Radiation

The energy produced by stars, as a by-product of nuclear fusion, radiates into space as both electromagnetic radiation and particle radiation. The particle radiation emitted by a star is manifested as the stellar wind[85] (which exists as a steady stream of electrically charged particles, such as free protons, alpha particles, and beta particles, emanating from the star’s outer layers) and as a steady stream of neutrinos emanating from the star’s core. This box:      Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is a self-propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ... Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of small fast-moving particles that have energy and mass. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... Alpha radiation consists of helium nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ...


The production of energy at the core is the reason why stars shine so brightly: every time two or more atomic nuclei of one element fuse together to form an atomic nucleus of a new heavier element, gamma ray photons are released from the nuclear fusion reaction. This energy is converted to other forms of electromagnetic energy, including visible light, by the time it reaches the star’s outer layers. The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... Electrical energy or Electromagnetic energy is a form of energy present in any electric field or magnetic field, or in any volume containing electromagnetic radiation. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ...


The color of a star, as determined by the peak frequency of the visible light, depends on the temperature of the star’s outer layers, including its photosphere.[86] Besides visible light, stars also emit forms of electromagnetic radiation that are invisible to the human eye. In fact, stellar electromagnetic radiation spans the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from the longest wavelengths of radio waves and infrared to the shortest wavelengths of ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays. All components of stellar electromagnetic radiation, both visible and invisible, are typically significant. Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... Solar disk redirects here. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... Although some radiations are marked as N for no in the diagram, some waves do in fact penetrate the atmosphere, although extremely minimally compared to the other radiations The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is the range of all possible electromagnetic radiation. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


Using the stellar spectrum, astronomers can also determine the surface temperature, surface gravity, metallicity and rotational velocity of a star. If the distance of the star is known, such as by measuring the parallax, then the luminosity of the star can be derived. The mass, radius, surface gravity, and rotation period can then be estimated based on stellar models. (Mass can be measured directly for stars in binary systems. The technique of gravitational microlensing will also yield the mass of a star.[87]) With these parameters, astronomers can also estimate the age of the star.[88] High resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines). ... The surface gravity of a Killing horizon is the acceleration, as exerted at infinity, needed to keep an object at the horizon. ... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... A binary system is an astronomy term referring to two objects in space, usually stars, which are so close that their gravitational forces attract one another into a mutual orbit. ... Gravitational microlensing is an astronomical technique used to detect planets - stellar mass objects in space using the gravitational lens effect. ...


Luminosity

In astronomy, luminosity is the amount of light, and other forms of radiant energy, a star radiates per unit of time. The luminosity of a star is determined by the radius and the surface temperature. However, many stars do not radiate a uniform flux—the amount of energy radiated per unit area—across their entire surface. The rapidly-rotating star Vega, for example, has a higher energy flux at its poles than along its equator.[89] For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Light (a form of radiant energy) observed in a forest Radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic waves, or sometimes of other forms of radiation. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... flux in science and mathematics. ... For other uses, see Vega (disambiguation). ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ...


Surface patches with a lower temperature and luminosity than average are known as starspots. Small, dwarf stars such as the Sun generally have essentially featureless disks with only small starspots. Larger, giant stars have much bigger, much more obvious starspots,[90] and they also exhibit strong stellar limb darkening. That is, the brightness decreases towards the edge of the stellar disk.[91] Red dwarf flare stars such as UV Ceti may also possess prominent starspot features.[92] For other uses, see Sunspot (disambiguation). ... The limb darkened Sun - An image of the Sun in visible light showing the limb darkening effect as a drop in intensity towards the edge or limb of the solar disk. ... A flare star is a variable star which can undergo unpredictable dramatic increases in brightness for a few minutes or a few hours. ... Luyten 726-8 is a binary star system that is one of Earths nearest neighbors. ...


Magnitude

The apparent brightness of a star is measured by its apparent magnitude, which is the brightness of a star with respect to the star’s luminosity, distance from Earth, and the altering of the star’s light as it passes through Earth’s atmosphere. Intrinsic or absolute magnitude is what the apparent magnitude a star would be if the distance between the Earth and the star were 10 parsecs (32.6 light-years), and it is directly related to a star’s luminosity. The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance away from us, in the absence of interstellar extinction. ... Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to emit a given amount of light. ... Measurement is the estimation of the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to a unit of measurement. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ...

