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Encyclopedia > Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
SEM micrograph of S. aureus colonies; note the grape-like clustering common to Staphylococcus species.
SEM micrograph of S. aureus colonies; note the grape-like clustering common to Staphylococcus species.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Family: Staphylococcaceae
Genus: Staphylococcus
Rosenbach

S. aureus
S. auricularis
S. capitis
S. caprae
S. cohnii
S. epidermidis
S. felis
S. haemolyticus
S. hominis
S. intermedius
S. lugdunensis
S. pettenkoferi
S. saprophyticus
S. schleiferi
S. simulans
S. vitulus
S. warneri
S. xylosus
Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2100x1630, 1243 KB)SEM micrograph of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. ... Low temperature SEM magnification series for a snow crystal. ... A micrograph is a photograph or similar image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... This page is about the bacterial class. ... Families Alicyclobacillaceae Bacillaceae Caryophanaceae Listeriaceae Paenibacillaceae Planococcaceae Sporolactobacillaceae Staphylococcaceae Thermoactinomycetaceae Turicibacteraceae The Bacillales are an order of Gram-positive bacteria, placed within the Firmicutes. ... Genera Staphylococcus Gemella Jeotgalicoccus Macrococcus Salinicoccus The Staphylococcaceae is a family of Gram positive bacteria that includes the genus Staphylococcus, noted for encompasing several medically significant pathogens. ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... Staphylococcus caprae is a member of the genus Staphylococcus, which is a genus of spherical bacteria. ... Binomial name (Winslow & Winslow 1908) Evans 1916 Staphylococcus epidermidis is a member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus, consisting of Gram-positive cocci arranged in clusters. ... Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a strain of bacteria. ... Staphylococcus hominis is a coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus, consisting of spherical cells in clusters. ... Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a member of the genus Staphylococcus, consisting of Gram-positive bacteria with spherical cells that appear in clusters. ... Staphylococcus pettenkoferi (honouring Max von Pettenkofer, 1818–1901, German pioneer in the field of hygiene and public health) was described in 2007 and is a member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus, consisting of spherical, Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria. ... Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a coagulase-negative species of Staphylococcus which is often implicated in urinary tract infection. ... Staphylococcus warneri is a member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus, consisting of Gram-positive bacteria with spherical cells appearing in clusters. ... Staphylococcus xylosus is a member of the genus Staphylococcus, a genus of bacteria that form clusters of cells. ...

Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. Under the microscope they appear round (cocci), and form in grape-like clusters.[1] Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ...


The Staphylococcus genus includes thirty-one species.[2] Most are harmless and reside normally on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other organisms. Found worldwide, they are a small component of soil microbial flora.[3] For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the organ. ...

Contents

Role in disease

Staphylococcus can cause a wide variety of diseases in humans and other animals through either toxin production or invasion. Staphylococcal toxins are a common cause of food poisoning, as it can grow in improperly-stored food. Although the cooking process kills the bacteria, the enterotoxins are heat-resistant and can survive boiling for several minutes. Staphylococci can grow in foods with relatively low-water activity (such as cheese and salami). A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...

  • One pathogenic species is Staphylococcus aureus, which can infect wounds. These bacteria can survive on dry surfaces, increasing the chance of transmission. S. aureus is also implicated in toxic shock syndrome; during the 1980s some tampons allowed the rapid growth of S. aureus, which released toxins that were absorbed into the bloodstream. Any S. aureus infection can cause the staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, a cutaneous reaction to exotoxin absorbed into the bloodstream. It can also cause a type of septicaemia called pyaemia. The infection can be life-threatening. Problematically, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major cause of hospital-acquired infections, and is being recognized with increasing frequency in community-acquired infections.
  • The coagulase-positive Staphylococcus that does not inhabits and sometimes infects the skin of domestic dogs and cats is Staphylococcus intermedius. This organism, too, can carry the genetic material that imparts multiple bacterial resistance. It is rarely implicated in infections in humans, as a zoonosis.
  • In recent years, several other Staphylococcus species have been implicated in human infections, notably S. lugdunensis, S. schleiferi, and S. caprae.
  • S. aureus is also one of the most common causes of closed-space infections of the fingertips, known as paronychia.

