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Encyclopedia > Stanley Williams
Stanley Tookie Williams III
Williams' mug shot from 2000.
Born December 29, 1953(1953-12-29)
New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
Died December 13, 2005 (aged 51)
Marin County, California, U.S.
Conviction(s) Murder, robbery, firearms
Penalty Death Penalty
Status Executed
Occupation Gangster/ Children's Author
Spouse none

Stanley Tookie Williams III (December 29, 1953December 13, 2005), born in New Orleans, Louisiana, was a convicted murderer and an early leader of the Crips, a notorious American street gang which had its roots in South Central Los Angeles in 1971. In December 2005 he was executed for the 1979 murders of Albert Owens, Yen-Yi Yang, Tsai-Shai Lin, and Yee-Chen Lin. While in prison, he was nominated for a Nobel prize for authoring books that were intended to help disenfranchised youth. Stanley Williams (1925 - 1997) was a dancer and, later, a renowned ballet instructor. ... Image File history File links Stanley_Tookie_Williams_mugshot. ... Al Capone. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... NOLA redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marin County (pronounced muh-RIN) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... For other uses, see Gangster (disambiguation). ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... NOLA redirects here. ... The blue bandanas worn by most Crip gangs. ... For other uses, see Gang (disambiguation). ... South Los Angeles is the official name for a large geographic and cultural area lying to the south and southeast of downtown Los Angeles, California. ...


Williams refused to aid police investigations with any information against his gang, and was implicated in attacks on guards and other inmates as well as multiple escape plots. In 1993, Williams began making changes in his behavior, and became an anti-gang activist while on Death Row in California. Although he continued to refuse to assist police in their gang investigations, he renounced his gang affiliation and apologized for the Crips' founding, while never admitting to the crimes for which he was convicted. He co-wrote children's books and participated in efforts intended to prevent youths from joining gangs.[1] A biographical TV-movie entitled Redemption: The Stan Tookie Williams Story was made in 2004, and featured Jamie Foxx as Williams. For information about the Record company see Death Row Records For information about the computer game see Deathrow (game) Death Row is a term that refers to the section of a prison that houses individuals awaiting execution. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Look up Prevention in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jamie Foxx (born December 13, 1967) is an American actor, singer, and stand-up comic. ...


On December 13, 2005, Williams was executed by lethal injection after clemency was rejected by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, amidst debate over the death penalty and whether his anti-gang advocacy in prison represented genuine atonement. Stanley Tookie Williams was the second California execution in 2005. Seventeen news reporters watched his execution. is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation IPA: ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-born American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...

Contents

Founding of the Crips

Williams met Raymond Washington in 1971, Stanley coming from the West Side of South Central and Washington from the East Side of South Central, to form an alliance known first as Cribs, later to be pronounced Crips. There were several names to choose from at the start. Apart from the slang definition that the word has acquired, the word Crips supposedly stands for Community Restoration in Progress. The purpose for creating the gang initially was to eliminate all street gangs and create a "bull-force" neighborhood watch. Williams said "we started out — at least my intent was to, in a sense — address all of the so-called neighboring gangs in the area and to put, in a sense — I thought I can cleanse the neighborhood of all these, you know, marauding gangs. But I was totally wrong. And eventually, we morphed into the monster we were addressing." [1]


Crimes

Williams was convicted of two separate robbery/murders in 1979. Williams always maintained his innocence, though subsequent court reviews concluded that there was no compelling reason to grant a retrial. Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Court transcripts state that Williams met with a man who is only identified in court documents as "Darryl" late on Tuesday evening, February 27, 1979.[2] Williams introduced Darryl to a friend of his, Alfred Coward, a.k.a. "Blackie," a reference to his dark colored skin. is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


A short time after the initial meeting, Darryl, driving a brown station wagon and accompanied by Williams, drove to the home of James Garret. Coward followed the two in his 1969 Cadillac. Williams frequently stayed with Garret, and kept some of his personal effects at that location including a 12-gauge shotgun. Williams went into the Garret residence, and in about ten minutes returned with the shotgun. For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation). ...


The three men then went to the home of Tony Sims in Pomona, California, where they discussed where they could go to make some money. Afterward, they went to another residence, where Williams left the others for a period of time. Upon returning, Williams had a .22 caliber pistol, which he placed in the station wagon. Williams then suggested that they should all go to Pomona. Darryl and Williams got into the station wagon, Coward and Sims got into the Cadillac, and shortly thereafter they were on the freeway headed toward Pomona. Nickname: Location in Los Angeles County and the State of California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Government  - Mayor Norma Torres Area  - Total 22. ...