Number of stars brighter than magnitude
Apparent
magnitude
Number 
of Stars[93]
0 4
1 15
2 48
3 171
4 513
5 1,602
6 4,800
7 14,000

Both the apparent and absolute magnitude scales are logarithmic units: one whole number difference in magnitude is equal to a brightness variation of about 2.5 times[94] (the 5th root of 100 or approximately 2.512). This means that a first magnitude (+1.00) star is about 2.5 times brighter than a second magnitude (+2.00) star, and approximately 100 times brighter than a sixth magnitude (+6.00) star. The faintest stars visible to the naked eye under good seeing conditions are about magnitude +6. Logarithmic units are generic mathematical units in which we can express any quantities (physical or mathematical) that are defined as being proportional to values of a logarithm function. ... In mathematics, an nth root of a number a is a number b such that bn=a. ...


On both apparent and absolute magnitude scales, the smaller the magnitude number, the brighter the star; the larger the magnitude number, the fainter. The brightest stars, on either scale, have negative magnitude numbers. The variation in brightness between two stars is calculated by subtracting the magnitude number of the brighter star (mb) from the magnitude number of the fainter star (mf), then using the difference as an exponent for the base number 2.512; that is to say:

Δm = mfmb
2.512Δm = variation in brightness

Relative to both luminosity and distance from Earth, absolute magnitude (M) and apparent magnitude (m) are not equivalent for an individual star;[94] for example, the bright star Sirius has an apparent magnitude of −1.44, but it has an absolute magnitude of +1.41.


The Sun has an apparent magnitude of −26.7, but its absolute magnitude is only +4.83. Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky as seen from Earth, is approximately 23 times more luminous than the Sun, while Canopus, the second brightest star in the night sky with an absolute magnitude of −5.53, is approximately 14,000 times more luminous than the Sun. Despite Canopus being vastly more luminous than Sirius, however, Sirius appears brighter than Canopus. This is because Sirius is merely 8.6 light-years from the Earth, while Canopus is much farther away at a distance of 310 light-years. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


As of 2006, the star with the highest known absolute magnitude is LBV 1806-20, with a magnitude of −14.2. This star is at least 5,000,000 times more luminous than the Sun.[95] The least luminous stars that are currently known are located in the NGC 6397 cluster. The faintest red dwarfs in the cluster were magnitude 26, while a 28th magnitude white dwarf was also discovered. These faint stars are so dim that their light is as bright as a birthday candle on the Moon when viewed from the Earth.[96] LBV 1806-20 is a possible binary star located 30,000–49,000 light years from our Sun, toward the center of the galaxy. ... Globular Cluster NGC 6397 (also known as NGC 6397) is a globular cluster in the Ara constellation. ...


Classification

Surface Temperature Ranges for
Different Stellar Classes
[97]
Class Temperature Sample star
O 33,000 K or more Zeta Ophiuchi
B 10,500–30,000 K Rigel
A 7,500–10,000 K Altair
F 6,000–7,200 K Procyon A
G 5,500–6,000 K Sun
K 4,000–5,250 K Epsilon Indi
M 2,600–3,850 K Proxima Centauri

There are different classifications of stars according to their spectra ranging from type O, which are very hot, to M, which are so cool that molecules may form in their atmospheres. The main classifications in order of decreasing surface temperature are O, B, A, F, G, K, and M. A variety of rare spectral types have special classifications. The most common of these are types L and T, which classify the coldest low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Zeta Ophiuchi (ζ Oph / ζ Ophiuchi) is a star located in the constellation of Ophiuchus. ... Rigel (pronounced ) (β Orionis) is the brightest star in the constellation Orion and the seventh brightest star in the sky, with visual magnitude 0. ... Altair (α Aql / α Aquilae / Alpha Aquilae / Atair ) is the brightest star in the constellation Aquila and the twelfth brightest star in the nighttime sky, at visual magnitude 0. ... Procyon (α CMi / α Canis Minoris / Alpha Canis Minoris) is the brightest star in the constellation Canis Minor and the eighth brightest star in the nighttime sky. ... Sol redirects here. ... Epsilon Indi (ε Ind / ε Indi) is a star approximately 11. ... Proxima Centauri (Latin proximus, -a, -um: meaning next to or nearest to)[4] is a red dwarf star that is likely a part of the Alpha Centauri star system and is the nearest star to the Sun at a distance of 4. ... In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated spectral characteristics, and subsequently refined in terms of other characteristics. ...


