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Encyclopedia > Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus

Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Kingdom: Eubacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli are you sure?
Order: Bacillales
Family: Staphylococcaceae
Genus: Staphylococcus
Species: S. aureus
Binomial name
Staphylococcus aureus
Rosenbach 1884

Staphylococcus aureus (pronounced /ˌstæfɨləˈkɒkəs ˈɔriəs/, literally "Golden Cluster Seed" and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. It is a spherical bacterium, frequently living on the skin or in the nose of a person. Approximately 20–30% of the general population are "staph carriers".[1] Staphylococcus aureus can cause a range of illnesses from minor skin infections, such as pimples, impetigo (may also be caused by Streptococcus pyogenes), boils, cellulitis folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles, scalded skin syndrome and abscesses, to life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis endocarditis, Toxic shock syndrome (TSS), and septicemia. Its incidence is from skin, soft tissue, respiratory, bone, joint, endovascular to wound infections. It is still one of the four most common causes of nosocomial infections, often causing postsurgical wound infections. Abbreviated to S. aureus or Staph aureus in medical literature, S. aureus should not be confused with the similarly named (and also medically relevant) species of the genus Streptococcus. It is often found in the nostrils of the human body. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1184x1500, 858 KB) en: Bacterial cells of Staphylococcus aureus, which is one of the causal agents of mastitis in dairy cows. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... This page is about the bacterial class. ... Families Alicyclobacillaceae Bacillaceae Caryophanaceae Listeriaceae Paenibacillaceae Planococcaceae Sporolactobacillaceae Staphylococcaceae Thermoactinomycetaceae Turicibacteraceae The Bacillales are an order of Gram-positive bacteria, placed within the Firmicutes. ... Genera Staphylococcus Gemella Jeotgalicoccus Macrococcus Salinicoccus The Staphylococcaceae is a family of Gram positive bacteria that includes the genus Staphylococcus, noted for encompasing several medically significant pathogens. ... Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Binomial name Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach, 1884 Staphylococcus aureus (which is occasionally given the nickname golden staph) is a bacterium, frequently living on the skin or in the nose of a healthy person, that can cause illnesses ranging from minor skin infections (such as pimples, boils, and cellulitis) and abscesses, to... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Look up Pimple in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Streptococcus pyogenes is a spherical gram-positive bacteria that grows in long chains [1] and is the cause of Group A streptococcal infections. ... Boil or furuncle is a skin disease caused by the inflammation of hair follicles, thus resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissues. ... For other uses, see Carbuncle (disambiguation). ... For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ... This article is about the medical term. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ... Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterial toxin. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... // Nosocomial infections are those which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patients original condition. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species S. agalactiae S. bovis S. mutans S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. salivarius S. sanguinis S. suis Streptococcus viridans Streptococcus uberis etc. ...


S. aureus was discovered in Aberdeen, Scotland in 1880 by the surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from surgical abscesses.[2] Each year some 500,000 patients in American hospitals contract a staphylococcal infection.[3] For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the medical specialty. ... Sir Alexander Ogston KCVO MB CM MD was a Scottish surgeon, famous for his discovery of Staphylococcus aureus. ... For other uses, see Pus (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Microbiology

Gram stain of S. aureus.
Gram stain of S. aureus.

S. aureus is a Gram-positive coccus, which appears as grape-like clusters when viewed through a microscope and has large, round, golden-yellow colonies, often with hemolysis, when grown on blood agar plates.[4] The golden appearance is the etymological root of the bacteria's name: aureus means "golden" in Latin. Image File history File links Staphylococcus_aureus_Gram. ... Image File history File links Staphylococcus_aureus_Gram. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Staphylococcus bacteria Cocci (singular - coccus, from the Latin coccinus (scarlet) and derived from the Greek kokkos (berry) ) are any microorganism (usually bacteria) whose overall shape is spherical or nearly spherical. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Examples of alpha (top), beta (middle), and gamma (bottom) hemolysis on sheep blood agar plates Hemolysis is used in the empirical identification of microorganisms based on the ability of bacterial colonies grown on agar plates to break down red blood cells in the culture. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms isolated from a deep-water sponge. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


S. aureus is a aerobic and opportunistic pathogen. Look up Aerobic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms that usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ...


