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Encyclopedia > Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick

Kubrick in the 1970s.
Born July 26, 1928
New York City, New York, U.S.
Died March 7, 1999 (aged 70)
Harpenden, Hertfordshire, England
Years active 19511999
Spouse(s) Toba Metz (1948–1951)
Ruth Sobotka (1954–1957)
Christiane Harlan (1958-1999)
Children Anya Kubrick (b.1959)
Vivian Kubrick (b.1960)

Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928March 7, 1999) was an influential and acclaimed Academy Award winning American film director and producer considered among the greatest of the 20th Century. He directed a number of highly acclaimed and sometimes controversial films. BAFTA Award The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), is a British organisation that hosts annual awards shows for film, television, childrens film and television, and interactive media. ... Winners of the BAFTA Award for Best Direction presented by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. ... Barry Lyndon (1975) is an award-winning period film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon (1844) by William Makepeace Thackeray. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... A film producer creates the conditions for making movies. ...

Contents

Early life

Stanley Kubrick was born on July 26, 1928 at the Lying-In Hospital in Manhattan, the first of two children born to Jacques Leonard Kubrick (1901–1985) and his wife Gertrude (née Perveler; 1903–1985); his sister, Barbara, was born in 1934. Jacques Kubrick, whose parents were of Jewish Austrian origin, was a doctor. At Stanley's birth, the Kubricks lived in an apartment at 2160 Clinton Avenue in The Bronx. is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Bronx (disambiguation). ...


Kubrick's father taught him chess at age twelve; the game remained a life-long obsession. When Stanley was thirteen years old, Jacques Kubrick bought him a Graflex camera, triggering Kubrick's fascination with still photography. He was also interested in jazz, attempting a brief career as a drummer. This article is about the Western board game. ... Graflex was a manufacturer, a brand name and several models of cameras. ... Lens and mounting of a large format camera Photography is the technique of recording and generating permanent images, by the capturing and preservation of physical stimulus-patterns on a layer of photosensitive material. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... For the comic book character, see Drummer (comics). ...


Kubrick attended William Howard Taft High School 1941–1945. He was a poor student with a meager 67 grade average. On graduation from high school in 1945, when soldiers returning from the Second World War crowded colleges, his poor grades eliminated hopes of higher education. Later in life, Kubrick spoke disdainfully of his education and of education in general, maintaining that nothing about school interested him. William Howard Taft High School was a high school in South Bronx, New York City. ... A grade in education can mean either a teachers evaluation of a students work or a students level of educational progress, usually one grade per year (often denoted by an ordinal number, such as the 3rd Grade or the 12th Grade). This article is about evaluation of... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In high school, he was chosen official school photographer for a year. Eventually, he sought jobs on his own, and by graduation time had sold a photographic series to Look magazine in NYC. Kubrick supplemented his income playing "chess for quarters" in Washington Square Park and in various Manhattan chess clubs. He registered for night school at the City College to improve his grade-point average. He worked as a freelance photographer for Look, becoming an apprentice photographer in 1946, and later a full-time staff photographer. Look was a weekly, general-interest magazine published in the United States from 1937 to 1971, with more of an emphasis on photographs than articles. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Washington Square North. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... City College of The City University of New York The City College of The City University of New York (known more commonly as the City College of New York or simply City College) is a senior college of the City University of New York, in New York City. ...


During his Look magazine years, on May 29, 1948, Kubrick married Toba Metz (b. 1930) and they lived in Greenwich Village, divorcing in 1951. It was then that Kubrick began frequenting film screenings at the Museum of Modern Art and in the cinemas of New York City. He was particularly inspired by the complex, fluid camera movement of Max Ophüls, whose films influenced Kubrick's later visual style. is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... This article is about the museum in New York City. ... Max Ophüls (May 6, 1902 – March 25, 1957) was a German-born Jewish film director. ...


Many early-period (1945–1950) photographs by Kubrick were published in the book "Drama and Shadows" (2005, Phaidon Press).


Film career and later life

Early films

In 1951, Kubrick's friend, Alex Singer, persuaded him to start making short documentaries for the March of Time, a provider of newsreels to movie theatres. Kubrick agreed, and independently financed Day of the Fight (1951). Although the distributor went out of business that year, Kubrick sold Day of the Fight to RKO Pictures for a profit of one hundred dollars. Kubrick quit his job at Look magazine and began working on his second short documentary, Flying Padre (1951), funded by RKO. A third film, The Seafarers (1953), Kubrick's first color film, was a 30-minute promotional short film for the Seafarers' International Union. These three films constitute Kubrick's only surviving work in the documentary genre (he was involved in other similar shorts which have been lost, most notably World Assembly of Youth). He also was second unit director on an episode about the life of Abraham Lincoln for the Omnibus television programme. The Seafarers was announced to be released on an official DVD, but never was; none of these shorts has ever been officially released, though they are widely bootlegged, and clips are used in the documentary Stanley Kubrick: A Life In Pictures. Day of the Fight is a 1951 short subject documentary focusing on prize fighter Walter Cartier during the height of his career. ... This article is about the film production company. ... Flying Padre is a 1951 short subject (8-minute) black-and-white documentary, which is notable as the second picture directed by Stanley Kubrick. ... Stanley Kubricks third film, a short for the Seafarers International Union, directed in June of 1953. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... World Assembly of Youth is an alleged documentary film created by Stanley Kubrick in the 1950s. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...

Self-Portrait of Kubrick with a Leica III camera, when he worked for Look (from the book "Drama and Shadows").
Self-Portrait of Kubrick with a Leica III camera, when he worked for Look (from the book "Drama and Shadows").

Kubrick's focus on narrative feature films began with Fear and Desire (1953). Fear and Desire is about a team of soldiers behind enemy lines in a fictional war. In the finale, the men see that the faces of their enemy are identical to their own (the same cast play all the characters). Kubrick and wife Toba Metz were the only crew on the film, which was written by Kubrick's friend Howard Sackler, later a successful playwright. Fear and Desire garnered respectable reviews, but failed commercially. In later life, Kubrick was embarrassed by the film, dismissing it as amateur, refusing Fear and Desire's projection in retrospectives and public screenings on establishing himself as a major filmmaker. Although the film's copyright lapsed into the public domain, it is often said that Kubrick bought every print of the film which he could, to keep people from seeing it. At least one copy remained in the hands of a private collector, and the film was subsequently bootlegged on VHS and, later on DVD. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Leica is the name of several cameras produced by a German company of the same name. ... Look was a weekly, general-interest magazine published in the United States from 1937 to 1971, with more of an emphasis on photographs than articles. ... Fear and Desire (1953) is a film by Stanley Kubrick about a team of soldiers trapped behind enemy lines in a fictional war. ... Howard Sackler (1929 to 1982), an American screenwriter and playwright, is best known for writing The Great White Hope (play: 1967; film: 1970). ...


Kubrick's marriage to high school sweetheart Toba ended during the making of Fear and Desire. He met his second wife, Austrian-born dancer and theatrical designer, Ruth Sobotka, in 1952. They lived together in the East Village from 1952–1955 until their marriage on January 15, 1955; the couple later moved to Hollywood during the summer of 1955. Sobotka, who made a cameo appearance in Kubrick's next film, Killer's Kiss (1954), also served as art director on The Killing (1956). Like Fear and Desire, Killer's Kiss is a short feature film, with a running time of slightly more than an hour, of limited commercial and critical success. The film is about a young, heavyweight boxer at the end of his career who is involved with organized crime. Both Fear and Desire and Killer's Kiss were privately funded by Kubrick's family and friends. Ruth Sobotka (born in Vienna, Austria, August 4, 1925 - died in New York City, June 17, 1967) was an Austrian ballerina, the second wife of famous film director Stanley Kubrick from 1954 to 1957. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Killers Kiss (1955) is a film by Stanley Kubrick. ... The Killing (1956) is a film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel Clean Break by Lionel White. ...


The Killing

Main article: The Killing
The Killing

Alex Singer introduced Kubrick to a producer named James B. Harris, and the two became lifelong friends. Their business partnership, Harris-Kubrick Productions, financed Kubrick's next three films. They bought the rights to the Lionel White novel Clean Break, which Kubrick and co-screenwriter Jim Thompson turned into a story about a race track robbery gone wrong. Starring Sterling Hayden, The Killing was Kubrick's first film with a professional cast and crew. The film made impressive use of non-linear time, unusual in 1950s cinema, and, though financially unsuccessful, was Kubrick's first critically successful film. The widespread admiration for The Killing brought Harris-Kubrick Productions to the attention of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The studio offered them its massive collection of copyrighted stories from which to choose their next project. Eventually, they chose The Burning Secret by Austrian writer Stefan Zweig. Kubrick wrote a screenplay with Calder Willingham, but the deal collapsed before the film got properly underway. The Killing (1956) is a film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel Clean Break by Lionel White. ... Image File history File links The_killing. ... Image File history File links The_killing. ... James B. Harris (b. ... Lionel White (1905-1995) was a book author whos dark noirish stories were sometimes made into films. ... James Myers Thompson (September 27, 1906, Anadarko, Oklahoma Territory–April 7, 1977, Los Angeles, California) was an American writer of short stories, screenplays and novels, largely of the pulp fiction kind. ... Sterling Hayden (March 26, 1916 - May 23, 1986) was an American actor. ... The Killing (1956) is a film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel Clean Break by Lionel White. ... For alternate meanings of MGM, see MGM (disambiguation). ... Stefan Zweig Stefan Zweig (November 28, 1881, Vienna, Austria – February 23, 1942, Petrópolis, Brazil) was an Austrian novelist, playwright, journalist and biographer. ...


Paths of Glory

Main article: Paths of Glory

The World War I story, based on Humphrey Cobb's anti-war novel Paths of Glory (1935), is about three innocent French soldiers charged with cowardice by their superior officers as an example to the other soldiers. Kirk Douglas was cast as Colonel Dax, a humanitarian officer trying to prevent the soldiers' execution. Paths of Glory (1957) was Stanley Kubrick's first significant commercial and critical success, establishing him as an up-and-coming cineaste. Critics praised the unvarnished combat scenes, and Kubrick's cinematography: Colonel Dax's march through his soldiers' trench in a single, unbroken reverse-tracking shot has become a classic cinematic trope cited in film classes. Steven Spielberg named this his favorite Kubrick film. Paths of Glory (1957) is a debatedly anti-war black and white film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel of the same name by Humphrey Cobb. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Humphrey Cobb (September 5, 1899 - April 25, 1944) was a screenwriter and novelist. ... Kirk Douglas (born Issur Danielovitch Demsky December 9, 1916) is an iconic American actor and film producer known for his gravelly voice and his recurring roles as the kinds of characters Douglas himself once described as sons of bitches. He is also father to Hollywood actor and producer Michael Douglas. ... Paths of Glory (1957) is a debatedly anti-war black and white film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel of the same name by Humphrey Cobb. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ...


Paths of Glory was filmed in Munich. During its production, Kubrick met and romanced the young German actress Christiane Harlan (credited by her stage name "Susanne Christian"), who played the only woman speaking part in the film. Kubrick divorced his second wife Ruth Sobotka in 1957. Christiane Susanne Harlan (b. 1932 in Germany) belonged to a theatrical family, and had trained as an actress. She and Kubrick married in 1958 and remained together until his death in 1999. During her marriage to Kubrick, Christiane concentrated on a career as a painter. In addition to raising Christiane's young daughter Katharina (b. 1953) from her first marriage to the late German actor, Werner Bruhns (d. 1977), the couple had two daughters: Anya (b. 1958) and Vivian (b. 1960). Christiane's brother Jan Harlan was Kubrick's executive producer from 1975 onwards. For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Christiane Kubrick (née Harlan) (born May 10, 1932) is a German actress, dancer, painter and singer. ... A stage name, also called a screen name, is a pseudonym used by performers and entertainers such as actors, comedians, musicians, djs, clowns, and professional wrestlers. ... Jan Harlan is the brother of Christiane Kubrick, Stanley Kubricks widow. ...


Spartacus

Main article: Spartacus (film)
Spartacus

On returning to the United States, Kubrick worked for six months on the Marlon Brando vehicle One-Eyed Jacks (1961). Later, Kubrick claimed Brando forced him from the film, because Brando wanted to direct it himself. Kubrick languished working on unproduced screenplays (including, notably, Jim Thompson's treatment, Lunatic at Large) until Kirk Douglas asked him to assume direction of Spartacus (1960) from Anthony Mann who, two weeks into shooting, was fired by the studio because he lacked leadership (or, more likely, for disagreeing with producer-star Kirk Douglas). Spartacus is a 1960 film directed by Stanley Kubrick and based on the novel of the same name by Howard Fast about the historical life of Spartacus and the Third Servile War. ... Image File history File links Spartacus22. ... Image File history File links Spartacus22. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... One-Eyed Jacks, a western movie released in 1961, is the only film directed by Marlon Brando, who replaced the original director, Stanley Kubrick. ... Kirk Douglas (born Issur Danielovitch Demsky December 9, 1916) is an iconic American actor and film producer known for his gravelly voice and his recurring roles as the kinds of characters Douglas himself once described as sons of bitches. He is also father to Hollywood actor and producer Michael Douglas. ... Spartacus is a 1960 film directed by Stanley Kubrick and based on the novel of the same name by Howard Fast about the historical life of Spartacus and the Third Servile War. ... Anthony Mann (June 30, 1906 - April 29, 1967), was an American actor and film director. ...


Based upon the true story of a doomed uprising of Roman slaves, Spartacus established Stanley Kubrick as a major director. The production, however, was difficult; creative differences arose between Kubrick and Douglas, the star and producer of the film. Frustrated by lack of creative control, Kubrick later largely disowned its authorship. The Douglas-Kubrick creative control battles destroyed their work relationship from Paths of Glory. Years later, Kirk Douglas referred to Stanley Kubrick as "a talented shit". Spartacus was a major critical and commercial success, but its embattled production convinced Kubrick to find ways of working with Hollywood financing while remaining independent of its production system. Kubrick referred to Hollywood production as "film by fiat, film by frenzy", and this reasoning was behind Kubrick's moving to England in 1962. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lolita

Main article: Lolita (1962 film)
Sue Lyon in Lolita.

In 1962, Kubrick moved to England to film Lolita, and resided there for the rest of his life. Unsurprisingly, Lolita was Kubrick's first major controversy. The book by Vladimir Nabokov, dealing with an affair between a middle-aged pedophile and his twelve-year-old step-daughter, already was notorious when Kubrick embarked on the project. However, it was also steadily achieving popularity in the United States; eventually, the difficult subject matter was mocked in the film's tagline, perhaps to gain attention: "How did they ever make a film of Lolita?" Nabokov wrote a three-hundred page screenplay for Kubrick, which the director abandoned; a second draft by Nabokov, roughly half the length of its first, was revamped by Kubrick into the final screenplay. (Nabokov estimated that 20% of his material made it into the film.) “Lolita (film)” redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lolita_1962_02. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lolita_1962_02. ... Sue Lyon in Lolita Sue Lyon (born July 10, 1946 in Davenport, Iowa) is an American former actress. ... “Lolita (film)” redirects here. ... Lolita (1955) is a novel by Vladimir Nabokov. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... Pedophilia, paedophilia, or pædophilia (see spelling differences), is the paraphilia of being sexually attracted primarily or exclusively to pre-pubescent children. ... A tagline is a variant of a branding slogan typically used in marketing materials and advertising. ...


Despite changing Lolita's age from twelve years to fourteen years, which was a more acceptable age for commercial appeal at the time, several scenes in the final film had to be re-edited to allow the film's release. The resulting film toned down what were considered the novel's more perverse aspects, leaving much to the viewer's imagination, some viewers have even wondered whether Humbert and Lolita actually embarked on a sexual affair, as most of their relationship, sexually, is implied and suggested. Later, Kubrick commented that, had he known the severity of the censorship, he probably would not have made the film. However, Kubrick always spoke highly of James Mason, who portrayed Humbert Humbert in the film, identifying him as one of the actors with whom he most enjoyed working. Lolita also was the first time Kubrick worked with British comic Peter Sellers, a collaboration which proved one of the most successful of his early career, most notable for Dr. Strangelove (1964). Oswald Morris was the director of photography. James Neville Mason (May 15, 1909 – July 27, 1984) was a three-time Academy Award nominated English actor who attained stardom in both British and American films. ... Peter Sellers, CBE (8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was a British comedian and actor best known for his three roles in Dr. Strangelove and as Inspector Clouseau in The Pink Panther films. ...


Lolita's release in 1962 was surrounded by immense hype, which was responsible for the box office success at the time; it was also given an "Adults Only" rating, since ratings for film and literature were not applicable at the time of Lolita's release, limiting all screenings of the film to those over the age of 18. Critical reception for the film was mixed, many praising it for its tackling of an extremly daring and high-risk subject, others surprised by the lack of intimacy between Lolita and Humbert. The film received an Academy Award nomination for Best Writing of an Adapted Screenplay, and Sue Lyon, who played the title role, won a Golden Globe for Best Newcomer Actress. Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... The Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay is one of the Academy Awards, the most prominent film awards in the United States. ... Sue Lyon in Lolita Sue Lyon (born July 10, 1946 in Davenport, Iowa) is an American former actress. ... The Golden Globe Awards are American awards for motion pictures and television programs, given out each year during a formal dinner. ...


Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb

Peter Sellers as the titular character of Dr. Strangelove.

Kubrick's next film, Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964), became a cult film. The screenplay—based upon the novel Red Alert, by ex-RAF flight lieutenant Peter George (writing as Peter Bryant)—was co-written by Kubrick and George, with contributions by American satirist Terry Southern. For the hit 1987 single by Depeche Mode, see the album Music for the Masses Film poster for Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is a 1964 satirical film directed by Stanley Kubrick. ... Image File history File links Dr-strangelove-06. ... Image File history File links Dr-strangelove-06. ... For the hit 1987 single by Depeche Mode, see the album Music for the Masses Film poster for Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is a 1964 satirical film directed by Stanley Kubrick. ... // Events January 29 - The film Dr. Strangelove is released. ... Red Alert is a 1958 novel by Peter George about nuclear war. ... Peter Bryan George (March 24, 1924 - June 11, 1966) was a British author, most famous for the Cold War thriller novel Red Alert. ... Terry Southern (May 1, 1924 – October 29, 1995) was a highly influential American short story writer, novelist, essayist, screenwriter and university lecturer. ...


Dr. Strangelove is often considered a masterpiece of black humor. While Red Alert is a serious, cautionary tale of accidental atomic war for Cold War-era readers, Dr. Strangelove accidentally evolved into what Kubrick called a "nightmare comedy." Originally intended as a thriller, Kubrick found the conditions leading to nuclear war so absurd that the story became dark and funny rather than thrilling; Kubrick reconceived it as comedy, recruiting Terry Southern for the required anarchic irony. Black comedy, also known as black humor, is a subgenre of comedy and satire that deals with serious subjects – death, divorce, drug abuse, et cetera in a humorous manner. ...


Peter Sellers, memorable as 'Clare Quilty' in Lolita, was hired to simultaneously play four roles in Dr. Strangelove. Eventually, Sellers played three, due to an injured leg and difficulty in mastering the Texan accent of bomber pilot Major "King" Kong. Later, Kubrick called Sellers "amazing," but lamented that his energy rarely lasted beyond two or three takes. To capture the actor's limited energy, Kubrick set up two cameras to film Sellers's improvisation. Strangelove often is cited as one of Sellers's best films, and proof of his comic genius. Peter Sellers, CBE (8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was a British comedian and actor best known for his three roles in Dr. Strangelove and as Inspector Clouseau in The Pink Panther films. ...


Kubrick's decision to film a Cold War thriller as a black comedy was a daring artistic risk that paid off for him and Columbia Pictures. Coincidentally, that same year, Columbia Studios released the dramatic nuclear war thriller Fail-Safe. Its close similarity with Dr Strangelove prompted Kubrick to consider suing the makers of that film, but he decided against it. However, Fail-Safe was based on a novel published in 1962. This article is about a tone of comedy. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... Fail-Safe is a 1964 film directed by Sidney Lumet, based on the 1962 novel by Eugene Burdick and Harvey Wheeler. ...


Dr. Strangelove portrays a deliberate American nuclear attack launched against the Soviet Union, by renegade U.S.A.F. General Jack D. Ripper (Sterling Hayden). In real time, the film's duration, the story intercuts among three locales: (i) Burpleson Air Force Base, where RAF Group Captain Lionel Mandrake (Sellers) tries stopping the mad Gen. Ripper; (ii) the Pentagon War Room, where the U.S. President (Sellers), U.S.A.F. General Buck Turgidson (George C. Scott), and (officially ex-) Nazi scientist Dr. Strangelove (Sellers) try stopping (or not) General Ripper's B-52 bombers enroute to dropping nuclear bombs on the Soviet Union; and (iii) Major Kong's (Slim Pickens) B-52 bomber where he and his crew of ordinary airmen, never knowing it is false, doggedly try to complete their mission. Production designer Ken Adam's sets for the film—especially the War Room in the Pentagon—are considered classic film production design. Sterling Hayden (March 26, 1916 - May 23, 1986) was an American actor. ... George Campbell Scott (October 18, 1927 - September 22, 1999) was a stage and film actor, director, and producer. ... The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range strategic bomber flown by the United States Air Force since 1955, replacing the Convair B-36. ... Slim Pickens riding the bomb in the movie Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb Louis Bert Lindley, Jr. ... Sir Ken Adam (born 5 February 1921 as Klaus Adam) is a production designer most famous for his set designs for the early films in the James Bond series. ...


In belittling the sacrosanct norms of the political culture of mutually assured destruction (MAD) as the squabbling of intellectual children, Dr. Strangelove foreshadowed the cultural upheavals of the late 1960s and was enormously successful with the nascent American counter-culture. Dr. Strangelove earned four Academy Award nominations (including Best Picture and Best Director) and the New York Film Critics' Best Director award. Kubrick's successful Dr. Strangelove persuaded the studios that he was an auteur who could be trusted to deliver popular films despite his unusual ideas. Director of Photography was Gilbert Taylor, a noted cinematographer who shot Star Wars and A Hard Day's Night. // The counterculture of the 1960s was a social revolution between the period of 1960 and 1973[1] that began in the United States as a reaction against the conservative social norms of the 1950s, the political conservatism (and perceived social repression) of the Cold War period, and the US government... The term auteur (French for author) is used to describe film directors (or, more rarely, producers or writers) who are considered to have a distinctive, recognizable vision, because they (a) repeatedly return to the same subject matter, (b) habitually address a particular psychological or moral theme, (c) employ a recurring... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... A Hard Days Night (1964) is a British comedy film originally released by United Artists, written by Alun Owen and starring The Beatles during the height of Beatlemania. ...


2001: A Space Odyssey

Main article: 2001: A Space Odyssey (film)
2001: A Space Odyssey

Kubrick spent five years developing his next film, 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), which was photographed in Super Panavision 70. Kubrick co-wrote the screenplay with science fiction writer Sir Arthur C. Clarke, expanding on Clarke's short story "The Sentinel". The screenplay and the novel were written simultaneously. The screenplay is credited to Kubrick and Clarke, while the novel, published in tandem with the film's release, is credited only to Clarke. The novel and the film deviate substantially from each other, with the novel explaining a great deal of what the film leaves deliberately ambiguous. Clarke and Kubrick later spoke highly of one another. Incidentally, Clarke's follow up, 2010: Odyssey Two, follows the events of the movie version of 2001, as opposed to the novel version. This is likely due to the cultural impact of Kubrick's film. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links 2001_spaceodissey. ... Image File history File links 2001_spaceodissey. ... Super Panavision 70 was the marketing brand used to identify movies photographed with Panavision 65mm cameras and spherical optics between 1959 and 1970. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same... For other works called The Sentinel, see Sentinel. ... 2010: Odyssey Two, is a science fiction novel by Arthur C. Clarke (January 1982) and also a motion picture (1984) by Peter Hyams entitled simply 2010, or sometimes 2010: The Year We Make Contact. ...


The film's special effects, overseen by Kubrick and engineered by special effects pioneer Douglas Trumbull (Silent Running, Blade Runner), proved ground-breaking and inspired many of the special effects-driven films which were to follow the success of 2001. Manufacturing companies were consulted as to what the design of both special-purpose and everyday objects would look like in the future. At the time of the movie's release, Arthur C. Clarke predicted that a generation of engineers would design real spacecraft based upon 2001 "even if it isn't the best way to do it". Despite nominations in the directing, writing, and producing categories, the only Academy Award Kubrick ever received was for supervising the special effects of 2001: A Space Odyssey. Douglas Trumbull (born April 8, 1942) is a film director and special effects supervisor. ... For other uses, see Silent Running (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... The Academy Award for Visual Effects is an Oscar given to one film each year that shows highest achievement in visual effects. ...


The film is notable for its use of existing works of classical music in place of an original score, and as a result Richard Strauss's Also Sprach Zarathustra and Johann Strauss's The Blue Danube waltz have become indelibly associated with the film. Kubrick also used music by contemporary, avant-garde Hungarian composer György Ligeti, although this was done without Ligeti's consent. The appearance of Atmospheres, Lux Aeterna, and Requiem on the 2001 soundtrack was the first wide commercial exposure of Ligeti's work. This use of 'program' music was not originally planned -- Kubrick had commissioned composer Alex North to write a full-length score for the film, and he originally only used the pre-recorded pieces as guides during editing, but Kubrick became so attached to them that he eventually decided to dispense with North's music in favour of the temporary tracks he had used during editing. About three-quarters of the way through production, Kubrick asked North to stop work on the score, and North assumed that this meant Kubrick had as much music as he needed; Kubrick never told North that he had decided not to use his score, and North reportedly only discovered this when he attended the film's premiere.[1] This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Also sprach Zarathustra, op. ... Johann Strauss is the name of three famous Austrian composers: Johann Strauss I (1804-1849), or Johann Strauss Sr. ... The Blue Danube is the common English title of An der schönen blauen Donau op. ... “Ligeti” redirects here. ...


Artistically, 2001: A Space Odyssey was a radical departure from Kubrick's previous films. It contains only 45 minutes of dialogue, over a running time of over two and a half hours (150 minutes). The dialogue is largely superfluous to the images and music. Nevertheless it outlines the 'story' while presenting mankind as dissociated from itself and its surroundings. Clarke's characters function either as extensions of the story or else as anthropological archetypes. The story and plot are obscure for most of the film's duration and its ambiguous, perplexing ending continues to fascinate contemporary audiences and critics. After this film, Kubrick would never experiment so radically with special effects or narrative form, but the calculated ambiguity of his films remained a trademark for the rest of his career. Archetype is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ...


Despite being an unorthodox science fiction film, 2001 was an enormous commercial success and became a pop culture phenomenon. However, the film was not an immediate smash. Were it not for a six-week exhibition contract, the film might not have had enough time in cinemas to have benefited from building word-of-mouth popularity. The film's ticket sales were low during the first two weeks of its release, and it was nearly withdrawn from theaters. Actor Jack Nicholson claims that Kubrick told him that 217 people walked out of the exhibitor's screening, including the studio head. Arthur C. Clarke has said that an MGM executive commented on the screening by saying: "Well, that's the end of Stanley Kubrick." John Joseph Nicholson (born April 22, 1937), known as Jack Nicholson, is a three time Academy Award-winning American actor internationally renowned for his often dark-themed portrayals of neurotic characters. ...


Initial critical reaction was also extremely hostile, with critics attacking the film's lack of dialogue, its slow pacing, and seemingly impenetrable storyline. The film's only initial defender was Penelope Gilliat, who called it "some kind of a great film". Following the film's success, however, many critics later revised their opinions.


Audiences slowly embraced the film, especially the 1960s counterculture audience, who loved the movie's "Star Gate" sequence, a seemingly psychedelic journey to the infinite reaches of the cosmos. Younger moviegoers often saw the film many times over, resulting in a cult following of repeat viewers. Supposedly, if one were to ingest LSD at the beginning of the movie, the "Star Gate" sequence would start at roughly the same time that the drug was in full effect. This phenomenon prompted the film's distributors to add an LSD-allusive tagline ("The Ultimate Trip") to the movie's advertising poster. Paradoxically, Kubrick won total creative control from Hollywood by succeeding with one of the most thematically "difficult" films ever to win wide commercial release. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ...


Interpretations of 2001: A Space Odyssey are as widespread as its popularity. Despite having been made in 1968, it still prompts debate today. When critic Joseph Gelmis asked Kubrick about the meaning of the film, Kubrick replied [1]:

They are the areas I prefer not to discuss, because they are highly subjective and will differ from viewer to viewer. In this sense, the film becomes anything the viewer sees in it. If the film stirs the emotions and penetrates the subconscious of the viewer, if it stimulates, however inchoately, his mythological and religious yearnings and impulses, then it has succeeded.

2001: A Space Odyssey is likely Kubrick's most famous and influential film. Steven Spielberg called it his generation's big bang, focusing its attention upon the Soviet-American space race. The special effects techniques Kubrick pioneered were later developed by Ridley Scott and George Lucas for films such as Alien and Star Wars. 2001 is particularly notable as one of the few films realistically presenting travel in outer space: the scenes in outer space are silent; weightlessness is constant, with characters strapped in place; when characters wear pressure suits, only their breathing is audible. See also: Unconscious mind. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields, South Tyneside) is a British film director and producer. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... This article is about the first film in a series. ... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological...


The film's primary themes include: the origins of evolution; sentient computers; extra-terrestrial beings; the search for one's place in the universe; and rebirth. All these themes are seen within a cold, foreboding light. Books have been written about interpretations of the film. Even Arthur C. Clarke is on record as being ignorant of what Stanley Kubrick really had in mind when making the film, going so far as to say that 2001: A Space Odyssey is ninety per cent Stanley Kubrick's vision. The film's striking cinematography was the work of legendary British director of photography Geoffrey Unsworth who would later photograph classic films such as Cabaret and Superman. Cabaret is a 1972 film. ... For the franchise, see Superman film series. ...


A Clockwork Orange

A Clockwork Orange
A Clockwork Orange

After 2001, Kubrick sought a project which he could quickly film with a small budget. He found it in A Clockwork Orange (1971). His film version is a dark, shocking exploration of violence in human society. It was released with an 'X' rating in the United States, though in 1973 it was edited in order that it could be re-classified with an 'R' rating and was re-released. Some of the early 80s VHS releases carry this R-rated version, although all other releases past that, including the Stanley Kubrick Collection editions, have the original X-rated version. This article is about the film. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the film. ... Motion picture rating systems are issued to give moviegoers an idea of the suitability of a movie for children and/or adults in terms of issues such as sex, violence and bad language. ...


Based upon the famous novel by Anthony Burgess, the film is the story of a teenage hooligan, Alex, (Malcolm McDowell), who gleefully torments, beats, robs, and rapes without conscience or remorse. Finally imprisoned, Alex undergoes psychiatric aversion treatment to be cured of his instinctively reflexive violence. This conditions him physically unable to act violently, yet also renders him helpless and incapable of moral choice, resulting in a consequently brutal come-uppance at the hands of his victims. Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... Ultras at FC Twente - SC Heerenveen in 2002 Hooliganism is unruly and destructive behaviour, usually by gangs of young people. ... Malcolm McDowell (born 13 June 1943) is a British actor. ...


Kubrick photographed A Clockwork Orange quickly and almost entirely on location in and around London. Despite the low-tech nature of the film, when compared to 2001: A Space Odyssey, Kubrick was highly innovative, e.g. throwing a camera from a rooftop to achieve the desired viewer disorientation. For the score, Kubrick had electronic music composer Wendy Carlos, at the time known as Walter Carlos, (Switched-On Bach), adapt famous classical works such as Beethoven's Ninth Symphony for the Moog synthesizer. Wendy Carlos (born Walter Carlos, November 14, 1939) is an American composer and electronic musician. ... Switched-On Bach is a musical album by Wendy Carlos (then Walter Carlos) on CBS Records, released in 1968. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... The term Moog(pronounced // as in moan) synthesizer can refer to any number of analog synthesizers designed by Dr. Robert Moog or manufactured by Moog Music, and is commonly used as a generic term for analog and digital music synthesisers. ...


The film was extremely controversial because of its explicitly depicted teenage gang-rape and violence. Released the same year as Sam Peckinpah's Straw Dogs and Don Siegel's Dirty Harry, the three films sparked ferocious debate in the media about the social effects of cinematic violence. The controversy was exacerbated when copycat violence was committed in England, by criminals wearing the same costumes as characters in A Clockwork Orange. The story is narrated in Nadsat, a slang language comprising many anglicized Soviet words: the gang refer to each other as "droogie", from the Russian word for "friend." David Samuel Sam Peckinpah (February 21, 1925 – December 28, 1984) was an American film director who achieved iconic status following the release of his 1969 Western epic The Wild Bunch. ... Straw Dogs is a 1971 film directed by Sam Peckinpah. ... Don Siegel (October 26, 1912 - April 20, 1991) was an influential American film director. ... For other uses, see Dirty Harry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Nadsat is a constructed slang dialect of English with many Russian influences invented by the linguist, novelist, and composer Anthony Burgess. ...


When Kubrick and family were threatened with death, resulting from the social controversy, he took the unusual step of removing the film from circulation in Britain. The film was not released again in the United Kingdom until its re-release in 2000, a year after Stanley Kubrick's death. In banning his film in Britain, he showed the unprecedented power he held over his distributor, Warner Brothers. For the remainder of his career he held total control of every aspect of his films, including the marketing and the advertising; such was Warner Brothers' faith in his projects. Warner Bros. ...


Barry Lyndon

Main article: Barry Lyndon
Special lenses were developed for Barry Lyndon to allow filming using only natural light.
Special lenses were developed for Barry Lyndon to allow filming using only natural light.

Kubrick's next film, released in 1975, was an adaptation of William Makepeace Thackeray's The Luck of Barry Lyndon, also known as Barry Lyndon, a picaresque novel about an 18th century gambler and social climber who slowly insinuates himself to English high society. It would be Kubrick's least-appreciated post-Strangelove film, despite strong acting (by Ryan O'Neal, Marisa Berenson, and Irish actress Marie Kean) and Kubrick's innovative cinematography and attention to period detail. Barry Lyndon (1975) is an award-winning period film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon (1844) by William Makepeace Thackeray. ... Image File history File links Barry12. ... Image File history File links Barry12. ... William Makepeace Thackeray (July 18, 1811 – December 24, 1863) was a British novelist of the 19th century. ... The Luck of Barry Lyndon is a picaresque novel by William Makepeace Thackeray, first published in serial form 1844, about a member of the Irish gentry trying to become a member of the English aristocracy. ... The picaresque novel (Spanish: picaresco, from pícaro, for rogue or rascal) is a popular subgenre of prose fiction which is usually satirical and depicts in realistic and often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his or her wits in a... Ryan ONeal (born Patrick Ryan ONeal on April 20, 1941 in Los Angeles, California) is an Oscar-nominated American actor. ... Marisa Berenson (born February 15, 1946) is an American actress and former model. ... Marie Kean (June 27, 1918 – December 29, 1993) was an Irish actress of stage and screen whose career spanned over 40 years. ...


Some critics, especially Pauline Kael, one of Kubrick's greatest detractors, found Barry Lyndon a cold, slow-moving, and lifeless film. Its measured pace and length—more than three hours—put off many American critics and audiences, however, the film was well-reviewed in the U.S. by noted critics Rex Reed and Richard Schickel. Time Magazine published a cover story about the film, and Kubrick was nominated for three Academy Awards. As with most of his films, Barry Lyndon's reputation has grown through the years, particularly among other filmmakers. Director Martin Scorsese cited it as his favorite Kubrick film. Steven Spielberg has praised its "impeccable technique," though, when younger, he famously described it "like going through the Prado without lunch". Pauline Kael (June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic who wrote for The New Yorker magazine from 1968 to 1991. ... Barry Lyndon (1975) is an award-winning period film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon (1844) by William Makepeace Thackeray. ... Rex Taylor Reed (born October 2, 1938 in Fort Worth, Texas) is an American movie critic and was co-host of the syndicated television show At the Movies. ... Richard Warren Schickel (b. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (b. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... Bold text The Museo del Prado is a famous museum and art gallery located in Madrid; the capital of Spain. ...


As in his other films, Kubrick's cinematography and lighting techniques are innovative. Most famously, interior scenes were photographed with a specially-adapted, high-speed still camera lens (originally invented for NASA) allowing many scenes to be lit only with candlelight, creating two-dimensional, diffused light images reminiscent of 18th century painting. Kubrick's blending of music, mise en scene, costume and action set standards for period drama that few other films have matched. The film was nominated for seven Academy Awards and won four, more than any other Kubrick film. Despite this, Barry Lyndon was not a box office success in the US, however, the film found a great audience in Europe, particularly in France. In film theory, mise-en-sc ne [mizA~sEn] refers to everything that is to appear before the camera and its arrangement -- sets, props, actors, costumes, camera movements and performances. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ...


Like almost all other Kubrick films, "Barry Lyndon" has a remarkable score, comprised most notably of one of Franz Schubert's piano trios. Schubert redirects here. ...


The Shining

Main article: The Shining (film)
Jack Nicholson in The Shining.
Jack Nicholson in The Shining.

Kubrick's work pace slowed considerably after Barry Lyndon; he did not make another film until The Shining. Released in 1980, it is an adaptation of Stephen King's popular horror novel. It stars Jack Nicholson and Shelley Duvall in the story of a failed writer who takes a job as an off-season caretaker of the Overlook Hotel, a high-class resort deep in the Colorado mountains. The job demands spending the winter in the isolated hotel. His son, Danny, is gifted with telepathy, called "shining," and has visions of the past and the future. For other uses of this term, see Shining. ... Image File history File links The_shining_heres_johnny. ... Image File history File links The_shining_heres_johnny. ... For other uses of this term, see Shining. ... For other persons named Stephen King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term, see Shining. ... John Joseph Nicholson (born April 22, 1937), known as Jack Nicholson, is a three time Academy Award-winning American actor internationally renowned for his often dark-themed portrayals of neurotic characters. ... Shelley Alexis Duvall (born July 7, 1949) is an award winning American film and television actress. ... The Overlook (Timberline Lodge) as seen in a still from Stanley Kubricks film The Shining In 1985 the day lodge ski center was built on the slope just foward toward the camera off the hotels front parking lot, obscuring the view seen here. ... Telepathy, from the Greek τῆλε, tele, remote; and πάθεια, patheia, to be effected by, describes the hypothetical transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses. ...


To Danny, the hotel displays increasingly horrible, phantasmagoric images, notably the apparition of two girls murdered years before by their father, the hotel's caretaker. Jack is slowly driven mad by the haunted Overlook Hotel until collapsing into homicidal psychosis, then trying to kill his family with an axe. Phantasmagoria has many meanings. ... Generally, an apparition is act or instance of appearing. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ...


It was originally thought that the film was shot at The Stanley Hotel in Estes Park, Colorado, however, it was at the Elstree and the Pinewood studios, near London, where the film sets were built. The Overlook Hotel exterior is that of the Timberline Lodge ski resort on Mount Hood, Oregon, U.S.A. Kubrick extensively used the newly-invented Steadicam (a spring-mounted camera support) for smooth movement in enclosed spaces, to convey the haunted hotel's claustrophobic oppression of the family. The Stanley Hotel, in Estes Park, Colorado, is the real-life counterpart to the Overlook Hotel in Stephen Kings novel The Shining. ... Estes Park is a Rocky Mountain resort located in Larimer County, Colorado on the Big Thompson River. ... Timberline Lodge in the summer. ... This article is about the tallest mountain in Oregon. ... To film this recreated Victorian London street scene, the cameraman next to the lamp post is using a steadicam and wearing the harness required to support it. ...


More than any other of his films, The Shining gave rise to the legend of Kubrick-as-megalomanic-perfectionist. Reportedly, he demanded hundreds of takes of certain scenes (ca. 1.3 million film ft. were exposed), particularly plaguing actress Shelley Duvall. His daughter, Vivian Kubrick, shot a short documentary film of the production. It is available in the DVD release of the film, it is one of few documents of Kubrick in action in the latter half of his career. Perfectionism can refer to: perfectionism (philosophy) perfectionism (psychology) perfectionist movement a utopian societal movement in the late 19th, early 20th century United States from which hails Oneida Society and which is historically related to the Modern Spiritualist movement. ... Shelley Alexis Duvall (born July 7, 1949) is an award winning American film and television actress. ...


The film opened to mostly negative reviews, but did very well, commercially, with audiences and made Warner Brothers a profit. As with most Kubrick films, subsequent critical reaction reviews the film more favorably. Stephen King was dissatisfied with the movie, calling Kubrick "a man who thinks too much and feels too little". Later, in 1997, King collaborated with Mick Garris to create a television mini-series version of the novel. Since then, King has spoken with less hostility toward Kubrick and his film (it was said at the time of the mini-series initial release that King agreed to not speak publicly about Kubrick's version if he were given the rights to do the miniseries). However, in a later interview on the Bravo channel King admitted that the first time he watched Kubrick's adaptation he found it to be "dreadfully upsetting." Mick Garris (December 4, 1951 -) is an American filmmaker and screenwriter born in Santa Monica, California. ...


Among horror movie fans, The Shining is a classic cult film, often appearing with The Exorcist (1973) and Halloween (1978) at the top of best horror film lists. Some of its images, such as an antique elevator disgorging a tidal wave of blood, are among the most recognizable, widely-known images from any Stanley Kubrick film. The Shining renewed Warner Brothers faith in Kubrick's ability to make artistically satisfying and profitable films after the commercial failure that was Barry Lyndon in the United States. As a pop culture phenomenon, the film has been the object of countless parodies, from The Simpsons and MAD Magazine to recent films such as Seed Of Chucky. The Exorcist is an Academy Award-winning 1973 American horror and thriller film, adapted from the 1971 novel of the same name by William Peter Blatty, dealing with the demonic possession of a young girl, and her mother’s desperate attempts to win back her daughter through an exorcism conducted... Halloween (film) redirects here. ... Warner Bros. ... Treehouse of Horror V is the sixth episode of The Simpsons sixth season, which originally aired October 30, 1994. ... Harvey Kurtzmans cover for the first issue of the comic book Mad Mad is an American humor magazine founded by publisher William Gaines and editor Harvey Kurtzman in 1952. ... Seed of Chucky (also known as Childs Play 5: Seed of Chucky) is a 2004 film and the fifth entry in the popular Childs Play series. ...


Full Metal Jacket

Main article: Full Metal Jacket

It was seven years until Kubrick's next film, Full Metal Jacket (1987), an adaptation of Gustav Hasford's Vietnam War novel, The Short-Timers, starring Matthew Modine as Joker, Adam Baldwin as Animal Mother, R. Lee Ermey as Gunnery Sergeant Hartman, and Vincent D'Onofrio as Private Leonard "Gomer Pyle" Lawrence. For the type of ammunition, see Full metal jacket bullet. ... For the type of ammunition, see Full metal jacket bullet. ... Gustav Hasford was born in 1947, in Russelville, Alabama. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Short-Timers is a semi-autobiographical novel by Gustav Hasford about his experience in the Vietnam War. ... Matthew Avery Modine (born March 22, 1959) is an American actor. ... Adam Baldwin (born February 27, 1962) is an American actor. ... Ronald Lee Ermey (born March 24, 1944) is a former U.S. Marine Corps drill instructor and later Golden Globe-nominated actor, often playing the roles of authority figures, such as Gunnery Sergeant Hartman in Full Metal Jacket, Mayor Tilman in the Alan Parker film Mississippi Burning and Sheriff Hoyt... Gunnery Sergeant insignia (U.S. Marine Corps) Gunnery Sergeant is the seventh enlisted rank in the U.S. Marine Corps, just above Staff Sergeant and below Master Sergeant and First Sergeant, and is a staff non-commissioned officer. ... Vincent Phillip DOnofrio (born June 30, 1959) is an American actor and producer. ... A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to Nato Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). ... Gomer Pyle on The Andy Griffith Show Gomer Pyle was the simple-minded gas station attendant and later auto mechanic in the American TV sitcom The Andy Griffith Show, played by Jim Nabors. ...

The psychopathic Private Pyle.

The film begins at Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island, South Carolina, U.S.A., where Senior Drill Sergeant Hartman relentlessly pushes his new men through basic training to transform them from worthless "maggots" to Marine killers. Private Pyle, a fat, slow-witted recruit, is unable to cope with the program and slowly cracks under the strain, resulting, on the eve of graduation, in Private Pyle's shooting Sergeant Hartman before killing himself as he repeats the by-then-familiar Marine mantra: "This is my rifle. There are many like it, but this one is mine…" The scene ends the boot-camp portion of the story. Image File history File links Full-metal-jacket-901. ... Image File history File links Full-metal-jacket-901. ... Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island is an 8,095 acre (32. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... The Riflemans Creed, also known as My Rifle and The Creed of The United States Marine, is a part of basic United States Marine Corps doctrine. ... U.S. Army recruits learn about bayonet fighting skills in an infantry Basic Combat Training at Fort Benning, Georgia. ...


The second half of the film follows Joker, since promoted to sergeant, as he tries to stay sane in Vietnam. As a reporter for the United States Military's newspaper the Stars and Stripes, Joker occupies war's middle ground, using wit and sarcasm to detach himself from the war. Though an American and a member of the United States Marine Corps, he also is a reporter and so is compelled to abide the ethics of the profession. The film then follows an infantry platoon's advance on and through Hue City, decimated by the street fighting of the Tet Offensive. The film climaxes in a battle between Joker's platoon and a sniper hiding in the rubble; she almost kills Joker until his reporter partner shoots and severely injures her. Joker then kills her to put her out of her misery. The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Stars and Stripes is the newspaper published for the United States Armed Forces overseas. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Australia National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders William C. Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 1. ...


Filming a Vietnam War film in England was a considerable challenge for Stanley Kubrick and team. Much filming was in the Docklands area of London, with the ruined-city set created by production designer Anton Furst. This helped make the film visually very different from the other, contemporary Vietnam War films Platoon and Hamburger Hill. Instead of being set in the tropical, Southeast-Asian jungle, the second half of the story unfolds in a city, illuminating the urban warfare aspect of a war otherwise perceived as fought exclusively in a jungle. Kubrick said to film critic Gene Siskel that his attraction to Gustav Hasford's book was because it was "neither anti-war or pro-war", held "no moral or political position", and was primarily concerned with "the way things are." The 02 and Canary Wharf from the Royal Victoria Dock. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Anton Furst is a distinguished production designer who won an Oscar for designing the Batmobile and the noirish nightmare version of Gotham City in Tim Burtons Batman (1989). ... Platoon is an Academy Award winning 1986 Vietnam War film written and directed by Oliver Stone and starring Charlie Sheen, Tom Berenger, Willem Dafoe and John C. McGinley. ... For the hill situated in Duncans Dam, see Dam Hamburger Hill Hamburger Hill is a 1987 American movie about the actual assault of the U.S. Armys 3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment, part of the 101st Airborne Division Screaming Eagles, on a well-fortified position, including trenchworks and...


Full Metal Jacket received mixed critical review, but found a reasonably large audience, despite being over-shadowed by Oliver Stone's Platoon. This was one reason for Kubrick not making Aryan Papers, in fear that its publicity would be stolen by Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List. William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946), known simply as Oliver Stone, is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director and screenwriter. ... Platoon is an Academy Award winning 1986 Vietnam War film written and directed by Oliver Stone and starring Charlie Sheen, Tom Berenger, Willem Dafoe and John C. McGinley. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... This article is about the movie. ...


Eyes Wide Shut

Main article: Eyes Wide Shut
Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman in Kubrick's final movie Eyes Wide Shut.

Stanley Kubrick was a mute presence in Hollywood in the ten-odd years after the release of Full Metal Jacket (1987); many believed that he had retired from film-making. Occasionally, rumours surfaced about possible, new Kubrick projects, including Aryan Papers and A.I. (eventually produced after Kubrick's death, directed by Steven Spielberg). Stanley Kubrick's final film would be Eyes Wide Shut, starring then-married actors Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman as an upper middle class Manhattan couple on a sexual odyssey. Eyes Wide Shut is a 1999 film directed and co-written by Stanley Kubrick, based on the novella Traumnovelle (in English Dream Story) by Arthur Schnitzler. ... Image File history File links Eyes_shut. ... Image File history File links Eyes_shut. ... A.I.: Artificial Intelligence (2001) was the last project that filmmaker Stanley Kubrick worked on. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... Eyes Wide Shut is a 1999 film directed and co-written by Stanley Kubrick, based on the novella Traumnovelle (in English Dream Story) by Arthur Schnitzler. ... Tom Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV on July 3, 1962) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and film producer. ... Nicole Mary Kidman (born June 20, 1967) is an Academy Award-winning actress. ...


The story of Eyes Wide Shut is based on Arthur Schnitzler's novella Traumnovelle (in English a.k.a. Dream Story), and follows Dr. William Harford's journey to the sexual underworld of New York City, after his wife, Alice, shatters his faith in her fidelity when she confesses to nearly giving him, and their daughter, up for one night with another man. Arthur Schnitzler Arthur Schnitzler (May 15, 1862 - October 21, 1931) was an Austrian writer and doctor. ... Traumnovelle (Dream Story) is a novella by the Austrian writer Arthur Schnitzler. ...


After trespassing upon the rituals of a sinister, mysterious sexual cult, Dr. Harford thinks twice before seeking sexual revenge against his wife, and learns he and his family might be in danger.


The film was in production for more than two years, and two of the main members of the cast, Harvey Keitel and Jennifer Jason Leigh, were replaced in the course of the filming. Although set in New York City, the film was mostly shot in London soundstages, with little location shooting. Shots of Manhattan itself were pick-up shots filmed in New York City by a second-unit crew. Because of Kubrick's secrecy about the film, mostly inaccurate rumors abounded about its plot and content. Most especially, the story's sexual content provoked much exaggerated speculation; some journalists writing that it would be "the sexiest film ever made." The casting of the celebrity-actor couple Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman increased the magnitude of pre-release journalistic hyperbole. Harvey Keitel (born May 13, 1939) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor from New York City. ... Jennifer Jason Leigh (born February 5, 1962) is an American actress who has appeared in numerous films. ...


Death

In 1999, four days after screening a final cut of Eyes Wide Shut for his family, the lead actor and actress, and Warner Brothers executives, the seventy-year-old director Stanley Kubrick died of a heart attack in his sleep. He was buried next to his favorite tree in Childwickbury Manor, Hertfordshire, England, U.K. [2] Eyes Wide Shut is a 1999 film directed and co-written by Stanley Kubrick, based on the novella Traumnovelle (in English Dream Story) by Arthur Schnitzler. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... The manor house. ... Hertfordshire (pronounced Hartfordshire and abbreviated as Herts) is an inland county in the United Kingdom, officially part of the East of England Government region. ...



According to his friends and family, Eyes Wide Shut was Kubrick's personal favorite of his own films[citation needed]. Contrary to that, however, in 2006, actor R. Lee Ermey went on record as saying Kubrick told him in a telephone talk, shortly before his death, that Eyes Wide Shut was "a piece of shit" and that the critics would "have him for lunch". [2] Yet, Todd Field (director, In the Bedroom, Little Children) who acted in Eyes Wide Shut refutes Ermey's statements, "Stanley was absolutely thrilled with the film. He was still working on the film when he died, and he probably died because he finally relaxed. It was one of the happiest weekends of his life, he had just shown the first cut to Terry, Tom, and Nicole. He would have kept working on it, like he did on all of his films, but I know he was over the moon about the film, as I was told this from people who were with him daily throughout post-production. My production partner was Stanley’s assistant for thirty years." Field stated that Kubrick advised him to stay away from Ermey: " I’d originally thought about R. Lee Ermey for In the Bedroom, and I talked to Stanley a lot about that film, and, all I can say, is Stanley was adamant that I not work with Ermey, for all kinds of reasons that I won't get into, because there is no reason to do that to anyone, even if that person is saying slanderous things about Stanley, that I know, for a fact, are completely untrue."[3] Ronald Lee Ermey (born March 24, 1944) is a former U.S. Marine Corps drill instructor and later Golden Globe-nominated actor, often playing the roles of authority figures, such as Gunnery Sergeant Hartman in Full Metal Jacket, Mayor Tilman in the Alan Parker film Mississippi Burning and Sheriff Hoyt... Todd Field (born William Todd Field) February 24, 1964, in Pomona, California; is an American actor and Academy Award-nominated writer/director. ... In the Bedroom is a 2001 movie directed by Todd Field and starring Tom Wilkinson, Sissy Spacek, Nick Stahl, Marisa Tomei, and William Mapother. ... Little Children is a recently released film directed by Todd Field, based on the novel by Tom Perrotta. ... In the Bedroom is a 2001 movie directed by Todd Field and starring Tom Wilkinson, Sissy Spacek, Nick Stahl, Marisa Tomei, and William Mapother. ...


Eyes Wide Shut, like Lolita and A Clockwork Orange before it, faced censorship before release. In the United States and Canada, digitally manufactured silhouette figures were strategically placed to mask explicit copulation scenes. It was done to secure an "R" rating from the MPAA. To Europe, and the rest of the world, the film has been released uncut, in its original form. The October 2007 DVD reissue contains the uncut version, making it available to North American audiences for the first time. MPAA redirects here. ...


Unrealised projects

An exacting perfectionist who often worked for years on pre-production planning and research, Kubrick had a number of unrealised projects during his career. All but one were never completed as films, but are of some interest to fans of the director.


Most famously, he never filmed his much-researched biopic of Napoleon (Bonaparte) I of France, which was originally to star Jack Nicholson as Napoleon after Kubrick saw him in Easy Rider. Kubrick and Nicholson eventually worked together on The Shining. After years of preproduction, the movie was set aside indefinitely in favor of more economically feasible projects. As late as 1987, Kubrick stated that he had not given up on the project, mentioning that he had read almost 500 books on the historical figure. He was convinced that a film worthy of the subject had not yet appeared. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... John Joseph Nicholson (born April 22, 1937), known as Jack Nicholson, is a three time Academy Award-winning American actor internationally renowned for his often dark-themed portrayals of neurotic characters. ... Wyatt, Mary (Toni Basil), Billy and Karen (Karen Black) wandering the streets of a parade filled New Orleans. ...


Napoleon

After the success of 2001 Kubrick planned a large-scale biopic of Napoleon Bonaparte. He did much research, read books about the French Emperor, and wrote a preliminary screenplay. With assistants, he meticulously created a card-catalogue of the places and deeds of Napoleon's inner circle during its operative years. Kubrick scouted locations, planning to film large portions of the story in the historical places where Napoleon's life occurred. A biographical film or biopic is a film about a particular person or group of people, based on events that actually happened. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


In notes to his financial backers, preserved in The Kubrick Archives, Kubrick told them he was unsure how his Napoleon film would turn out, but that he expected to create 'the best movie ever made.' Ultimately, the project was cancelled for three reasons: (i) the prohibitive costliness of location filming; (ii) the release, in the West, of Sergei Bondarchuk's epic film version of Leo Tolstoy's novel War and Peace (1968), and (iii) the commercial failure of Bondarchuk's Napoleon-themed film Waterloo (1970). Stanley Kubrick's screenplay for this film has been published on the Internet. Much of his historical research would influence Barry Lyndon (1975), set in the late eighteenth century, just before Napoleon's wars. Bondarchuk as Pierre Bezukhov in War and Peace Sergei Fedorovich Bondarchuk (IPA: , Russian: Серге́й Фё́дорович Бондарчу́к; Ukrainian: Сергі́й Фе́дорович Бондарчу́к September 25, 1920 – October 20, 1994) was a Soviet film director, screenwriter, and actor. ... War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир; Voyna i mir) is a Soviet-produced film adaptation of the Leo Tolstoys novel War and Peace. ... Waterloo was a Soviet-Italian film of 1970, directed by Sergei Bondarchuk and produced by Dino De Laurentiis. ... Barry Lyndon (1975) is an award-winning period film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon (1844) by William Makepeace Thackeray. ...


Aryan Papers

In the early 1990s, Kubrick almost went into production on a film of Louis Begley's Wartime Lies, the story of a boy and his mother in hiding during the Holocaust. The first draft screenplay, titled "Aryan Papers", had been penned by Kubrick himself. Kubrick chose not to make the film due to the release of Steven Spielberg's Holocaust-themed Schindler's List in 1993. In addition, according to Kubrick's wife, Christiane, the subject itself had become too depressing and difficult for the director. Kubrick eventually concluded that an accurate film about the Holocaust was beyond the capacity of cinema.[citation needed] Louis Begley (born October 6, 1933) is an American lawyer and novelist. ... Wartime Lies is a semi-autobiographical novel by Louis Begley first published in 1991. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... This article is about the movie. ...


A.I.: Artificial Intelligence—posthumous completion

Haley Joel Osment and Jude Law in a scene of A.I.

One Kubrick project was eventually completed by another director, Steven Spielberg. Throughout the 1980s and early 90s, Kubrick collaborated with various writers (including Brian Aldiss, Sara Maitland and Ian Watson) on a project called by various names, including "Pinocchio" and "Artificial Intelligence." Image File history File links Haley_joel_osment6. ... Image File history File links Haley_joel_osment6. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... Brian Wilson Aldiss, OBE, (born August 18, 1925 in East Dereham, Norfolk) is a prolific English author of both general fiction and science fiction. ... Sara Maitland is a British writer and academic of some considerable note. ... Ian Watson (born 1943) is a British science fiction author. ...


The film was developed expanding on Aldiss' short story "Super-Toys Last All Summer Long," which Kubrick and his writers turned into a feature-length film in three acts. It was a futuristic fairy tale about a robot which resembles and behaves as a child, who is sold as a temporary surrogate to a family whose only son is in a coma. The robot, however, learns of this, and out of sympathy is left abandoned in the woods by his owners instead of being returned to the factory for destruction. The rest of the story concerns the robot's attempts in becoming a real boy by seeking “Blue Fairy” (a reference to Pinocchio), in order to regain his mother's love and acceptance once more, as his love was hard-wired into him, and hence everlasting. The journey would take the boy-robot (referred to as a "Mecha" ) thousands of years. Super-Toys Last All Summer Long was the literary basis for the feature-film Artificial Intelligence. ...


Kubrick reportedly held long telephone discussions with Steven Spielberg regarding the film, and, according to Spielberg, at one point stated that the subject matter was closer to Spielberg's sensibilities than his. In 2001, following Kubrick's death, Spielberg took the various drafts and notes left by Kubrick and his writers, and composed a new screenplay, and in association with what remained of Kubrick's production unit, made the movie A.I.: Artificial Intelligence, starring Haley Joel Osment, Frances O'Connor, and William Hurt. Artificial Intelligence: A.I. is a science fiction film co-produced, written, and directed by Steven Spielberg and released in 2001. ... Haley Joel Osment (born April 10, 1988) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor. ... Frances OConnor (born on 12 July 1967 in Wantage, Oxfordshire) is an Australian actress who attended Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts as well as earned a BA in literature from the Curtin University of Technology in Western Australia. ... William Hurt (born March 20, 1950) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ...


The film contains a posthumous producing credit for Stanley Kubrick at the beginning, and the brief dedication "For Stanley" at the end. The film contains many recurrent Kubrick motifs, such as an omniscient narrator, an extreme form of the three act structure, the themes of humanity and inhumanity, and a sardonic view of Freudian psychology.


Lunatic at Large

On November 1, 2006, Philip Hobbs, Kubrick's son-in-law, announced that he will be shepherding a film treatment of Lunatic at Large, which was commissioned by Kubrick for treatment from noir pulp novelist Jim Thompson in the 1950s, but had become lost until Kubrick's death in 1999.[3] is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Son in Law is a 1993 film starring Pauly Shore, Carla Gugino, Lane Smith, Cindy Pickett and Tiffani Thiessen. ... James Myers Thompson (September 27, 1906, Anadarko, Oklahoma Territory–April 7, 1977, Los Angeles, California) was an American writer of short stories, screenplays and novels, largely of the pulp fiction kind. ...


Trivia

In 1976 Kubrick agreed to visit the recently completed 007 Stage at Pinewood Studios to provide advice on how to light the enormous soundstage, which had been built for and was being prepped for the James Bond movie The Spy Who Loved Me. Kubrick agreed to consult when it was promised that nobody would ever know of his involvement. This was honored until 2000, when the fact was mentioned in the documentary on the making of "The Spy Who Loved Me" on the special edition DVD of the 007 movie. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The gatehouse at Pinewood Studios Pinewood Studios is a major British film studio situated in Iver Heath, Buckinghamshire. ... For the Ian Fleming novel, see The Spy Who Loved Me. ...


Character

Kubrick was often unwilling to discuss personal matters publicly, or to speak publicly at all. Over time, his image in the media has ranged anywhere from being a reclusive genius to a megalomaniacal lunatic shut off from the world. Since his death, Kubrick's friends and family have denied this. Kubrick clearly left behind a strong family and many close friends. Many of those who worked for him speak highly in his favor. The rumor regarding his reclusiveness is largely a myth, and may have resulted from his aversion to travel once installed at St. Albans. Kubrick was afraid of flying and refused to take airplane trips, so he rarely left England over the last forty years of his life. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Fear of flying is a fear of air travel. ...


Kubrick once told a friend that he went to London (about 40 minutes by car) four to five times a year solely for appointments with his dentist. Kubrick also shunned the Hollywood system and its publicity machine. His appearance was not well known in his later years, and a British man by the name of Alan Conway successfully pretended he was Kubrick to meet several well-known actors and get into fancy clubs. Conway is the subject of the film Colour Me Kubrick (2005), written by Kubrick's assistant Anthony Frewin and directed by Brian Cook, Kubrick's First Assistant Director for 25 years. Alan Conway (born Eddie Alan Jablowsky in Whitechapel, London in 1934; died December 5, 1998) became known for impersonating the film director Stanley Kubrick. ... Colour Me Kubrick is a comedy-drama film scheduled to be released in early 2006. ... An assistant director (AD) is a person who helps the film director in the making of a movie. ...


Kubrick was constantly in contact with family members and business associates, often by telephone, and contacted collaborators at all hours for conversations lasting from under a minute to several hours. Many of Kubrick's admirers and friends spoke of these telephone conversations with great affection and nostalgia after his death, most especially Michael Herr and Steven Spielberg. In his memoir of Kubrick, Herr said that dozens of people claim to have spoken to Kubrick on the day of his death and remarked "I believe all of them." Kubrick also frequently invited various people to his house, ranging from actors to close friends, admired film directors, writers, and intellectuals. Michael Herr (born in 1940, Syracuse, New York) is a writer and former war correspondent, best known as the author of Dispatches (1977), a memoir of his time as a correspondent for Esquire magazine (1967-1969) during the Vietnam War. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ...


Kubrick was also an animal lover. He owned many dogs and cats throughout his life and showed an extraordinary affection for them. Christiane, Kubrick's widow, said in her book version of Stanley Kubrick: A Life In Pictures that Kubrick brought his cats to the editing room to spend time with them that was lost while he was shooting his films. Matthew Modine remembers Kubrick being deeply upset when a family of rabbits was accidentally killed during the making of Full Metal Jacket. Kubrick was so upset that he canceled shooting for the rest of the day. Philip Kaplan, one of Kubrick's lawyers and friends, reports that Stanley once cancelled a meeting with him and another lawyer who had flown to London from the United States for the meeting, at the last moment, because he sat up all night with a dying cat and was in no shape to participate. Kaplan also reports that the huge kitchen table at St. Albans was supported by an undulating base and that within each curved space was a dog, most of no recognizable breed and some not notably friendly to strangers. Matthew Avery Modine (born March 22, 1959) is an American actor. ...


Kubrick had a reputation of being tactless and rude to many people he worked with. Some of Kubrick's collaborators have complained of a coldness or lack of sympathy for the feelings of others on his part. Although Kubrick became close friends with Clockwork Orange star Malcolm McDowell during filming, Kubrick abruptly terminated the friendship soon after the film was complete. McDowell was deeply hurt by this and the schism between the two men lasted until Kubrick's death. Michael Herr, in his otherwise positive memoir to Kubrick, complains that Kubrick was extremely cheap and very greedy about money. He states that Kubrick was a "terrible" man to do business with and that the director was upset until the day he died that Jack Nicholson made more money from The Shining than he did. Science-fiction writer Brian Aldiss was fired from Kubrick's never completed project AI for vacationing with his family in violation of his contract, even though Kubrick had put the project on hold at the time. Kubrick brought in other writers to help write the AI script, but fired them because they were useless. Kirk Douglas often commented on Kubrick's unwillingness to compromise, his out of control ego and ruthless pursuit to make a film his own distinct work of art instead of a group effort (it must be noted, however, that in interviews Kubrick often acknowledged and admired the effort of his team, especially those who made the special effects for 2001 possible). However, Douglas has acknowledged that a large part of his dislike for Kubrick was caused by Kubrick's consistently negative statements about Spartacus. James Earl Jones, despite his admiration for Kubrick on an artistic level, spoke negatively of his experience on Dr. Strangelove, saying that Kubrick was disrespectful to actors, using them as instruments in a grand design rather than allowing them to be creative artists in their own right. George C. Scott, who admired Kubrick in retrospect for reportedly being one of the few people who could routinely beat him in chess, famously resented Kubrick using his most over-the-top performances for the final cut of Dr. Strangelove, after promising they would not be seen by audiences. Kubrick's crew has stated that he was notorious for not complimenting anyone and rarely showed admiration for his co-workers for fear it would make them complacent. Kubrick complimented them on their work only after the movie was finished, unless he felt their work was "genius." The only actors that Kubrick called "genius" were Peter Sellers, James Mason and Malcolm McDowell. James Earl Jones (born January 17, 1931) is an American Academy Award-nominated, Emmy- and Tony Award-winning actor of film and stage well known for his deep basso voice. ...


Upon purchasing the Childwickbury Manor in Hertfordshire, England, Kubrick set up his life so that family and business were one. He purchased top-of-the-line film editing equipment and owned all of his own cameras. Children and animals would frequently come in and out of the room as he worked on a script or met with an actor.


Although Kubrick was greatly disliked by many of the people he worked with, many speak kindly of him, including co-workers and friends Jack Nicholson, Diane Johnson, Tom Cruise, Joe Turkel, Con Pederson, Sterling Hayden, Scatman Crothers, Carl Solomon, Ryan O'Neal, Anthony Frewin, Ian Watson, John Milius, Jocelyn Pook, Sydney Pollack, R. Lee Ermey, and others. Michael Herr's memoir to Kubrick and Matthew Modine's book Full Metal Jacket Diary show a different, much more kind, sane and warm version of Kubrick than the conventional view of him as cold, demanding and impersonal. In a series of interviews found on the DVD of Eyes Wide Shut, a teary eyed Tom Cruise remembers Kubrick with great affection. Nicole Kidman also shares his sentiments. Shelley Winters, when asked what she thought of him, answered, "A gift." Shelley Duvall, who played Wendy in The Shining did not always get along with Kubrick, as seen in The Making of the Shining, but has said that in retrospect it was a great experience that made her smarter—though she'd never want to do it again. Also, Malcolm McDowell in retrospect said that he felt some of his statements about Kubrick were "unfair" and were a "cry out" to Kubrick to call him. He has mused that it was because Kubrick saw some of Alex (the main character in A Clockwork Orange) in McDowell, and McDowell has commented on how much this termination of friendship personally hurt him. McDowell said that he was very sad when Kubrick died. John Joseph Nicholson (born April 22, 1937), known as Jack Nicholson, is a three time Academy Award-winning American actor internationally renowned for his often dark-themed portrayals of neurotic characters. ... Diane Johnson is an American born novelist and essayist whose satirical novels often contain American heroines living abroad in contemporary France. ... Tom Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV on July 3, 1962) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and film producer. ... Joe Turkel as Lloyd the Bartender in Stanley Kubricks The Shining (1980) Joe Turkel (15 July 1927, in Brooklyn, New York) is a prolific American character actor. ... Sterling Hayden (March 26, 1916 - May 23, 1986) was an American actor. ... Benjamin Sherman Scatman Crothers (May 23, 1910 – November 22, 1986) was an African-American actor, singer, dancer and musician. ... Carl Solomon was a friend of Allen Ginsberg, who met him in a mental institution. ... Ryan ONeal (born Patrick Ryan ONeal on April 20, 1941 in Los Angeles, California) is an Oscar-nominated American actor. ... Ian Watson (born 1943) is a British science fiction author. ... John Milius (born April 11, 1944 in St. ... Jocelyn Pook is an English viola player. ... Sydney Pollack (born July 1, 1934 in Lafayette, Indiana) is an American actor, producer, and director. ... Ronald Lee Ermey (born March 24, 1944) is a former U.S. Marine Corps drill instructor and later Golden Globe-nominated actor, often playing the roles of authority figures, such as Gunnery Sergeant Hartman in Full Metal Jacket, Mayor Tilman in the Alan Parker film Mississippi Burning and Sheriff Hoyt... Michael Herr (born in 1940, Syracuse, New York) is a writer and former war correspondent, best known as the author of Dispatches (1977), a memoir of his time as a correspondent for Esquire magazine (1967-1969) during the Vietnam War. ... Tom Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV on July 3, 1962) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and film producer. ... Shelley Winters (August 18, 1920 – January 14, 2006) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress. ...


Politics

In his memoir of Kubrick, Michael Herr, his personal friend and co-writer of the screenplay for Full Metal Jacket, wrote:

Stanley had views on everything, but I would not exactly call them political... His views on democracy were those of most people I know, neither left or right, not exactly brimming with belief, a noble failed experiment along our evolutionary way, brought low by base instincts, money and self-interest and stupidity... He thought the best system might be under a benign despot, though he had little belief that such a man could be found. He wasn't a cynic, but he could have easily passed for one. He was certainly a capitalist. He believed himself to be a realist.

Herr also wrote that Kubrick owned guns and that he did not think war is entirely a bad thing. In the documentary Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures, Herr says "…he also accepted to acknowledge that, of all the things war is, it is also very beautiful." Kubrick, according to Ian Watson, reportedly said of the pre-1997 socialist Labour Party “If the Labourites ever get in, I’ll leave the country.” Watson explains that Kubrick was extremely opposed to laws on taxing the rich and welfare in general. [4] Michael Herr said of initial reactions to Full Metal Jacket "The political left will call Kubrick a fascist." [5] Despite that Full Metal Jacket is often cited as an anti-war film, in his 1987 interview with Gene Siskel called Candidly Kubrick, Kubrick has said, "Full Metal Jacket suggests there is more to say about war than it is just bad." In the same interview he said that everything serious the drill instructor says, such as "A rifle is only a tool, it is a hard heart that kills" is completely true. Though some have said Kubrick disliked America, Michael Herr says, on the other hand, that America was all he talked about and that he often thought of moving back. It was said that Kubrick was sent VHS tapes from American friends of pro-football, Seinfeld, The Simpsons and other television shows which he could not get in the United Kingdom.[citation needed] Kubrick also told Siskel he was not anti-American and that he thought that America was a good country, though he did not think that Ronald Reagan was a good President. He also said he thought that people in the world did not take the nuclear threat of the time as seriously as they should and he was extremely suspicious of centralized banking systems. Some claim this evidence suggests Kubrick's views lean Right while others still say he leans Left. It is unknown, however, if Kubrick belonged to any political group. Ian Watson (born 1943) is a British science fiction author. ... Stanley Kubrick in the late 1990s Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 - March 7, 1999) was a Jewish-American film director born in The Bronx, New York City who lived most of his life in England. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Seinfeld is an Emmy Award-winning American sitcom that originally aired on NBC from July 5, 1989 to May 14, 1998, running a total of 9 seasons. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Reagan redirects here. ...


Kubrick's works depict his own view of human nature and are critical of moral/political stances based on other views of human nature. For example, in A Clockwork Orange, the police are as violent and vulgar as the droogs, and Kubrick depicts both the subversive writer Mr. Alexander (a figure of the Left) and the authoritarian Minister of the Interior (a figure of the Right), as manipulative, hypocritical and sinister. In regard to A Clockwork Orange, Kubrick said to the New York Times, In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

Man isn't a noble savage, he's an ignoble savage. He is irrational, brutal, weak, silly, unable to be objective about anything where his own interests are involved—that about sums it up. I'm interested in the brutal and violent nature of man because it's a true picture of him. And any attempt to create social institutions on a false view of the nature of man is probably doomed to failure.

He also said in the same interview: A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this American Indian has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 17th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered... Violence is a general term to describe actions, usually deliberate, that cause or intend to cause injury to people, animals, or non-living objects. ...

The idea that social restraints are all bad is based on a utopian and unrealistic vision of man. But in this movie you have an example of social institutions gone a bit berserk. Obviously social institutions faced with the law-and-order problem might choose to become grotesquely oppressive. The movie poses two extremes: it shows Alex in his pre-civilized state, and society committing a worse evil in attempting to cure him."

Kubrick's earlier work can be seen as more liberal than his later work. Colonel Dax in Paths of Glory and Spartacus in Spartacus are comparable to liberals, and the satire of government and military in Dr. Strangelove seems to point to a liberal political perspective. Kubrick's more mature works are more pessimistic and suspicious of the so-called innate goodness of mankind. In a letter to the New York Times in response to Fred M. Hechinger declaring A Clockwork Orange "fascist", Kubrick wrote: See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ... In politics, the term liberal refers to: an adherent of the ideology of liberalism or a state or quality of this ideology. ... Pessimists see the world as uninviting and cruel. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...

It is quite true that my film's view of man is less flattering than the one Rousseau entertained in a similarly allegorical narrative—but, in order to avoid fascism, does one have to view man as a noble savage, rather than an ignoble one? Being a pessimist is not yet enough to qualify one to be regarded as a tyrant (I hope)...The age of the alibi, in which we find ourselves, began with the opening sentence of Rousseau's Emile: 'Nature made me happy and good, and if I am otherwise, it is society's fault.' It is based on two misconceptions: that man in his natural state was happy and good, and that primal man had no society...Rousseau's romantic fallacy that it is society which corrupts man, not man who corrupts society, places a flattering gauze between ourselves and reality. This view, to use Mr. Hechinger's frame of reference, is solid box office but, in the end, such a self-inflating illusion leads to despair.

Kubrick shares much of this view with Robert Ardrey, author of African Genesis and The Social Contract (not to be confused with Rousseau's) and author Arthur Koestler who is famous for writing The Ghost In The Machine, both of whom Kubrick quotes in his defense against Hechinger. Both authors (Koestler through psychology and Ardrey through anthropology) search for the cause of humanity's capacity for death and destruction and both, like Kubrick, are suspicious of the liberal belief in innate goodness of mankind (which Ardrey and Kubrick attribute to Rousseau, who, in Ardrey's words: "Fathered the romantic fallacy") and Behaviourism, especially what they consider "radical Behaviourism", whom they blame primarily on B.F. Skinner. (Mainstream anthropology contests Ardrey's view of man having an ancestor that was unremorsefully murderous and destructive, and mainstream psychologists' belief in innate empathy contradicts Koestler's or Kubrick's view of man as innately evil, or sadistic and unempathetic). Rousseau is a French surname. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Ardrey (b. ... Social contract is a phrase used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote a real or hypothetical agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members. ... Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ... Disambiguation: please visit Ghost in the Machine (disambiguation) for other uses of this term The Ghost in the Machine (1967) is a non-fiction work by Arthur Koestler. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 _ August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ...


Reading Ardrey's African Genesis reveals he shared Kubrick's bleak view of man, and the growing concern of the juvenile delinquent, as Ardrey writes:

"Society flatters itself in thinking that it has rejected the juvenile delinquent; the delinquent has rejected society. And in the shadowed byways of his world so consummately free, this ingenious, normal adolescent human creature has created a way of life in perfect image of his animal needs."

Such a description brings to mind Alex, the delinquent thug in A Clockwork Orange. Ardrey also says society might eventually domesticate man through slavery and cure his innate urge to kill and destroy: In law, a person who is not yet a legal adult is known as a minor (known in some places as an infant or juvenile). ...

"We and our greater philosophers must grant, I believe, that the masters of a universal society with the aid of a captive science might just possibly succeed in producing, over a long period, a lasting answer to the problem of our animal nature: a universal human slave inherently obedient to other people's reason."

This brings to mind the Minister of the Interior and his proposal for the answer to street violence in Kubrick's film. However Ardrey also believes:

"Whether through sentimental attachment or rational choice, I find myself moved to prefer the wild creatures among who I was born to the more literal Homo sapiens that science and tyranny might produce."

The clergyman in A Clockwork Orange, whom Kubrick has called "the moral voice of the story" says, "Goodness must come from within. Goodness must be chosen. If a man cannot choose, he ceases to be a man." In fact, Kubrick said in an interview with The New York Times that his view of man was closer to the Christian view than humanistic or Jewish views, as he said, "I mean, it's essentially Christian theology anyway, that view of man."


Kubrick said in an interview with Gene Siskel: Eugene Gene Kal Siskel (January 26, 1946 – February 20, 1999) was one of the worlds most successful film critics. ...

To restrain man is not to redeem him...I think the danger is not that authority will collapse, but that, finally, in order to preserve itself, it will become very repressive...Law and order is not a phoney issue, not just an excuse for the Right to go further right.

Religion

Stanley Kubrick was born Jewish, but never much practiced this religion, as his parents were not very religious either. When asked by Michel Ciment in an interview if he had a religious upbringing, Kubrick replied: "No, not at all."[6] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Michel Ciment was born 26 July 1928 in the Bronx, New York. ...


Kubrick is often said to have been an atheist, but this may not be quite true. In Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures, Jack Nicholson recalls that Kubrick said The Shining is an overall optimistic story because "anything that says there's anything after death is ultimately an optimistic story." “Atheist” redirects here. ...


In Kubrick's interview with Craig McGregor, he said:

2001 would give a little insight into my metaphysical interests," he explains. "I'd be very surprised if the universe wasn't full of an intelligence of an order that to us would seem God-like. I find it very exciting to have a semi-logical belief that there's a great deal to the universe we don't understand, and that there is an intelligence of an incredible magnitude outside the Earth. It's something I've become more and more interested in. I find it a very exciting and satisfying hope.[7]

When asked by Eric Nordern in Kubrick's interview with Playboy if 2001: A Space Odyssey was a religious film, Kubrick elaborated: For other uses, see Playboy (disambiguation). ...

I will say that the God concept is at the heart of 2001 but not any traditional, anthropomorphic image of God. I don't believe in any of Earth's monotheistic religions, but I do believe that one can construct an intriguing scientific definition of God, once you accept the fact that there are approximately 100 billion stars in our galaxy alone, that each star is a life-giving sun and that there are approximately 100 billion galaxies in just the visible universe. Given a planet in a stable orbit, not too hot and not too cold, and given a few billion years of chance chemical reactions created by the interaction of a sun's energy on the planet's chemicals, it's fairly certain that life in one form or another will eventually emerge. It's reasonable to assume that there must be, in fact, countless billions of such planets where biological life has arisen, and the odds of some proportion of such life developing intelligence are high. Now, the sun is by no means an old star, and its planets are mere children in cosmic age, so it seems likely that there are billions of planets in the universe not only where intelligent life is on a lower scale than man but other billions where it is approximately equal and others still where it is hundreds of thousands of millions of years in advance of us. When you think of the giant technological strides that man has made in a few millennia—less than a microsecond in the chronology of the universe—can you imagine the evolutionary development that much older life forms have taken? They may have progressed from biological species, which are fragile shells for the mind at best, into immortal machine entities—and then, over innumerable eons, they could emerge from the chrysalis of matter transformed into beings of pure energy and spirit. Their potentialities would be limitless and their intelligence ungraspable by humans. [8]

In the same interview, he also blames the poor critical reaction to 2001 as follows: This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... For other uses, see Galaxy (disambiguation). ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... This article is about living for infinite period of time. ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as...

Perhaps there is a certain element of the lumpen literati that is so dogmatically atheist and materialist and Earth-bound that it finds the grandeur of space and the myriad mysteries of cosmic intelligence anathema. [9]

In an interview with William Kloman of The New York Times, when asked why there is hardly any dialogue in 2001, Kubrick explained: This article primarily focuses on the general concepts of matter and existence. ... Anathema (in Greek Ανάθεμα) meaning originally something lifted up as an offering to the gods; later, with evolving meanings, it came to mean: to be formally set apart, banished, exiled, excommunicated or denounced, sometimes accursed. ...

I don't have the slightest doubt that to tell a story like this, you couldn't do it with words. There are only 46 minutes of dialogue scenes in the film, and 113 of non-dialogue. There are certain areas of feeling and reality—or unreality or innermost yearning, whatever you want to call it—which are notably inaccessible to words. Music can get into these areas. Painting can get into them. Non-verbal forms of expression can. But words are a terrible straitjacket. It's interesting how many prisoners of that straitjacket resent its being loosened or taken off. There's a side to the human personality that somehow senses that wherever the cosmic truth may lie, it doesn't lie in A, B, C, D. It lies somewhere in the mysterious, unknowable aspects of thought and life and experience. Man has always responded to it. Religion, mythology, allegories—it's always been one of the most responsive chords in man. With rationalism, modern man has tried to eliminate it, and successfully dealt some pretty jarring blows to religion. In a sense, what's happening now in films and in popular music is a reaction to the stifling limitations of rationalism. One wants to break out of the clearly arguable, demonstrable things which really are not very meaningful, or very useful or inspiring, nor does one even sense any enormous truth in them.

Stephen King recalled Kubrick calling him late at night while he was filming The Shining and Kubrick asked him, "Do you believe in God?" King said that he had answered, "Yes," but has had three different versions of what happened next. One time, he said that Kubrick simply hung up on him. On other occasions, he claimed Kubrick said, "I knew it," and then hung up on him. On yet another occasion, King claimed that Kubrick said, before hanging up, "No, I don't think there is a God." In more recent interviews, King has had yet another version of the "God" story, in which Kubrick calls King and asks him if he thinks ghost stories are optimistic because they all suggest there is life after death. King replies, "What about hell?" There is a pause and Kubrick says, "I do not believe in hell." Stephen King said that the primary reason why he didn't like Kubrick's adaptation of The Shining was as follows: For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ... For other uses, see Rationalism (disambiguation). ...

"I think there are two basic problems with the movie. First, Kubrick is a very cold man—pragmatic and rational—and he had great difficulty conceiving even academically, of a supernatural world … Not that religion has to be involved in horror, but a visceral skeptic such as Kubrick just couldn't grasp the sheer inhuman evil of the Overlook Hotel. So he looked, instead, for evil in the characters and made the film into a domestic tragedy with only vaguely supernatural overtones. That was the basic flaw: because he couldn't believe, he couldn't make the film believable to others."

Curiously and ironically, King's choice for directing the 1997 miniseries version of The Shining was Mick Garris, who, according to the interview with his wife found on the DVD of the Masters of Horror series episode of "Chocolate", was a "confirmed atheist", who does not believe in the supernatural at all, while Kubrick was actually more open to the possibility. Also, King said that he believed H. P. Lovecraft was the greatest master of the classic horror tale (something he shared in common with Kubrick), but Lovecraft famously scoffed at the notion of a literal belief in the supernatural and was a very rational and pragmatic man himself. Masters of Horror is an American television series created by director Mick Garris for the Showtime cable network. ... This article is about the author. ...


Finally, Katharina Kubrick Hobbs was asked by alt.movies.kubrick if Stanley Kubrick believed in God. Here is her response:

"Hmm, tricky. I think he believed in something, if you understand my meaning. He was a bit of a fatalist actually, but he was also very superstitious. Truly a mixture of nature and nurture. I don't know exactly what he believed, he probably would have said that no-one can really ever know for sure, and that it would be rather arrogant to assume that one could know. I asked him once after The Shining, if he believed in ghosts. He said that it would be nice if there "were" ghosts, as that would imply that there is something after death. In fact, I think he said, "Gee I hope so."...He did not have a religious funeral service. He's not buried in consecrated ground. We always celebrated Christmas and had huge Christmas trees." [10]

For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...

Aspect ratio

There has been a longstanding debate regarding the DVD releases of Kubrick's films; specifically, the aspect ratio of many of the films. The primary point of contention relates to his final five films, A Clockwork Orange, Barry Lyndon, The Shining, Full Metal Jacket, and Eyes Wide Shut. All five films were projected theatrically with an aspect ratio of 1.85:1. The DVD for A Clockwork Orange has an aspect ratio of 1.66:1 as does Barry Lyndon; the remaining three films are 1.33:1 ("fullscreen"). DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... For other uses, see Aspect ratio. ...


Kubrick was very upset about television screenings of 2001: A Space Odyssey. Because the film was shot for Cinerama, it was one of the few times Kubrick used a widescreen ratio (originally 2.2:1 [70mm], modified to 2.35:1 [35mm]); for television, the distributor created a pan-and-scan transfer at 1.33:1, compromising many of the images Kubrick had meticulously created. Following this, he decided to shoot all of his films open-matte (the full 1.33:1 frame is exposed on the actual film, but, when projected, this image is matted to 1.85:1). Kubrick never approved a 1.85:1 video transfer of any of his films; when he died in 1999, DVD was only beginning to catch on strongly in the U.S., and most people were still used to seeing movies fill their television screen. Warner Home Video chose to release these films with the transfers which Kubrick had explicitly approved. Subsequent to that, some evidence has been brought out which suggests that Kubrick (along with his directors of photography) did, in fact, compose shots for 1.85:1 (though the evidence is strongest for The Shining, people extrapolate and apply it to all of them). The most recent special edition versions (released on October 23, 2007) of The Shining, Full Metal Jacket and Eyes Wide Shut are in the original 1.85:1 aspect ratio, and A Clockwork Orange has a new, digitally remastered anamorphic transfer with a 1.66:1 aspect ratio. The previous HD DVD and Blu-ray versions of Full Metal Jacket are presented in 1.78:1. Cinerama is the trademarked name for a widescreen process which works by simultaneously projecting images from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge, deeply-curved screen, subtending 146° of arc, and for the corporation which was formed to market it. ... A 2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... Blu-ray discs Blu-ray Disc is a next-generation optical disc format jointly developed by a group of leading consumer electronics and PC companies called the Blu_ray Disc Association (BDA), which succeeds the Blu_ray Disc Founders (BDF). ...


There is a secondary concern related to aspect ratio. During the days of laserdisc, The Criterion Collection released six Kubrick films. Spartacus and 2001 were both widescreen (2.35:1 and 2.2:1, respectively) at the same ratio as their subsequent DVD releases, and The Killing and Paths of Glory were both fullscreen (1.33:1), as these films were released when projectors could still show 1.33:1 (although they were also projected in 1.66:1). Dr. Strangelove and Lolita, though, were given very atypical aspect ratios, in transfers personally overseen by Kubrick. For unspecified reasons, Kubrick chose to give both films an alternating aspect ratio; at times, the image is 1.33:1, while at other times, the image is 1.66:1. This is sometimes falsely attributed to the use of stock footage in Strangelove (another, similar claim is that the transfer was done at 1.33:1, but some shots had already been "hard-matted" to 1.66:1 -- that is, shot in a 1.33:1 ratio with a matte covering a portion of the lens, permanently matting the film to that ratio). The initial DVD releases of Strangelove maintained this approved transfer, but for the most recent two-disc special edition, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment replaced it with a new, digitally remastered anamorphic transfer with an aspect ratio of 1.66:1. All DVD releases of Lolita to date have been at a uniform 1.66:1 aspect ratio, and the expectation is that future releases will retain this aspect ratio. Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... The Criterion Collection logo The Criterion Collection is a privately held company that distributes authoritative consumer versions of important classic and contemporary films on DVD. It was established in 1984 as a joint venture between Janus Films and the Voyager Company. ... Sony Pictures Home Entertainment is the home video, DVD, and UMD distribution arm of Sony Pictures Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation. ...


Also of note, laserdisc releases of 2001 were in a slightly flawed aspect ratio. The film was shot for 70mm, with an approximate ratio of 2.2:1, but many theaters could only show it in 35mm, which is 2.35:1. Thus, the picture was slightly modified for the 35mm prints. The laserdisc releases maintained the 2.2:1 ratio, but applied it to a 35mm print; thus, the edges were slightly cropped, and the top and bottom of the image slightly opened up. This seems to have finally been corrected with the most recent DVD release, which was newly remastered from a 70mm print.


In debates over Kubrick's original intent, he is frequently quoted as saying that he likes/prefers height to width. However, without context, it is unclear whether he made this statement regarding 1.85:1 vs. 1.33:1 or 2.35:1 vs. 1.85:1. The latter would certainly be possible, given that many filmmakers contemporary to Kubrick used 2.35:1 as a default aspect ratio, whereas Kubrick only used it once, at the studio's insistence on Spartacus (though coming very close on 2001).


Filmography

Documentary short films
Feature films
Year Title Awards
1953 Fear and Desire
1955 Killer's Kiss
1956 The Killing Nominated for BAFTA Award: Best Film from any Source
1957 Paths of Glory Nominated for BAFTA Award: Best Film from any Source
1960 Spartacus Nominated for 6 Oscars, Won 4: Best Supporting Actor, Best Art-Direction, Best Cinematography, Best Costume Design, Best Editing, Best Original Score
Nominated for 6 Golden Globes, Won 1: Best Drama Picture, Best Drama Actor, Best Director, Best Original Score, Best Supporting Actor
Nominated for BAFTA Award: Best Film from any Source
1962 Lolita Nominated for Oscar: Best Adapted Screenplay
Nominated for 5 Golden Globes, Won 1: Most Promising Newcomer - Female, Best Drama Actor, Best Drama Actress, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor
Nominated for BAFTA Award: Best Actor
1964 Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb Nominated for 4 Oscars:Best Actor, Best Director, Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay
Nominated for 6 BAFTA Awards, Won 3: Best British Art-Direction, Best British Film, Best Film from any Source, Best British Actor, Best British Screenplay, Best Foreign Actor
1968 2001: A Space Odyssey Nominated for 4 Oscars, Won 1 : Best Special Effect, Best Director, Best Art-Direction, Best Original Screenplay
Nominated for 4 BAFTA Awards, Won 3: Best Art-Direction, Best Cinematography, Best Sound Track, Best Film
1971 A Clockwork Orange Nominated for 4 Oscars: Best Director, Best Editing, Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay
Nominated for 3 Golden Globes: Best Director, Best Drama Picture, Best Drama Actor
Nominated for 7 BAFTA Awards: Best Art-Direction, Best Cinematography, Best Direction, Best Film, Best Film Editing, Best Screenplay, Best Sound Track
1975 Barry Lyndon Nominated for 7 Oscars, Won 4: Best Art-Direction, Best Cinematography, Best Costume Design, Best Original Score, Best Director, Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay
Nominated for 2 Golden Globes: Best Director, Best Drama Picture
Nominated for 5 BAFTA Awards, Won 2: Best Cinematography, Best Direction, Best Art-Direction, Best Costume Design, Best Film
1980 The Shining
1987 Full Metal Jacket Nominated for Oscar: Best Adapted Screenplay
Nominated for Golden Globe: Best Supporting Actor
Nominated for 2 BAFTA Awards: Best Sound, Best Special Effect
1999 Eyes Wide Shut Nominated for Golden Globe: Best Original Score

Day of the Fight is a 1951 short subject documentary focusing on prize fighter Walter Cartier during the height of his career. ... Flying Padre is a 1951 short subject (8-minute) black-and-white documentary, which is notable as the second picture directed by Stanley Kubrick. ... Stanley Kubricks third film, a short for the Seafarers International Union, directed in June of 1953. ... The year 1953 in film involved some significant events. ... Fear and Desire (1953) is a film by Stanley Kubrick about a team of soldiers trapped behind enemy lines in a fictional war. ... The year 1955 in film involved some significant events. ... Killers Kiss (1955) is a film by Stanley Kubrick. ... The year 1956 in film involved some significant events. ... The Killing (1956) is a film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel Clean Break by Lionel White. ... The year 1957 in film involved some significant events. ... Paths of Glory (1957) is a debatedly anti-war black and white film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel of the same name by Humphrey Cobb. ... See also: 1959 in film 1960 1961 in film 1950s in film 1960s in film years in film film // Events April 20 - for the first time since coming home from military service in Germany, Elvis Presley returns to Hollywood, California to film G.I. Blues August 10 - Filming of West... Spartacus is a 1960 film directed by Stanley Kubrick and based on the novel of the same name by Howard Fast about the historical life of Spartacus and the Third Servile War. ... // Events Dr. No launches the James Bond film series, the longest-running motion picture franchise of all time, running more than 40 years. ... “Lolita (film)” redirects here. ... // Events January 29 - The film Dr. Strangelove is released. ... For the hit 1987 single by Depeche Mode, see the album Music for the Masses Film poster for Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is a 1964 satirical film directed by Stanley Kubrick. ... The year 1968 in film involved some significant events. ... See also: 1970 in film 1971 1972 in film 1970s in film years in film film // Events February 8 - Bob Dylans hour long documentary film, Eat the Document, premieres at New Yorks Academy of Music. ... This article is about the film. ... // January 28 - George Lucas creates the second draft of what would eventually become Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. ... Barry Lyndon (1975) is an award-winning period film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon (1844) by William Makepeace Thackeray. ... The year 1980 in film involved some significant events. ... For other uses of this term, see Shining. ... // May 9 - Actor Tom Cruise marries actress Mimi Rogers. ... For the type of ammunition, see Full metal jacket bullet. ... The year 1999 in film involved some significant events. ... Eyes Wide Shut is a 1999 film directed and co-written by Stanley Kubrick, based on the novella Traumnovelle (in English Dream Story) by Arthur Schnitzler. ...

See also

The Stanley Kubrick Archive is held at the London College of Communication, University of the Arts London, located at Elephant and Castle, south London, England. ... Lebanese Communist Party London College of Communication The London College of Communication (formerly the London College of Printing, and briefly London College of Printing and Distributive Trades) is one of the six constituent colleges of the University of the Arts London. ...

References

  1. ^ "2001: A Space Odyssey - Alex North's unused Soundtrack"
  2. ^ "Stanley Kubrick, Film Director With a Bleak Vision, Dies at 70", New York Times, March 8, 1999. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. “Stanley Kubrick, the famously reclusive director of such classic films as Dr. Strangelove, 2001: A Space Odyssey and A Clockwork Orange, died yesterday at his home in England, his family said. He was 70. The police were summoned to Mr. Kubrick's rural home in Hertfordshire, north of London, where he was pronounced dead yesterday afternoon. There are no suspicious circumstances, a police spokesman said. Mr. Kubrick's family announced his death and said there would be no further comment.” 
  3. ^ http://imdb.com/news/sb/2006-10-31/#4

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

David E. Hughes American academic David Hughes (novelist) British novelist Dave Hughes Australian stand-up comic David Hughes (cricketer) English cricketer David B. Hughes Developer of eMystics (see eMystics. ...

Further reading

  • Nelson, Thomas Allen, "Kubrick: Inside a Film Artist's Maze", Indiana University Press, 1982. ISBN 0253213908
  • 7. Anthony Burgess, (1962, 1986). A Clockwork Orange. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31283-6. 
  • 8. Stanley Kubrick, (2001). Stanley Kubrick: Interviews. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1-57806-297-7. 
  • 9. Jeremy Bernstein (November 1966). "A Day in the Life of Stanley Kubrick". The New Yorker. 
  • 10. Lyons, V and Fitzgerald, M. (2005) ‘’Asperger syndrome : a gift or a curse?’’ New York : Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 1-59454-387-9
  • 11. Rainer Crone (text) and Stanley Kubrick (photographs) (2005). Drama and Shadows: Photographs 1945-1950. