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Encyclopedia > Stanley Milgram
Stanley Milgram
Stanley Milgram

Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933December 20, 1984) was a psychologist at Yale University, Harvard University and the City University of New York. While at Yale, he conducted the small-world experiment (the source of the six degrees of separation concept) and the Milgram experiment on obedience to authority. He also introduced the concept of familiar strangers. Image File history File links Stanley_Milgram. ... Image File history File links Stanley_Milgram. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A psychologist is a scientist who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human behavior and mental processes. ... Yale redirects here. ... Harvard redirects here. ... The City University of New York (CUNY; acronym pronounced kyoo-nee), is the public university system of New York City. ... Yale redirects here. ... The small world phenomenon (also known as the small world effect) is the hypothesis that everyone in the world can be reached through a short chain of social acquaintances. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The experimenter (E) persuades the participant (S) to give what the participant believes are painful electric shocks to another participant (A), who is actually an actor. ... In politics, authority (Latin auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to potestas and imperium) is often used interchangeably with the term power. However, their meanings differ. ... A familiar stranger is an individual who is recognized from daily activities, but with whom one does not interact. ...


Although considered one of the most important psychologists of the 20th century, he never took a psychology course as an undergraduate at Queens College, New York, where he earned his Bachelor's degree in political science in 1954. He applied to a Ph.D. program in social psychology at Harvard University and was initially rejected due to lack of psychology background. He was accepted in 1954 after taking six courses in psychology, and graduated with the Ph.D. in 1960. Most likely because of his controversial Milgram Experiment, Milgram was denied tenure at Harvard after becoming an assistant professor there, but instead accepted an offer to become a tenured full professor at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (Blass, 2004). Milgram had a number of significant influences, including psychologists Solomon Asch and Gordon Allport (Milgram, 1977). Milgram himself influenced other psychologists such as Alan C. Elms, who was his first graduate assistant on the obedience experiment. Queens College is one of the senior colleges of the City University of New York. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Social psychology is often conceived to be the study of how individuals perceive, influence, and relate to others. ... Harvard redirects here. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... The experimenter (E) persuades the participant (S) to give what the participant believes are painful electric shocks to another participant (A), who is actually an actor. ... Solomon E. Asch (September 14, 1907 - February 20, 1996) was a world-renowned American Gestalt psychologist and pioneer in social psychology. ... Gordon Willard Allport (November 11, 1897 - October 9, 1967) was an American psychologist. ...


In 1984, Milgram died of a heart attack at the age of 51 in the city of his birth, New York. He left behind a widow, Alexandra "Sasha" Milgram, and two children. 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... Nickname: Big Apple Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ...

Contents

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Obedience to authority

Main article: Milgram experiment The experimenter (E) persuades the participant (S) to give what the participant believes are painful electric shocks to another participant (A), who is actually an actor. ...


In 1963, Milgram submitted the results of his Milgram experiments in the article "Behavioral study of obedience". In the ensuing controversy that erupted, the APA held up his application for membership for a year because of questions about the ethics of his work, but then granted him full membership. Ten years later, in 1974, Milgram published Obedience to Authority and was awarded the annual social psychology award by the AAAS (mostly for his work over the social aspects of obedience). Inspired in part by the 1961 trial of Adolph Eichmann, his models were later also used to explain the 1968 My Lai massacre (including authority training in the military, depersonalizing the "enemy" through race and cultural differences, etc.). 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... The experimenter (E) persuades the participant (S) to give what the participant believes are painful electric shocks to another participant (A), who is actually an actor. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Adolf Eichmann (March 19, 1906 — June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking official in Nazi Germany, and served as an Obersturmbannführer in the S.S.. He was largely responsible for the logistics of the extermination of millions of people during the Jews, which was called the final solution... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Photographs of the My Lai massacre provoked world outrage and made it an international scandal. ...


In 1976, CBS presented a made-for-television movie about obedience experiments: The Tenth Level with William Shatner as Stephen Hunter, a Milgram-like scientist. Milgram himself was a consultant for the film, though his personal life did not resemble that of the Shatner character. 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... It has been suggested that CBS evening news anchors be merged into this article or section. ... William Shatner (born March 22, 1931 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada) is a Canadian actor, who gained fame for his starring role as Captain James T. Kirk of the USS Enterprise in the television show Star Trek from 1966 to 1969 and in seven of the subsequent movies. ...