Botched robbery

Both vehicles exited the freeway in the vicinity of Whittier Boulevard, where they drove to a nearby 7-Eleven. Darryl and Sims, at the request of Williams, entered the store with the apparent intention of robbing it. Darryl was carrying the .22 pistol that Williams had deposited in the station wagon earlier. Darryl also had an AK-47 assault rifle in the trunk of the car, along with two Tec-9 submachine guns. JUNCTION MILE POST 39 ORA 11. ... For other uses, see 7-Eleven (disambiguation). ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... The AK-47 is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... The Intratec TEC-9 is a blowback-operated, semi-automatic 9mm Parabellum caliber firearm, classified by the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms as a handgun. ... A submachine gun is a firearm which combines the automatic fire of a machine gun with the ammunition of a pistol, and is between the two in weight and size. ...


Seferhan, the clerk on duty at the 7-Eleven at the time, testified that he was just finishing up mopping the floor, and noticed a station wagon, along with four black men standing outside the door of the store. Sims testified that he and Darryl entered the market, after which Sims walked to the back of the store while Darryl approached Garcia and asked for a cigarette. Garcia provided and lit one for him. Sims then "walked back from the back ‘cause there was somebody in there and just walked out the door and got back in the car with, Blackie. And then we left."


Williams and fellow gang member Coward reportedly became very unhappy that Darryl and Sims did not follow through on the plan. He then told the men that they would find another place to rob.


The 7-Eleven murder

Transcripts show that next Coward and Sims followed Williams and Darryl to the 7-Eleven market located at 10437 Whittier Boulevard, near Whittier, California. The store clerk, twenty-six year old Albert Lewis Owens, was sweeping the store parking lot. When Darryl and Sims entered the 7-Eleven, Owens put the broom and dustpan he was using on the hood of his car and followed them into the store. Williams and Coward followed Owens into the store. Court records show that as Darryl and Sims walked to the counter area to take money from the register, Williams walked behind Owens, pulled the sawn-off shotgun from under his jacket and told Owens to “shut up and keep walking.” ' Whittier is a city in Los Angeles County, California about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Los Angeles. ... A sawn-off shotgun or a sawed-off shotgun is a type of shotgun with a shorter gun barrel and often a shortened or removed stock, compared to regular shotguns. ...

Shotgun owned by Williams
Shotgun owned by Williams

While pointing the shotgun at Owens’ back, Williams directed him to a back storage room and ordered him to lie down. Coward said that he next heard the sound of a round being chambered into the shotgun. He then heard a shot and glass breaking, followed by two more shots. Records show that he shot out a security monitor and then killed Owens, shooting him twice in the back at point blank range as he lay prone on the storage room floor. Image File history File links Stanley_williams_shotgun. ... Image File history File links Stanley_williams_shotgun. ... Point-blank range is the distance between a gun and a target such that it requires minimal effort in aiming it, in particular no allowance needs to be made for the effects of gravity, target movement or wind in aiming the projectile. ...


Coward, and Sims then fled in the two cars and returned home to Los Angeles. They had netted approximately $120 in the robbery. Once back in Los Angeles, Sims asked Williams why he had shot Owens. Williams said that he “didn’t want to leave any witnesses.” Williams also said he killed Owens “because he was white and he was killing all white people.” Coward testified that Williams had bragged about the shooting, stating, “You should have heard the way he sounded when I shot him. It was hilarious,” as he made gurgling or growling noises and laughed about Owens’ death.


The Brookhaven Motel murders

The Yang family, husband seventy-six year old Yen-Yi Yang, and wife sixty-three year old Tsai-Shai C. Yang, were immigrants from Taiwan. They ran the Brookhaven Motel located at 10411 South Vermont Avenue in South Central Los Angeles along with their forty-three year old daughter, Yu-Chin Yang Lin, and son Robert. Yu-Chin had recently joined them from Taiwan. South Los Angeles South Los Angeles is the official name for a large geographic and cultural area lying to the southwest and southeast of downtown Los Angeles, California. ...


According to court transcripts, at approximately 5:00 a.m. on March 11, 1979, Stanley Williams entered the Brookhaven Motel lobby and then broke down the door that led to the private office. Inside the office, Williams shot and killed Yen-Yi, Tsai-Shai, and Yu-Chin, after which he emptied the cash register and fled the scene. is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Robert, asleep with his wife in their bedroom at the motel, was awakened by the sound of somebody breaking down the door to the motel’s office. Shortly thereafter he heard a female scream, followed by gunshots. Robert entered the motel office and found that his mother, his sister, and his father had all been shot; the cash register was empty. It was later determined that the Brookhaven incident netted Stanley Williams approximately one hundred dollars with his partner gero.


The forensic pathologist testified that Yen-Yi Yang suffered two close range shotgun wounds, one to his left arm and abdomen, and one to the lower left chest. Tsai-Shai also received two close range wounds, one to the tailbone, and the other to the front of the abdomen, entering at the navel. Yu-Chin Lin was shot once in the upper left face area at a distance of a few feet.


Witnesses testified that Williams referred to the victims in conversations with friends as "Buddha-heads", a derogatory term for Asians. Media:Example. ... A slur can be anything from an insinuation or critical remark to an insult. ... The term Asian can refer to something or someone from Asia. ...