Each letter has 10 sub-classifications numbered (hottest to coldest) from 0 to 9. This system matches closely with temperature, but breaks down at the extreme hottest end; class O0 and O1 stars may not exist.[98]


In addition, stars may be classified by the luminosity effects found in their spectral lines, which correspond to their spatial size and is determined by the surface gravity. These range from 0 (hypergiants) through III (giants) to V (main sequence dwarfs) and VII (white dwarfs). Most stars belong to the main sequence, which consists of ordinary hydrogen-burning stars. These fall along a narrow band when graphed according to their absolute magnitude and spectral type.[98] Our Sun is a main sequence G2V (yellow dwarf), being of intermediate temperature and ordinary size. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Giant star is a star that has stopped fusing hydrogen in its core. ... Hertzsprung-Russell diagram The main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is the curve where the majority of stars are located in this diagram. ...


Additional nomenclature, in the form of lower-case letters, can follow the spectral type to indicate peculiar features of the spectrum. For example, an "e" can indicate the presence of emission lines; "m" represents unusually strong levels of metals, and "var" can mean variations in the spectral type.[98]


White dwarf stars have their own class that begins with the letter D. This is further sub-divided into the classes DA, DB, DC, DO, DZ, and DQ, depending on the types of prominent lines found in the spectrum. This is followed by a numerical value that indicates the temperature index.[99]


Variable stars

Main article: Variable star
The asymmetrical appearance of Mira, an oscillating variable star. NASA HST image
The asymmetrical appearance of Mira, an oscillating variable star. NASA HST image

Variable stars have periodic or random changes in luminosity because of intrinsic or extrinsic properties. Of the intrinsically variable stars, the primary types can be subdivided into three principal groups. This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed. ... Image File history File links Mira_1997. ... Image File history File links Mira_1997. ... For other uses, see Mira (disambiguation). ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST; also known colloquially as the Hubble or just Hubble) is a space telescope that was carried into Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in April 1990. ...


During their stellar evolution, some stars pass through phases where they can become pulsating variables. Pulsating variable stars vary in radius and luminosity over time, expanding and contracting with periods ranging from minutes to years, depending on the size of the star. This category includes Cepheid and cepheid-like stars, and long-period variables such as Mira.[100] Cepheid in the Spiral Galaxy M100 A Cepheid variable or Cepheid is a member of a particular class of variable stars, notable for a fairly tight correlation between their period of variability and absolute luminosity. ... Mira variables, named after the star Mira (IPA: ), are a class of pulsating variable stars characterized by very red colors, pulsation periods longer than 100 days, and light amplitudes greater than one magnitude. ...


Eruptive variables are stars that experience sudden increases in luminosity because of flares or mass ejection events.[100] This group includes protostars, Wolf-Rayet stars, and Flare stars, as well as giant and supergiant stars. A flare star is a variable star which can undergo unpredictable dramatic increases in brightness for a few minutes or a few hours. ...


Cataclysmic or explosive variables undergo a dramatic change in their properties. This group includes novae and supernovae. A binary star system that includes a nearby white dwarf can produce certain types of these spectacular stellar explosions, including the nova and a Type 1a supernova.[4] The explosion is created when the white dwarf accretes hydrogen from the companion star, building up mass until the hydrogen undergoes fusion.[101] Some novae are also recurrent, having periodic outbursts of moderate amplitude.[100] Artists conception of a white dwarf star accreting hydrogen from a larger companion A nova (pl. ...


Stars can also vary in luminosity because of extrinsic factors, such as eclipsing binaries, as well as rotating stars that produce extreme starspots.[100] A notable example of an eclipsing binary is Algol, which regularly varies in magnitude from 2.3 to 3.5 over a period of 2.87 days.