S. aureus is catalase positive (meaning that it can produce the enzyme "catalase") and able to convert hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and oxygen, which makes the catalase test useful to distinguish staphylococci from enterococci and streptococci. A large percentage of S. aureus can be differentiated from most other staphylococci by the coagulase test: S. aureus is primarily coagulase-positive (meaning that it can produce the enzyme "coagulase" that causes clot formation) while most other Staphylococcus species are coagulase-negative.[4] However, while the majority of S. aureus are coagulase-positive, some may be atypical in that they do not produce coagulase. Incorrect identification of an isolate can impact implementation of effective treatment and/or control measures.[5] It is medically important to identify S.aureus correctly, as S.aureus is much more aggressive and likely to be antibiotic-resistant. RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Species E. faecalis etc. ... Species S. agalactiae S. bovis S. mutans S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. salivarius S. sanguinis S. suis Streptococcus viridans Streptococcus uberis etc. ... Coagulase is an enzyme produced by Staphylococcus aureus to localize an area of residence that converts fibrinogen to fibrin. ...


Role in disease

S. aureus may occur as a commensal on human skin; it also occurs in the nose frequently (in about a third of the population)[6] and throat less commonly. The occurrence of S. aureus under these circumstances does not always indicate infection and therefore does not always require treatment (indeed, treatment may be ineffective and re-colonisation may occur). It can survive on domesticated animals such as dogs, cats and horses, and can cause bumblefoot in chickens. It can survive for some hours on dry environmental surfaces, but the importance of the environment in spread of S. aureus is currently debated. It can host phages, such as the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, that increase its virulence. Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... This article is about the organ. ... Bumblefoot (ulcerative pododermatitis) is a bacterial infection and inflammatory reaction on the foot of birds of prey and rodents. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a cytotoxin. ...


S. aureus can infect other tissues when normal barriers have been breached (e.g., skin or mucosal lining). This leads to furuncles (boils) and carbuncles (a collection of furuncles). In infants S. aureus infection can cause a severe disease Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS).[7] Boil or furuncle is a skin disease caused by the inflammation of hair follicles, thus resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissues. ... For other uses, see Carbuncle (disambiguation). ...


S. aureus infections can be spread through contact with pus from an infected wound, skin-to-skin contact with an infected person by producing hyaluronidase that destroy tissues, and contact with objects such as towels, sheets, clothing, or athletic equipment used by an infected person.


Deeply situated S. aureus infections can be very severe. Prosthetic joints put a person at particular risk for septic arthritis, and staphylococcal endocarditis (infection of the heart valves) and pneumonia, which may be rapidly spread. Septic arthritis is the invasion of a joint by an infectious agent which produces arthritis. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


Atopic dermatitis

S. aureus is extremely prevalent in atopic dermatitis patients, who are less resistant to it than other people. It often causes complications. The disease is most likely found in fertile active places including, the armpits, hair and scalp. Large pimples in those areas, when popped will cause the worst of the infection.


Toxic shock syndrome

Some strains of S. aureus produce toxic shock syndrome toxin, which are the causative agent for toxic shock syndrome. Some strains that produce an enterotoxin are the cause of staphylococcal food poisoning. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterial toxin. ...


Mastitis in cows

S. aureus is one of the causal agents of mastitis in dairy cows. Its large capsule protects the organism from attack by the cow's immunological defenses.[8] Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammalian breast caused by the blocking of the milk ducts while the mother is lactating (see breastfeeding). ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ...


Virulence factors

Toxins

Depending on the strain, S. aureus is capable of secreting several toxins, which can be categorized into three groups. Many of these toxins are associated with specific diseases. An exotoxin is a soluble chemical excreted by a microorganism, including bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa. ...


Pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs) have superantigen activities that induce toxic shock syndrome (TSS). This group includes the toxin TSST-1, which causes TSS associated with tampon use. The staphylococcal enterotoxins, which cause a form of food poisoning, are included in this group. SEB, A typical bacterial superantigen (PDB:3SEB) The β-grasp domain is shown in red, and the β-barrel in green: The disulphide loop is shown in yellow SEC3 (yellow) complexed with an MHC-II molecule (green & cyan): The SAgs binds adjacent to the antigen (purple) presentation cleft in the MHC-II... Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterial toxin. ... For the commune of Réunion, see Le Tampon. ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ...


Exfoliative toxins are implicated in the disease staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS), which occurs most commonly in infants and young children. It also may occur as epidemics in hospital nurseries. The protease activity of the exfoliative toxins causes peeling of the skin observed with SSSS. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, SSSS, also known as Pemphigus neonatorum or Ritters disease, is a dermatological condition caused by Staphylococcus aureus. ...


Staphylococcal toxins that act on cell membranes include alpha-toxin, beta-toxin, delta-toxin, and several bicomponent toxins. The bicomponent toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is associated with severe necrotizing pneumonia in children. The genes encoding the components of PVL are encoded on a bacteriophage found in community-associated MRSA strains. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a cytotoxin. ... An artists rendering of an Enterobacteria phage T4. ... MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance, first to penicillin in 1947, and later to methicillin. ...