A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterial toxin. ... An exotoxin is a soluble chemical excreted by a microorganism, including bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... Pyaemia is a type of septicaemia that leads to widespread abscesses and is usually caused by the staphylococcus bacteria. ... MRSA redirects here. ... Coagulase is an enzyme produced by Staphylococcus aureus to localize an area of residence that converts fibrinogen to fibrin. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ... Binomial name (Winslow & Winslow 1908) Evans 1916 Staphylococcus epidermidis is a member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus, consisting of Gram-positive cocci arranged in clusters. ... Coagulase is an enzyme produced by Staphylococcus aureus to localize an area of residence that converts fibrinogen to fibrin. ... This article is about the organ. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... In medicine, a central venous catheter (CVC or central (venous) line) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck, chest, or groin. ... Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a coagulase-negative species of Staphylococcus which is often implicated in urinary tract infection. ... Coagulase is an enzyme produced by Staphylococcus aureus to localize an area of residence that converts fibrinogen to fibrin. ... In anatomy, the genitourinary system is the organ system of all the reproductive organs and the urinary system. ... Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a member of the genus Staphylococcus, consisting of Gram-positive bacteria with spherical cells that appear in clusters. ... Staphylococcus caprae is a member of the genus Staphylococcus, which is a genus of spherical bacteria. ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... This article is about the nail disease. ...

Biochemical identification

Staphylococcus species can be differentiated from other aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram positive cocci by several simple tests. Staphylococcus spp. are facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes are capable of growth both aerobically and anaerobically. All species grow in the presence of bile salts and are catalase positive. Growth also occurs in a 6.5% NaCl solution. On Baird Parker Medium Staphylococcus spp. show as fermentative, except for S. saprophyticus which is oxidative. Staphylococcus spp. are resistant to Bacitracin (0.04 U resistance = <10mm zone of inhibition) and susceptible to Furazolidone (100μg resistance = <15mm zone of inhibition).


Further biochemical testing is needed to identify down to the species level.


Genomics and molecular biology

The first S. aureus genomes to be sequenced where those of N315 and Mu50 in 2001. Many more complete S. aureus genomes have been submitted to the public databases, making S. aureus one of the most extensively sequenced bacteria. The use of genomic data is now widespread and provides a valuable resource for researchers working with S. aureus. Whole genome technologies such as sequencing projects and microarrays have shown there is an enormous variety of S. aureus strains. Each contains different combinations of surface proteins and different toxins. Relating this information to pathogenic behaviour is one of the major areas of staphylococcal research. The development of molecular typing methods has enabled the tracking of different strains of S. aureus. This may lead to better control of outbreak strains. A greater understanding of how the staphylococci evolve, especially due to the acquisition of mobile genetic elements encoding resistance and virulence genes is helping to identify new outbreak strains and may even prevent their emergence.[4] In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... This article is about computing. ... A DNA microarray (also DNA chip or gene chip in common speech) is a piece of glass or plastic on which pieces of DNA have been affixed in a microscopic array. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ...


See also

Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ...

References

  1. ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0838585299. 
  2. ^ Holt JG (editor) (1994). Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed., Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-00603-7. 
  3. ^ Madigan M, Martinko J (editors). (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 11th ed., Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131443291. 
  4. ^ Lindsay J (editor). (2008). Staphylococcus: Molecular Genetics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-29-5 . 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Management of Staphylococcus aureus Infections - December 15, 2005 -- American Family Physician (3145 words)
The burden of Staphylococcus aureus infections on hospitals in the United States: an analysis of the 2000 and 2001 nationwide inpatient sample database.
Implications of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a community-acquired pathogen in pediatric patients.
Staphylococcus aureus with heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin: epidemiology, clinical significance, and critical assessment of diagnostic methods.
Staphylococcus aureus: A Most Common Cause, HYG-5564-98 (911 words)
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of foodborne illness.
Growth of the staphylococcus probably occurred also during the period when the food was kept in the warm classrooms.
Prevention of this incident would have entailed screening the individuals who deboned the chicken for carriers of staphylococcus, more rapid cooling of the chicken, and adequate refrigeration of the salad from the time of preparation until it was eaten.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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