Conviction

Stanley Williams was convicted in 1981 of all four murders with special circumstances on each count of felony murder (robbery) as well as multiple murder in the case of the Brookhaven event. The jury also convicted him of robbery in both cases, and found that he personally used a firearm in the commission of the crimes. The jury recommended the death penalty, and the judge accepted the recommendation and sentenced him to death.[3]


From the beginning of his sentence, Williams maintained his innocence regarding the four murders, alleging prosecutorial misconduct, exclusion of exculpatory evidence, ineffective assistance of counsel, biased jury selection, and the misuse of jailhouse and government informants.[4] Williams claimed that the police found "not a shred of tangible evidence, no fingerprints, no crime scenes of bloody boot prints. They didn't match my boots, nor eyewitnesses. Even the shotgun shells found conveniently at each crime scene didn't match the shotgun shells that I owned." However, the prosecution's firearms expert, a sheriff's deputy, testified during trial that the shotgun shell recovered from the Yang murder crime scene matched test shells from the shotgun owned by Stanley Williams. No second examiner verified or falsified his findings. The Defense claims this expert's methodology was "junk science at best."[5]


Williams' gun was found in the home of a couple with whom he had been living. According to the District Attorney, the husband was undergoing sentencing for receiving stolen property and tried for extortion. Williams' lawyers have claimed that the District Attorney quashed a murder investigation in exchange for their testimony. The two shells recovered from the Owens crime scene were consistent with shells fired from this gun, with no exclusionary markings. The shell recovered from the Yang crime scene was conclusively matched to Williams' weapon "to the exclusion of all other firearms."[6]


Critics claim that although he renounced gangs and apologized for his role in co-founding the Crips, Williams continued to associate with Crips members in prison. However, when contacted about Williams' alleged ongoing gang activity, Los Angeles Police Department spokeswoman April Harding said there was no evidence of his gang leadership. Opponents also pointed out that he received a significant amount of money from outside sources. They stated that people who appreciate Williams' work sent him money. "It's as simple as that," said Williams' spokeswoman Barbara Becnel.[7] LAPD and L.A.P.D. redirect here. ... Barbara Becnel Barbara Cottman Becnel (b. ...


The prosecution removed three Blacks from serving as jurors in Williams' trial. Williams' lawyers claimed that he was convicted by a jury that had no Blacks, one Latino, one Filipino-American, and ten Caucasians.[8] The District Attorney provided proof, however, in the form of a death certificate and the sworn affidavit of another juror, that juror #12, William James McLurkin, was black.[9] The defense responded that, contrary to the sworn affidavit, McLurkin did not appear black. They maintain that the trial record indicates that none of the lawyers -- and particularly the prosecutor -- thought Mr. McLurkin was black. McLurkin's driver license photo and the fact that both he and his mother were born in the Philippines was presented as additional evidence in a November 2005 petition for clemency. The defense, however, has neither stated whether or not his mother was actually Filipino, nor refuted the evidence that McLurkin was black.[10] A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ...


According to the clemency petition, in his closing arguments, prosecuting District Attorney Robert Martin described Williams as a "Bengal tiger in captivity in a zoo" and said that the jury needed to imagine him in his natural "habitat" which was like "going into the back country, into the hinterlands." In a radio interview, Martin stated that the analogy was not meant to be racial, and instead was a metaphor to the fact that Williams appeared in court dressed in business attire much like an animal in a zoo appears more docile than it would be in the wild.[11] This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ...


According to Williams' defense attorneys, in two subsequent cases, District Attorney Robert Martin was censured by the California State Supreme Court for using race as a criterion in jury selection and had two murder convictions overturned on those grounds.[12]


Williams threatens jurors

In the Court of Appeals summary of the case,[13] Williams stated "that various jurors misconstrued as a threat a question that he asked defense counsel at the close of the guilt phase. The trial record shows that after the jurors returned their guilty verdicts, Williams said, 'Sons of bitches,' in a voice sufficiently loud that the court reporter included this statement in the trial transcript." "On the day that the jury began its penalty-phase deliberations, an alternate juror reported to the bailiff that he was going to get all of them."


Prison life

As inmate CDC# C29300 [14] Williams spent 6 1/2 years in solitary confinement in the late 1980s [15] for multiple assaults on guards and fellow inmates.[16] The following is taken from Stanley Williams' prison record through 1993. According to a classification report found on page 8 of filings by his lawyers during the clemency proceedings dated August 5, 2004,[17] Williams had no violations since that time. The prison official had observed no gang activity and complimented Williams on his behavior for the last ten years. Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding guards, chaplains and doctors. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On June 30, 1981, just two months after being sentenced, Williams was involved in a violent fight with another inmate. Williams was observed kneeling over the other inmate and striking him in the head with his closed fists. When Williams was ordered to cease fighting, he ignored the order. Only after repeated orders did Williams stop. (P. Exh. 6). is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


On January 26, 1982, Williams was ordered to lineup for his return to his cell. Williams refused the order and became hostile. The guard then explained the line-up procedure to Williams. Williams responded by saying "you'll get yours boy, I can't do anything now because I know what the gunmen will do…one of these days I'll trick you boy." (P. Exh. 7). is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


On January 28, 1982, Williams had two separate instances where he threw chemical substances at guards. In one of these instances, Williams threw a chemical substance in the eyes and on the face of a guard. As a result of that assault, the guard suffered from chemical burns to these areas and had to be taken to the hospital where he received emergency care. (P. Exh. 8). is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


On January 29, 1982, Williams again attacked a guard by throwing a chemical substance on him. (P. Exh. 9). is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


On February 16, 1984, a guard saw Williams bending over another inmate and striking him with his closed fists. In an effort to stop the attack, the guard blew his whistle and drew his weapon. Williams, however, continued to fight. Only after a guard fired a warning shot did Williams stop fighting. (P. Exh. 10). is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


On June 8, 1984, Williams was observed participating in inappropriate behavior with a female visitor. When the guard advised the female of the prison policies, Williams became verbally hostile and stated, "you are looking around too much and that's not your job. I have dusted many officers on the street, one more would not make any difference." (P. Exh. 11). is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


On July 4, 1986, Williams stepped between a guard and another inmate and began to beat up the inmate. The guard ordered Williams to stop, but Williams continued with the assault. Eventually, after gun officers responded, Williams stopped the attack. (P. Exh. 12). is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


On October 10, 1988, Williams was involved in a fight that led to him being stabbed by Tiequon Aundray Cox (aka Lil Fee), a Rolling 60s Crips member, and fellow death row inmate. Prison officials subsequently learned that this stabbing was done in retaliation for a September 22, 1988 stabbing of another inmate ordered by Williams. (P. Exh. 13). is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Tiequon Lil Fee Cox (born Tiequon Aundray Cox, 1966) is one of Americas most infamous prison inmates. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


On October 19, 1988, Williams was placed in Administrative Segregation based on his association with the Crips street gang. (P. Exh. 13). is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


On December 24, 1991, Williams was involved in another fight with an inmate. Once again, despite being ordered to stop, Williams continued with the assault. Eventually, gun officers responded by firing a round near Williams. After the shot was fired, guards gained control over Williams. (P. Exh. 14). is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


On July 6, 1993, a large fight broke out in the shower area. Williams was one of the combatants. A guard ordered the inmates to stop, but the fight continued. After a warning shot was fired, the fighting stopped. Subsequently, a stabbing instrument ("shank") made of sharpened plastic was recovered from where the fight had occurred. (P. Exh. 15). is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


The prison guards noted that he still remained a member of the Crips gang, "The violations are usually involving batteries on inmates, batteries on staff. But we have also received information that has identified him as an active member of the Crips," Crittendon said. "The particular set is known as the Blue Note Crips, and that information we have received since his arrival here in April 1981 and as recent as June of 2000," Crittendon said.[18]


Anti-gang activism

After being released from solitary confinement, Williams gained world-wide attention and praise for his work in prison. He wrote several children's books advocating non-violence and alternatives to gangs, an autobiography Blue Rage, Black Redemption, public service announcements, and Redemption: The Stan Tookie Williams Story, a Hollywood movie which honored him. Blue Rage, Black Redemption is a book written by Tookie, or Stanley Williams. ... A public service announcement or PSA is a non-commercial advertisement—typically on U.S. or Canadian radio or television, broadcast for the public good. ... ...


In 1997, Williams wrote and posted on his website an apology for his role in creating the Crips. In 2004, he helped broker a peace agreement, called the Tookie Protocol For Peace, for what had been one of the deadliest and most infamous gang wars in the country, between the Bloods and the Crips, in both the state of California and the city of Newark, New Jersey. On the nomination of William A. Harrison, a minister from West Monroe, Louisiana, Williams received a letter from U.S. President George W. Bush commending him for his social activism, one of some 267,000 "Call To Service Awards" that were sent out. However, Bush was not able to pardon him, since his conviction could only be pardoned by the governor of the State of California.[19] The Bloods are one of the Los Angeles, California street gangs. ... The blue bandanas worn by most Crip gangs. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - Total 26. ... , West Monroe is a city in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana, United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Challenges to the conviction

Appeals

Williams appealed his conviction in the state courts, and filed a petition in the federal courts for habeas corpus relief. The State courts affirmed the conviction. The lower federal court denied the habeas petition. In 2001, the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals heard Williams' appeal from the lower federal court. The appellate court denied Williams' appeal in 2002, but noted that the federal courts were not his only forum for relief and that he could request clemency from the Governor of California. For other uses, see Habeas corpus (disambiguation). ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central District of California Eastern District of California Northern District of California Southern District of California District of Hawaii...


Activist response and community reaction

In late 2005, a campaign began to urge Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger to grant clemency for Williams in consideration of his work as an anti-gang activist and asserted "redemption." Thousands of people signed online petitions calling for Schwarzenegger to commute the death sentence. Those who campaigned against the execution included celebrities, politicians, and Nobel laureates. In early November, 2005, Williams' attorneys filed his formal petition for executive clemency, as well as a motion to obtain new evidence. (See below for the full text of the documents filed in these proceedings.) Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, is awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. ...


The state, through the office of the Los Angeles County District Attorney, opposed the clemency petition. The Los Angeles Police Department, the Los Angeles County District Attorney, and other law enforcement groups disputed that Williams had in fact reformed, saying that he refused to divulge information on other gang members, or debrief officials on the tactics and communication methods that gangs use. Williams said he didn't want to be a "snitch."[20] Los Angeles County District Attorney Past County District Attorneys Official Website of the County District Attorney Biographies of Former DAs Categories: Government of Los Angeles ... LAPD and L.A.P.D. redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The clemency petition emphasized the theme of Williams' redemption, rather than his claim of actual innocence. At least one commentator felt this strategy was flawed: San Francisco Chronicle writer Bob Egelko noted doubts stated by the courts handling the appeals and quoted Austin Sarat, professor of law and politics at Amherst College in Massachusetts and author of Mercy on Trial, a book about clemency: "It's [actual innocence] about the only ground in which governors grant clemency in the modern period...I know of no case in which a death row inmate has been spared (solely) on the basis of post-conviction rehabilitation."[21] Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Austin Sarat is William Nelson Cromwell professor of Jurisprudence and Political Science at Amherst College in Amherst, Massachusetts. ... Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. It is the third oldest college in Massachusetts. ...


On December 8, 2005, Governor Schwarzenegger held a clemency hearing. The one-hour, closed-door meeting took place as a crowd consisting of both supporters of Williams and proponents of capital punishment congregated outside the Capitol in Sacramento. Schwarzenegger described the decision whether to grant clemency as "the toughest thing when you are governor, dealing with someone's life." is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The California State Capitol building in Sacramento, California houses the California State Legislature and the office of the Governor of California. ... Sacramento redirects here. ...


While the clemency petition was pending before the governor, Williams also filed further appeals in the courts. On November 30, 2005, the California Supreme Court, in a 4-3 decision, refused to reopen Williams' case.[22]. On December 11, 2005, the California Supreme Court denied Williams' request for a stay of execution. Supporters of Williams also made another plea directly to Governor Schwarzenegger to stay the execution.[23] is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Court of California is the state supreme court in California. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Also during this period, the media, community organizations, and relatives of the victims were speaking out. In mid-November 2005, talk show hosts John and Ken of the John and Ken Show on Clear Channel's KFI radio in Los Angeles, California started a "Tookie Must Die (For Killing Four Innocent People)" hour on their show daily until the execution of Williams. In the hour, they interviewed advocates of both sides of the issue and expressed their support of the impending execution. A talk show (U.S.) or chat show (Brit. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Not to be confused with clear channel radio stations, which are AM radio stations with certain technical parameters. ... KFI is an AM radio station that began operating on March 31, 1922 as one of the United States first high-powered, clear channel stations. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ...


Many anti-death penalty and civil rights organizations around the country organized activist campaigns to stop the execution, including the Campaign to End the Death Penalty, the NAACP, and others. Tookie's friend, co-author and political collaborator, Barbara Becnel, helped to spearhead much of the organizing. Celebrities also joined the fight, including Snoop Dogg, who appeared at a clemency rally wearing a shirt advertising the Save Tookie website and performed a song he had written for Williams, and Jamie Foxx, who - noting that Tookie's execution date was his birthday - publicly stated that the only birthday present he wanted was clemency for Williams. Other prisoners were also involved in activism to save Williams's life. Tony Ford, whose death sentence in a disputed case has been indefinitely stayed [24], helped organize a prisoners' strike in Texas protesting Williams's execution. Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The Campaign to End the Death Penalty (CEDP) is an anti-death penalty organization in the United States, built on the philosophy that death row inmates and their family members must be at the center of fighting to abolish the death penalty. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Barbara Becnel Barbara Cottman Becnel (b. ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... Jamie Foxx (born December 13, 1967) is an American actor, singer, and stand-up comic. ...


On November 29, 2005, the American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California announced that more than 175,000 Californians had signed a petition requesting the temporary suspension of executions in California until the California Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice could complete its study,[25] due by December 31, 2007. The “California Moratorium on Executions Act”, A.B.1121, is scheduled to have its first hearing in January 2006. Press conferences and rallies in more than a dozen California cities called for a halt to all executions and asked Governor Schwarzenegger to commute Williams’ death sentence to a sentence of life without parole; demonstrations against the death penalty also took place in numerous cities around the world. is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is the common name for an American organization consisting of two separate entities. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


On December 8, 2005, Lora Owens, the stepmother of Albert Owens, one of the victims, made a statement expressing her opinion of Stanley Williams: "I think he [Williams] is the same cold-blooded killer that he was then and he would be now if he had the opportunity again."[26] Owens' two daughters, Rebecca and Andrea, who were 8 and 5 when their father was murdered, also opposed clemency and recalled that they were aghast when they had learned that their father's murderer was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize.[27] is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


By contrast, on December 9, 2005, Linda Owens, Albert Owens' widow, issued a statement in support of Williams’ efforts to bring an end to gang violence and his call for peace between gangs: "I, Linda Owens want to build upon Mr. Williams' peace initiative. I invite Mr. Williams to join me in sending a message to all communities that we should all unite in peace. This position of peace would honor my husband's memory and Mr. Williams work."[28] is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Governor denies clemency

On December 12, 2005, Governor Schwarzenegger denied clemency for Williams. In his denial, Governor Schwarzenegger cited the following: is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, politician, bodybuilder, and businessman, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ...

  • "The possible irregularities in Williams’ trial have been thoroughly and carefully reviewed by the courts, and there is no reason to disturb the judicial decisions that uphold the jury’s decisions that he is guilty of these four murders and should pay with his life."
  • The basis of his request for clemency is the "personal redemption Stanley Williams has experienced and the positive impact of the message he sends," yet "it is impossible to separate Williams' claim of innocence from his claim of redemption."
  • "Cumulatively, the evidence demonstrating Williams is guilty of these murders is to question the efficacy of Williams' message."
  • "The dedication of Williams' book Life in Prison casts significant doubt on his personal redemption and… the mix of individuals on [the dedication] list is curious" … "but the inclusion of George Jackson on the list defies reason and is a significant indicator that Williams is not reformed."
  • "Is Williams’ redemption complete and sincere, or is it just a hollow promise? Stanley Williams insists he is innocent, and that he will not and should not apologize or otherwise atone for the murders of the four victims in this case. Without an apology and atonement for these senseless and brutal killings there can be no redemption. In this case, the one thing that would be the clearest indication of complete remorse and full redemption is the one thing Williams will not do."

Governor Schwarzenegger summarized by basing his denial of clemency on the "totality of circumstances." (Summary – Details in PDF format) Cover of Soledad Brother George Jackson (September 23, 1941 – August 21, 1971) was a Black American militant who became a member of the Black Panther Party while in prison, where he spent the last 12 years of his life. ...


Last legal efforts to save Williams

On the same day the governor denied Williams clemency, Jonathan Harris, a New York counsel with Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP, filed a response summarizing new evidence of innocence.[29]


It included reference to an affidavit by Gordon Bradbury von Ellerman attesting to belief in Williams' innocence. Dated December 10, it states that he called the NAACP on December 8 after reading in the Daily Breeze that his cellmate, George Oglesby, had testified against Williams. He states that he had observed Oglesby receive police reports on Williams and others. Mr. Oglesby told Von Ellerman that he was using the documents to testify against Williams and others "to gain a reduction or eliminate charges against him." Von Ellerman also observed Oglesby copying from samples of Williams' handwriting to "create incriminating documents that would appear to be written by Mr. Williams."[30] Prosecutors had cited handwritten notes written by Mr. Williams about an escape plan which involved the killing of a bus driver and another accomplice.[31] is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Daily Breeze is a daily newspaper published in Torrance, California by the Copley Press. ...


At the time of his execution, Williams provided no last words to the prison warden. In an interview on WBAI Pacifica radio hours before the execution,[32] he stated: WBAI, a part of the Pacifica Radio Network, is a non-commercial, listener-supported radio station, broadcasting at 99. ... Pacifica Radio Network. ...

"My lack of fear of this barbaric methodology of death, I rely upon my faith. It has nothing to do with machismo, with manhood, or with some pseudo former gang street code. This is pure faith, and predicated on my redemption. So, therefore, I just stand strong and continue to tell you, your audience, and the world that I am innocent and, yes, I have been a wretched person, but I have redeemed myself. And I say to you and all those who can listen and will listen that redemption is tailor-made for the wretched, and that's what I used to be…That's what I would like the world to remember me. That's how I would like my legacy to be remembered as: a redemptive transition, something that I believe is not exclusive just for the so-called sanctimonious, the elitists. And it doesn't—-is not predicated on color or race or social stratum or one's religious background. It's accessible for everybody. That's the beauty about it. And whether others choose to believe that I have redeemed myself or not, I worry not, because I know and God knows, and you can believe that all of the youths that I continue to help, they know, too. So with that, I am grateful…I say to you and everyone else, God bless. So take care."

On December 13, 2005, after exhausting all forms of appeal, Williams was executed by lethal injection at San Quentin State Prison, California. Newsweek reported thousands of protesters outside, most of whom were seeking Williams' clemency. He was the 12th person to be executed by the state since California reinstated the death penalty in 1992.[33] The sprawling San Quentin prison complex. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


After Williams was pronounced dead at 12:35 a.m. PST (08:35 UTC), several reporters who witnessed the execution held a news conference. Their description can be found here.[34] PST is UTC-8 The Pacific Standard Time Zone (PST) is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) resulting in UTC-8. ... UTC redirects here. ...


An unnamed reporter at the execution said Williams showed no resistance as he was led into the execution chamber and strapped to the gurney, and aside from weeping silently, Tookie showed no emotion before he was executed. CNN reported that the staff had difficulty inserting the needles, and a process which should have been short took about 20 minutes.[35] The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...


Contra Costa Times reporter John Simerman added, "They had some trouble with the second I.V., which was in the left arm… Williams, at one point, grimaced or looked almost out of frustration…at the difficulty there…He had his glasses on the whole time. He kept them on, and he kept looking…" The Contra Costa Times is a daily newspaper serving Contra Costa County, California. ...


Kevin Fagan, a reporter for the San Francisco Chronicle, said: Kevin Fagan (born April 25, 1963) is a former American Football defensive end who played seven seasons for the San Francisco 49ers from 1987 to 1993 in the National Football League. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ...

"This is the sixth one I have seen here at San Quentin, and I have to say this was very different. The most notable thing was that Williams had supporters at the back of the room… Ms. Becnel was among them, I understand. We could see them, and throughout the last part of the execution—or preparing him when he was still conscious, they gave what looked like black power salutes several times to him, one man and two women. And most strikingly at the end of the execution, as those three were heading out, they yelled, 'The State of California just killed an innocent man!' which is the first time I ever heard any outburst in the death chamber there." ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Innocence is a term that describes the lack of guilt of an individual, with respect to a crime. ...

Fagan later wrote a detailed description of the execution.[36]


Witnesses described a somber mood in the execution chamber. Williams apparently exchanged many glances with his supporters and talked with his guards throughout the process. Members of Albert Owens' family who witnessed the execution were described as stony-faced; moreover, Lora Owens appeared very upset, according to MSNBC anchor Rita Cosby. For the news website, see msnbc. ... Rita Cosby (born November 18, 1964, in Brooklyn, New York, but raised in Greenwich, Connecticut) is a veteran TV news anchor and senior correspondent who most recently worked at MSNBC. Cosby has received three Emmy Awards, the Jack Anderson Award for investigative excellence, the Matrix Award, and the Ellis Island...


Aftermath

Williams’ spokeswoman and co-author, Barbara Becnel, said shortly after Williams's death that she is "now on a mission" [37] to obtain justice for Stanley Tookie Williams. Williams directed Becnel to receive his body and Becnel began making the funeral arrangements.[38] Barbara Becnel Barbara Cottman Becnel (b. ...


Becnel reacted to Williams' execution by saying "We are going to prove his innocence, and when we do, we are going to show that Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger is, in fact, himself a cold blooded murderer."


An archived copy of a Maura Dolan's Los Angeles Times November 29 article on the history of Becnel's efforts on behalf of Williams can be found here.[39] is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Williams' body was laid out for viewing on December 19, 2005 and drew approximately 2000 mourners.[40] A memorial service was held in Los Angeles on December 20, 2005, where Becnel read his final wishes. Williams' funeral filled the 1,500 seat Bethel AME church and drew a wide variety of people from current gang members to celebrities and religious leaders.[41] On June 25, 2006, Barbara Becnel and Williams' longtime friend, Shirley Neal, sprinkled his ashes into a lake in Thokoza Park in the city of Soweto, South Africa as Williams had wished. is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the AME Church, is a Christian denomination founded by Bishop Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. ...


At his funeral, the last words of Williams echoed from a tape played to mourners, whom he asked to spread a message to loved ones:

“The war within me is over. I battled my demons and I was triumphant."
“Teach them how to avoid our destructive footsteps. Teach them to strive for higher education. Teach them to promote peace and teach them to focus on rebuilding the neighborhoods that you, others, and I helped to destroy."

Rapper Snoop Dogg, himself a Crip, recited a poem to mourners about the execution: Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... Crip may refer to: Crips, one of the oldest, largest, and most notorious gangs in the United States Crip (software), a Perl script designed to facilitate CD ripping Referring to a person as a crip or being cripped is short for crippled, a derogatory term for people with a disability...

"It's 9:15 on 12/13 and another black king will be taken from the scene."[42]

Crips Gang member and rapper, WC, made a referance to the execution of Williams on his album Guilty By Affiliation. The line reffering to the execution reads as follows- "Charles Manson can kill to see another day, but if your black like Tookie they're gonna steal you away." WC or Wc may refer to: Water closet, also known as a flush toilet Warren Commission Workers compensation Wikimedia Commons World Championship games World cup, a type of global sporting competition wc (Unix), a Unix utility used for counting words and lines in a file WC (rapper), a hardcore gangsta... Charles Milles Manson (b. ...


His death also catalyzed statewide soul-searching around the death penalty itself, as documented in San Francisco Magazine's piece, Killing the Death Penalty [43] by Jaimal Yogis. San Francisco is a monthly glossy magazine which covers arts, food, and entertainment in the San Francisco Bay Area. ...


Williams' children

Travon Williams, the older son by Bonnie Williams-Taylor, whom Williams wed in 1981 before his conviction, was 32 years old at the time of his father's execution. Williams-Taylor talked to her ex-husband by phone that day. "He was great. He said he was at peace with himself and proud of his son," who avoided the gang life, according to Leslie Fulbright, a staff writer for the San Francisco Chronicle.[44] Travon is married, a father, owns a home and works for a social services agency in the Los Angeles area, said Barbara Becnel, Stanley Williams' co-author, according to Associated Press writer Kim Curtis in November 2005.[45]


Travon was the only family member who spoke at the funeral. According to the December 21, 2005 article, "Funeral Service Celebrates Williams' Conversion From Violence to Peace; About 2,000 mourners hear celebrities and friends call the Crips' co-founder's execution a waste and praise his advocacy for children" written by LA Times staff writer Lisa Richardson, Williams' son "brought the church to its feet" when he promised to teach Schwarzenegger about redemption. He said, "I feel it's my duty to go on a worldwide campaign to show that redemption is real," he said.[46] is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Stanley Williams' other son, Stanley "Little Tookie" Williams, Jr., a Neighborhood Crip, was found guilty of shooting a twenty year-old woman to death in an alley off Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Williams, Jr. was sentenced to sixteen years in prison for second-degree murder. The Rollin 60 Neighborhood Crip is a street gang based out in Los Angeles, California. ...


In November 2005, the Fontana, California Police Department advised print and television media that a warrant had been issued for a registered sex offender, Lafayette Jones. The police department identified Jones as the son of Stanley Tookie Williams.[47][48] The defense of Stanley Tookie Williams stated that this was a lie purported by the police department, and in their Reply Petition for Executive Clemency, they attached a declaration from Lafayette Jones' mother which declared, under penalty of perjury, that Lafayette was not Stanley Tookie Williams' son. Location of Fontana in California Coordinates: , Country State County San Bernardino Incorporated (city) 1952-06-25 [2] Government  - Mayor Mark Nuaimi [1] Area  - City  36. ... This article is about the criminal term. ...


References

Books by Williams

  • Blue Rage, Black Redemption: A Memoir (Paperback) by Stanley Tookie Williams, 2005, (PB) ISBN 0-9753584-0-5
  • Gangs and Drugs (Williams, Stanley. Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence,) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, (PB) ISBN 1-56838-135-2, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 9-12
  • Gangs and Self-Esteem: Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence (Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1999, (PB) ISBN 0-613-02690-X, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 4-8
  • Gangs and the Abuse of Power (Williams, Stanley. Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence.) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, ISBN 1-56838-130-1, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 9-12
  • Gangs and Violence (Williams, Stanley. Tookie Speaks Out Against Gangs.) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, (PB) ISBN 1-56838-134-4 (HB} ISBN 0-8239-2345-2, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 4-8
  • Gangs and Wanting to Belong (Williams, Stanley. Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence.) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, (PB) ISBN 1-56838-131-X, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 9-12
  • Gangs and Weapons (Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence) by Stanley Tookie Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, (PB) ISBN 1-56838-132-8, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 9-12
  • Gangs and Your Friends (Williams, Stanley. Tookie Speaks Out Against Gangs.) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, (PB) ISBN 1-56838-136-0, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 4-8
  • Gangs and Your Neighborhood (Williams, Stanley. Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence.) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, (PB) ISBN 1-56838-137-9, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 4-8
  • Life in Prison by Stanley Tookie Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1998, (PB) ISBN 1-58717-094-9, 80 pages, Reading level: Ages 4-8 (royalties donated to the Institute for the Prevention of Youth Violence)
  • Redemption : From Original Gangster to Nobel Prize Nominee - The Extraordinary Life Story of Stanley Tookie Williams (Paperback) by Stanley Williams, 2004, (HB) ISBN 1-903854-34-2

Magazines

is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nation logo The Nation is a weekly left-liberal periodical devoted to politics and culture. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... San Francisco is a monthly glossy magazine which covers arts, food, and entertainment in the San Francisco Bay Area. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Paul Van Slambrouck, "On Death Row, an Author and Nobel Nominee," Christian Science Monitor (28 November 2000) p. 1.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Democracy Now! logo. ... Democracy Now! logo. ... Screenshot of About. ... The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) is responsible for the operation of the California state prison and parole systems. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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