Structure

Main article: Stellar structure

The interior of a stable star is in a state of hydrostatic equilibrium: the forces on any small volume almost exactly counterbalance each other. The balanced forces are inward gravitational force and an outward force due to the pressure gradient within the star. The pressure gradient is established by the temperature gradient of the plasma; the outer part of the star is cooler than the core. The temperature at the core of a main sequence or giant star is at least on the order of 107 K. The resulting temperature and pressure at the hydrogen-burning core of a main sequence star are sufficient for nuclear fusion to occur and for sufficient energy to be produced to prevent further collapse of the star.[102][103] The simplest commonly used model of stellar structure is the spherically symmetric quasi-static model, which assumes that a star is very close to an equilibrium state, and that it is spherically symmetric. ... Hydrostatic equilibrium occurs when compression due to gravity is balanced by a pressure gradient which creates a pressure gradient force in the opposite direction. ... For other uses, see Gradient (disambiguation). ... Pressure Gradient is the change in pressure over a distance. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing sustainable fusion power. ...


As atomic nuclei are fused in the core, they emit energy in the form of gamma rays. These photons interact with the surrounding plasma, adding to the thermal energy at the core. Stars on the main sequence convert hydrogen into helium, creating a slowly but steadily increasing proportion of helium in the core. Eventually the helium content becomes predominant and energy production ceases at the core. Instead, for stars of more than 0.4 solar masses, fusion occurs in a slowly expanding shell around the degenerate helium core.[104] This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ...


In addition to hydrostatic equilibrium, the interior of a stable star will also maintain an energy balance of thermal equilibrium. There is a radial temperature gradient throughout the interior that results in a flux of energy flowing toward the exterior. The outgoing flux of energy leaving any layer within the star will exactly match the incoming flux from below. In thermodynamics, a thermodynamic system is in thermodynamic equilibrium if its energy distribution equals a Maxwell-Boltzmann-distribution. ...

This diagram shows a cross-section of a solar-type star. NASA image
This diagram shows a cross-section of a solar-type star. NASA image

The radiation zone is the region within the stellar interior where radiative transfer is sufficiently efficient to maintain the flux of energy. In this region the plasma will not be perturbed and any mass motions will die out. If this is not the case, however, then the plasma becomes unstable and convection will occur, forming a convection zone. This can occur, for example, in regions where very high energy fluxes occur, such as near the core or in areas with high opacity as in the outer envelope.[103] Image File history File links Sun_parts_big. ... Image File history File links Sun_parts_big. ... The radiation zone is the middle zone in the Suns interior. ... The convection zone is a region of a stars interior where energy is transferred toward the surface by convection currents, rather than energetic photons. ... A substance or object that is opaque is neither transparent nor translucent. ...


The occurrence of convection in the outer envelope of a main sequence star depends on the mass. Stars with several times the mass of the Sun have a convection zone deep within the interior and a radiative zone in the outer layers. Smaller stars such as the Sun are just the opposite, with the convective zone located in the outer layers.[105] Red dwarf stars with less than 0.4 solar masses are convective throughout, which prevents the accumulation of a helium core.[2] For most stars the convective zones will also vary over time as the star ages and the constitution of the interior is modified.[103]


The portion of a star that is visible to an observer is called the photosphere. This is the layer at which the plasma of the star becomes transparent to photons of light. From here, the energy generated at the core becomes free to propagate out into space. It is within the photosphere that sun spots, or regions of lower than average temperature, appear. Solar disk redirects here. ... 400 year sunspot history A sunspot is a region on the Suns surface (photosphere) that is marked by a lower temperature than its surroundings, and intense magnetic activity. ...


Above the level of the photosphere is the stellar atmosphere. In a main sequence star such as the Sun, the lowest level of the atmosphere is the thin chromosphere region, where spicules appear and stellar flares begin. This is surrounded by a transition region, where the temperature rapidly increases within a distance of only 100 km. Beyond this is the corona, a volume of super-heated plasma that can extend outward to several million kilometres.[106] The existence of a corona appears to be dependent on a convective zone in the outer layers of the star.[105] Despite its high temperature, the corona emits very little light. The corona region of the Sun is normally only visible during a solar eclipse. Photo taken during the French 1999 eclipse The stellar atmosphere is the outer region of the volume of a star, lying above the stellar core, radiation zone and convection zone. ... The chromosphere (literally, color sphere) is a thin layer of the Suns atmosphere just above the photosphere, roughly 10,000 kilometers deep (approximating to, if a little less than, the diameter of the Earth). ... A spicule is a dynamic jet of about 500km diameter on the Sun. ... A solar flare observed by Hinode in the G-band. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ...