A French political thriller, titled I... comme Icare ("I"...as in Icarus), involves a key scene where Milgram's experiment on obedience to authority is explained and shown.


In 1986, musician Peter Gabriel wrote a song called We do what we're told (Milgram's 37), referring to the number of fully obedient participants in Milgram's Experiment 18: A Peer Administers Shocks. In this one, 37 out of 40 participants administered the full range of shocks up to 450 volts, the highest obedience rate Milgram found in his whole series. Peter Brian Gabriel (born February 13, 1950, in Chobham, Surrey, England) is an English musician. ...

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Small World Phenomenon

Main article: Small world phenomenon The small world phenomenon (also known as the small world effect) is the hypothesis that everyone in the world can be reached through a short chain of social acquaintances. ...


The six degrees of separation concept originates from Milgram's "small world experiment" in 1967 that tracked chains of acquaintances in the US. In the experiment, Milgram sent several packages to random people, asking them to forward the package, by hand, to someone specific. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...

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See also

Main
Lists
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The experimenter (E) persuades the participant (S) to give what the participant believes are painful electric shocks to another participant (A), who is actually an actor. ... The name Silent Generation was coined in the November 5, 1951 cover story of Time to refer to the generation coming of age at the time. ... The small world phenomenon (also known as the small world effect) is the hypothesis that everyone in the world can be reached through a short chain of social acquaintances. ... In the field of social psychology, a breaching experiment is an experiment that seeks to examine peoples reactions to violations of commonly accepted social rules or norms. ... Cyranoids are people who do not speak thoughts originating in their own central nervous system: Rather, the words they speak originate in the mind of another person who transmits these words to the cyranoid by radio transmission. ... List of ethicists including religious or political figures recognized by those outside their tradition as having made major contributions to ideas about ethics, or raised major controversies by taking strong positions on previously unexplored problems. ... The following is a list of historically important scientific experiments and observations. ... This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. ... Famous Social Psychologists: Gordon Allport Michael Argyle Elliot Aronson Solomon Asch Alex Bavelas Howard Becker Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi Daryl Bem Gustav Le Bon Marilynn Brewer Urie Bronfenbrenner (founder of Human Ecology / theory of the ecology of human development) Roger Brown Hadley Cantril Merrill Carlsmith Robert Cialdini Ronald L. Cohen Derek...

References

  • Milgram, Stanley. "The Small World Problem". Psychology Today, May 1967. pp 60 - 67
  • Milgram, S. (1974), Obedience to Authority; An Experimental View ISBN 0-06-131983-X
  • Milgram, S. (1974), "The Perils of Obedience", Harper's Magazine
  • Milgram, S. (1977), The individual in a social world: Essays and experiments / Stanley Milgram. ISBN 0-201-04382-3.
    • Abridged and adapted from Obedience to Authority.
  • Blass, T. (2004). The Man Who Shocked the World: The Life and Legacy of Stanley Milgram. ISBN 0-7382-0399-8
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Psychology Today is a monthly magazine published in the United States. ...

External links

  • stanleymilgram.com - site maintained by Dr Thomas Blass
  • milgramreenactment.org - site documenting Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiment by UK artist Rod Dickinson
  • 'The Man Who Shocked the World' article in Psychology Today by Thomas Blass
  • [1] and [2] - papers on the ethics of the Obedience to Authority experiments by Milgram's research assistant, Alan Elms

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stanley Milgram - definition of Stanley Milgram in Encyclopedia (322 words)
Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 - December 20, 1984) was a Yale University psychologist who conducted the Small world experiment (the source of the six degrees of separation concept) and the Milgram experiment on obedience to authority.
Milgram's mentor at Harvard was the psychologist Solomon Asch.
Milgram died in 1984 in the city of his birth, New York, at the young age of 51 of a heart attack.
Stanley Milgram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (566 words)
Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 – December 20, 1984) was a psychologist at Yale University, Harvard University and the City University of New York.
In 1984, Milgram died of a heart attack at the age of 51 in the city of his birth, New York.
Ten years later, in 1974, Milgram published Obedience to Authority and was awarded the annual social psychology award by the AAAS (mostly for his work over the social aspects of obedience).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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