Role of pigment in virulence

he vivid yellow pigmentation of S. aureus may be a factor in its virulence. When comparing a normal strain of S. aureus with a strain modified to lack the yellow coloration, the pigmented strain was more likely to survive dousing with an oxidizing chemical such as hydrogen peroxide than the mutant strain was. Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ...


Colonies of the two strains were also exposed to human neutrophils. The mutant colonies quickly succumbed while many of the pigmented colonies survived. Wounds on mice were swiped with the two strains. The pigmented strains created lingering abscesses. Wounds with the unpigmented strains healed quickly. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ...


These tests suggest that the yellow pigment may be key to the ability of S. aureus to survive immune system attacks. Drugs that inhibit the bacterium's production of the carotenoids responsible for the yellow coloration may weaken it and renew its susceptibility to antibiotics.[9] The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ...


Diagnosis

Depending upon the type of infection present, an appropriate specimen is obtained accordingly and sent to the laboratory for definitive identification by using biochemical or enzyme-based tests. A Gram stain is first performed to guide the way, which should show typical gram-positive bacteria, cocci, in clusters. Secondly, culture the organism in Mannitol Salt Agar, which is a selective medium with 7–9% NaCl that allows S. aureus to grow producing yellow-colored colonies as a result of salt utilization and subsequent drop in the medium's pH. Furthermore, for differentiation on the species level, catalase (positive for all species), coagulase (fibrin clot formation), DNAse (zone of clearance on nutrient agar), lipase (a yellow color and rancid odor smell), and phosphatase (a pink color) tests are all done. For staphylococcal food poisoning, phage typing can be performed to determine if the staphylococci recovered from the food to determine the source of infection. Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ... Mannitol Salt Agar or MSA is a commonly used growth medium in microbiology. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms. ... Coagulase is an enzyme produced by Staphylococcus aureus to localize an area of residence that converts fibrinogen to fibrin. ... A deoxyribonuclease (DNase, for short) is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA backbone. ... A computer-generated image of a type of pancreatic lipase (PLRP2) from the guinea pig. ... A phosphatase is an enzyme that dephosphorylates its substrate; i. ...


Rapid Diagnosis and Typing

Diagnostic microbiology laboratories and reference laboratories are key for identifying outbreaks and new strains of S. aureus. Recent genetic advances have enabled reliable and rapid techniques for the identification and characterization of clinical isolates of S. aureus in real-time. These tools support infection control strategies to limit bacterial spread and ensure the appropriate use of antibiotics. These techniques include Real-time PCR and Quantitative PCR and are increasingly being employed in clinical laboratories.[10][11] Real-Time PCR, also called quantitative (real-time) PCR, is a method of simultaneous DNA quantification and amplification. ...


Treatment and antibiotic resistance

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For more details on this topic, see Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Staph infection that is not antibiotic resistant can be treated in about a month (depending on severity) using antibiotics. Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... MRSA redirects here. ...


Antibiotic resistance in S. aureus was almost unknown when penicillin was first introduced in 1943; indeed, the original petri dish on which Alexander Fleming observed the antibacterial activity of the penicillium mould was growing a culture of S. aureus. By 1950, 40% of hospital S. aureus isolates were penicillin resistant; and by 1960, this had risen to 80%.[12] Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. ... Binomial name Penicillium notatum Westling Penicillium notatum is a synonym of Penicillium chrysogenum, which has taxonomic priority. ...


Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance

Staphylococcal resistance to penicillin is mediated by penicillinase (a form of β-lactamase) production: an enzyme which breaks down the β-lactam ring of the penicillin molecule. Penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as methicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin are able to resist degradation by staphylococcal penicillinase. Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Penicillinase is an enzyme produced by certain bacteria which inactivates penicillin by hydrolzing the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. ... Beta-lactamase is an enzyme (EC 3. ... Methicillin (USAN) or meticillin (INN, BAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Oxacillin sodium (Bactocill®) is an beta-lactam antibiotic in the penicillin class. ... Cloxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic in the same class as penicillin. ... Dicloxacillin (INN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Flucloxacillin (INN) or floxacillin (USAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ...


The mechanism of resistance to methicillin is by the acquisition of the mecA gene, which codes for an altered penicillin-binding protein (PBP) that has a lower affinity for binding β-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems). This confers resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics and obviates their clinical use during MRSA infections. Penicillin core Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) are a group of proteins which are characterized by their affinity for and binding of penicillin. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics. ... MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance, first to penicillin in 1947, and later to methicillin. ...


Glycopeptide resistance is mediated by acquisition of the vanA gene. The vanA gene originates from the enterococci and codes for an enzyme that produces an alternative peptidoglycan to which vancomycin will not bind. Species E. faecalis etc. ... Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of eubacteria. ... Crystal structure of a short peptide L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (bacterial cell wall precursor, in green) bound to vancomycin (blue) through hydrogen bonds. ...


Today, S. aureus has become resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. In the UK, only 2% of all S. aureus isolates are sensitive to penicillin with a similar picture in the rest of the world, due to a penicillinase (a form of β-lactamase). The β-lactamase-resistant penicillins (methicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin and flucloxacillin) were developed to treat penicillin-resistant S. aureus and are still used as first-line treatment. Methicillin was the first antibiotic in this class to be used (it was introduced in 1959), but only two years later, the first case of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was reported in England.[13] Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Penicillinase is an enzyme produced by certain bacteria which inactivates penicillin by hydrolzing the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. ... Beta-lactamase is a type of enzyme (EC 3. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Methicillin (USAN) or meticillin (INN, BAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Oxacillin sodium (Bactocill®) is an beta-lactam antibiotic in the penicillin class. ... Cloxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic in the same class as penicillin. ... Flucloxacillin (INN) or floxacillin (USAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Methicillin (USAN) or meticillin (INN, BAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, (MRSA) is a specific strain of the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance, first to penicillin since 1947, and later to methicillin and related anti-staphylococcal drugs (such as flucloxacillin). ...


Despite this, MRSA generally remained an uncommon finding even in hospital settings until the 1990s when there was an explosion in MRSA prevalence in hospitals where it is now endemic.[14] This article is about the year. ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ...


MRSA infections in both the hospital and community setting are commonly treated with non-β-lactam antibiotics such as clindamycin (a lincosamine) and co-trimoxazole (also commonly known as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Resistance to these antibiotics has also led to the use of new, broad-spectrum anti-Gram positive antibiotics such as linezolid because of its availability as an oral drug. First-line treatment for serious invasive infections due to MRSA is currently glycopeptide antibiotics (vancomycin and teicoplanin). There are number of problems with these antibiotics, mainly centred around the need for intravenous administration (there is no oral preparation available), toxicity and the need to monitor drug levels regularly by means of blood tests. There are also concerns that glycopeptide antibiotics do not penetrate very well into infected tissues (this is a particular concern with infections of the brain and meninges and in endocarditis). Glycopeptides must not be used to treat methicillin-sensitive S. aureus as outcomes are inferior.[15] Clindamycin (rINN) (IPA: ) is a lincosamide antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... Co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT, TMP-SMX, or TMP-sulfa) is an antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. ... Linezolid (INN) (IPA: ) is a synthetic antibiotic, the first of the oxazolidinone class, used for the treatment of infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria including streptococcus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Crystal structure of a short peptide L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (bacterial cell wall precursor, in green) bound to vancomycin (blue) through hydrogen bonds. ... Teicoplanin is an antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ...


Because of the high level of resistance to penicillins, and because of the potential for MRSA to develop resistance to vancomycin, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have published guidelinesfor the appropriate use of vancomycin. In situations where the incidence of MRSA infections is known to be high, the attending physician may choose to use a glycopeptide antibiotic until the identity of the infecting organism is known. When the infection is confirmed to be due to a methicillin-susceptible strain of S. aureus, then treatment can be changed to flucloxacillin or even penicillin as appropriate. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Flucloxacillin (INN) or floxacillin (USAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ...


Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) is a strain of S. aureus that has become resistant to the glycopeptides. The first case of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) was reported in Japan in 1996;[16] but the first case of S. aureus truly resistant to glycopeptide antibiotics was only reported in 2002.[17] Three cases of VRSA infection have been reported in the United States as of 2005.[18] Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) is a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has become resistant to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Infection control

Spread of S. aureus (including MRSA) is through human-to-human contact, although recently some vets have discovered that the infection can be spread through pets, with environmental contamination thought to play a relatively unimportant part. Emphasis on basic hand washing techniques are therefore effective in preventing the transmission of S. aureus. The use of disposable aprons and gloves by staff reduces skin-to-skin contact and therefore further reduces the risk of transmission. Please refer to the article on infection control for further details. MRSA redirects here. ... Schoolchildren washing their hands before eating lunch. ... Infection control and health care epidemiology is the discipline con setting. ...


Recently, there have been a myriad of reported cases of S. aureus in hospitals across America. The incredibly hardy pathogen has had facilitated transportation in medical facilities mainly because of insufficient healthcare worker hygiene. S. aureus is an incredibly hardy bacterium, as was shown in a study[citation needed] where it survived on a piece of polyester for just under three months,[citation needed] polyester being the main material used in hospital privacy curtains.[citation needed]


The bacterium is able to transport itself on the hands of healthcare workers who, for instance, get the bacteria from a seemingly healthy patient carrying a "benign" or commensal strain of the pathogen and then pass it on to the next patient being cared for. Introduction of the bacterium into the bloodstream can lead to various complications including, but not limited to, endocarditis, meningitis, and, if it is widespread, sepsis - toxins infecting the entire body.


Because of these infections in hospitals, as of February 14th, 2008, all California medical facilities must now report S. aureus infections that are checked into the hospitals, in the hope of starting a trend to aid disease trackers and pathologists in their search for a cure.[citation needed] Alcohol has proven to be an effective topical sanitizer against MRSA. Quaternary ammonium can be used in conjunction with alcohol to increase the duration of the sanitizing action. The prevention of nosocomial infections involve routine and terminal cleaning. Nonflammable alcohol vapor in CO2 NAV-CO2 systems have an advantage as they do not attack metals or plastics used in medical environments, and do not contribute to antibacterial resistance. 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Quaternary ammonium cation. ... // Nosocomial infections are those which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patients original condition. ... Terminal Cleaning describes a cleaning method used in healthcare environments to control the spread of infections. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Non-flammable Alcohol Vapor in Carbon Dioxide (NAV-CO2) systems were developed in Japan in the 1990s to sanitize hospitals and ambulances. ...


An important and previously unrecognized means of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization and transmission is during sexual contact.[19]


Staff or patients who are found to carry resistant strains of S. aureus may be required to undergo "eradication therapy" which may include antiseptic washes and shampoos (such as chlorhexidine) and application of topical antibiotic ointments (such as mupirocin or neomycin) to the anterior nares of the nose. Chlorhexidine (free base) structure Chlorhexidine Gluconate is an antiseptic used as an active ingredient in mouthwash designed to kill plaque and other oral bacteria. ... Mupirocin (pseudomonic acid A, or Bactroban) is an antibiotic originally isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... This article is about nares, the scientific term for a birds or a frogs([[for Mr. ...


In March 2007, BBC reported that a vaporizer spraying some essential oils into the atmosphere reduced airborne bacterial counts by 90% and kept MRSA infections at bay and may hold promise in MRSA infection control.[20] Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


Footnotes

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  1. ^ Heyman, D. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual (2004) 18th Edition. Washington DC: American Public Health Association.
  2. ^ Ogston A (1984). "“On Abscesses”. Classics in Infectious Diseases". Rev Infect Dis 6 (1): 122–28. PMID 6369479. 
  3. ^ Bowersox, John. "Experimental Staph Vaccine Broadly Protective in Animal Studies", NIH, 1999-05-27. Retrieved on 2007-07-28. 
  4. ^ a b Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  5. ^ Matthews KR, Roberson J, Gillespie BE, Luther DA, Oliver SP (1997). "Identification and Differentiation of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus aureus by Polymerase Chain Reaction". Journal of Food Protection 60 (6): 686-8. 
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Editing resource: Burton, Gwendolyn R.W. "Microbiology for the Health Sciences" Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


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  Results from FactBites:
 
What Is Staphylococcus Aureus? (19129 words)
Staphylococcus aureus (also known as golden staph) is a bacterium, frequently living on the skin or in the nose of a healthy person, that can cause illnesses ranging from minor skin infections (such as pimples, boils, and cellulitis) and abscesses, to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis and septicemia.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: report of an outbreak in a London teaching hospital; Duckworth GJ et al.; An outbreak with a strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus began in The London Hospital in 1982 and continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
Cloning and characterization of the repressor gene of the Staphylococcus aureus lactose operon; Oskouian B et al.; The genes responsible for utilization of lactose in Staphylococcus aureus are organized as an inducible operon, with galactose 6-phosphate being the intracellular inducer.
US FDA/CFSAN BAM - Staphylococcus aureus (1604 words)
aureus is the causative agent of foodborne illness, to determine whether a food is a potential source of "staph" food poisoning, and to demonstrate post-processing contamination, which is generally due to human contact or contaminated food-contact surfaces.
aureus organisms in a food may indicate poor handling or sanitation; however, it is not sufficient evidence to incriminate a food as the cause of food poisoning.
aureus are circular, smooth, convex, moist, 2-3 mm in diameter on uncrowded plates, gray to jet-fl, frequently with light-colored (off-white) margin, surrounded by opaque zone and frequently with an outer clear zone; colonies have buttery to gummy consistency when touched with inoculating needle.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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