From the corona, a stellar wind of plasma particles expands outward from the star, propagating until it interacts with the interstellar medium. For the Sun, the influence of its solar wind extends throughout the bubble-shaped region of the heliosphere.[107] A solar wind is a stream of particles (mostly high-energy protons ~ 500 keV) which are ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star (in the case of a star other than the Earths Sun, it may be called a stellar wind instead). ... The interstellar medium (or ISM) is the name astronomers give to the tenuous gas and dust that pervade interstellar space. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... The heliosphere is a bubble in space produced by the solar wind. ...


Nuclear fusion reaction pathways

Overview of the proton-proton chain
Overview of the proton-proton chain
The carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle
The carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle

A variety of different nuclear fusion reactions take place inside the cores of stars, depending upon their mass and composition, as part of stellar nucleosynthesis. The net mass of the fused atomic nuclei is smaller than the sum of the constituents. This lost mass is converted into energy, according to the mass-energy equivalence relationship E = mc².[1] Cross section of a red giant showing nucleosynthesis and elements formed Stellar nucleosynthesis is the collective term for the nuclear reactions taking place in stars to build the nuclei of the heavier elements. ... Image File history File links FusionintheSun. ... Image File history File links FusionintheSun. ... Image File history File links CNO_Cycle. ... Image File history File links CNO_Cycle. ... Cross section of a red giant showing nucleosynthesis and elements formed Stellar nucleosynthesis is the collective term for the nuclear reactions taking place in stars to build the nuclei of the heavier elements. ... 15ft sculpture of Einsteins 1905 E = mc² formula at the 2006 Walk of Ideas, Germany In physics, mass-energy equivalence is the concept that all mass has an energy equivalence, and all energy has a mass equivalence. ...


The hydrogen fusion process is temperature-sensitive, so a moderate increase in the core temperature will result in a significant increase in the fusion rate. As a result the core temperature of main sequence stars only varies from 4 million K for a small M-class star to 40 million K for a massive O-class star.[83]


In the Sun, with a 10 million K core, hydrogen fuses to form helium in the proton-proton chain reaction:[108] Overveiw of the proton-proton chain. ...

41H → 22H + 2e+ + 2νe (4.0 MeV + 1.0 MeV)
21H + 22H → 23He + 2γ (5.5 MeV)
23He → 4He + 21H (12.9 MeV)

These reactions result in the overall reaction: Depiction of a hydrogen atom showing the diameter as about twice the Bohr model radius. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... Helium-3 is a non-radioactive and light isotope of helium. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... Helium-4 is a non-radioactive and light isotope of helium. ...

41H → 4He + 2e+ + 2γ + 2νe (26.7 MeV)

where e+ is a positron, γ is a gamma ray photon, νe is a neutrino, and H and He are isotopes of hydrogen and helium, respectively. The energy released by this reaction is in millions of electron volts, which is actually only a tiny amount of energy. However enormous numbers of these reactions occur constantly, producing all the energy necessary to sustain the star's radiation output. The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ...

Minimum stellar mass required for fusion
Element Solar
masses
Hydrogen 0.01
Helium 0.4
Carbon 4
Neon 8

In more massive stars, helium is produced in a cycle of reactions catalyzed by carbon—the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle.[108] In astronomy, the solar mass is a unit of mass used to express the mass of stars and larger objects such as galaxies. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


In evolved stars with cores at 100 million K and masses between 0.5 and 10 solar masses, helium can be transformed into carbon in the triple-alpha process that uses the intermediate element beryllium:[108] Overview of the Triple-alpha process. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ...

4He + 4He + 92 keV → 8*Be
4He + 8*Be + 67 keV → 12*C
12*C → 12C + γ + 7.4 MeV

For an overall reaction of: Beryllium (Be) Standard atomic mass: 9. ... Carbon 12 is a stable isotope of the element carbon. ...

34He → 12C + γ + 7.2 MeV

In massive stars, heavier elements can also be burned in a contracting core through the neon burning process and oxygen burning process. The final stage in the stellar nucleosynthesis process is the silicon burning process that results in the production of the stable isotope iron-56. Fusion can not proceed any further except through an endothermic process, and so further energy can only be produced through gravitational collapse.[108] Neon burning process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars (at least 8 MSun). ... The oxygen burning process is a nuclear fusion reaction that occurs in massive stars that have used up the lighter elements in their cores. ... In astrophysics, silicon burning is a nuclear fusion reaction which occurs in massive stars. ... This article is about the physical effect. ...


The example below shows the amount of time required for a star of 20 solar masses to consume all of its nuclear fuel. As an O-class main sequence star, it would be 8 times the solar radius and 62,000 times the Sun's luminosity.[109]



Fuel
material
Temperature
(million kelvins)
Density
(kg/cm³)
Burn duration
(τ in years)
H 37 0.0045 8.1 million
He 188 0.97 1.2 million
C 870 170 976
Ne 1,570 3,100 0.6
O 1,980 5,550 1.25
S/Si 3,340 33,400 0.0315[110]

See also

General topics
Types of stars
Types of former stars
Time and navigation
Other

This article is about the star grouping. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Star Counts are bookkeeping surveys of stars and the statistical and geometrical methods used to correct the survey data for bias. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Timeline of stellar astronomy 134 BC - Hipparchus creates the magnitude scale of stellar apparent luminosities 1596 - David Fabricius notices that Miras brightness varies 1672 - Geminiano Montanari notices that Algols brightness varies 1686 - Gottfried Kirch notices that Chi Cygnis brightness varies 1718 - Edmund Halley discovers stellar proper motions... Blue stragglers are stars in open or globular clusters that are hotter and bluer than other cluster stars having the same luminosity. ... The luminosity class II in the Yerkes spectral classification is given to bright giants. ... A carbon star is a late type giant star similar to the red giants (or occasionally red dwarf) star whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen; the two elements combine in the upper layers of the star, forming carbon monoxide, which consumes all the oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving carbon... Giant star is a star that has stopped fusing hydrogen in its core. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) are stars moving with high velocity relative to the galactic rest frame, and have or will eventually escape from the Galaxy, hence also the name Exiled Stars. ... Hertzsprung-Russell diagram The main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is the curve where the majority of stars are located in this diagram. ... For the story by Larry Niven, see Neutron Star (story). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hypervelocity_star. ... Supergiants are the most massive stars. ... Hubble Space Telescope image of nebula M1-67 around Wolf Rayet star WR 124 Wolf-Rayet stars (often referred to as WR stars) are evolved, massive stars (over 20 solar masses), and are losing their mass rapidly by means of a very strong stellar wind, with speeds up to 2000... For other uses, see Black hole (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Artists conception of a magnetar, with magnetic field lines A magnetar is a neutron star with an extremely powerful magnetic field, the decay of which powers the emission of copious amounts of high-energy electromagnetic radiation, particularly X-rays and gamma-rays. ... For the story by Larry Niven, see Neutron Star (story). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A sidereal clock is a 24-hour clock used by astronomers to keep track of the apparent motion of the stars. ... A star clock is a method of using the stars to determine the time. ... Celestial navigation is a position fixing technique that was the first system devised to help sailors locate themselves on a featureless ocean. ... A nursery rhyme is a traditional song or poem taught to young children, originally in the nursery. ... Ah! vous dirai-je, Maman redirects here. ... The planetary systems of stars other than the Sun and its Solar System are a staple element in much science fiction. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

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is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

  • Pickover, Cliff (2001). The Stars of Heaven. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514874-6. 
  • Gribbin, John; Mary Gribbin (2001). Stardust: Supernovae and Life—The Cosmic Connection. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09097-8. 
  • Hawking, Stephen (1988). A Brief History of Time. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-17521-1. 

Clifford A. Pickover is a writer in the fields of science, mathematics, and science fiction. ... Dr. John Gribbin (1946 - ) is a British science writer and a visiting Fellow in astronomy at the University of Sussex. ... Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA, (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. ...

External links

Look up Star in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • How Stars Work at HowStuffWorks
  • Star, World Book @ NASA
  • Portraits of Stars and their Constellations. University of Illinois
  • Query star by identifier, coordinates or reference code. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg
  • How To Decipher Classification Codes. Astronomical Society of South Australia
  • Live Star Chart View the stars above your location

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... HowStuffWorks is a website created by Marshall Brain but now owned by the Convex Group. ...


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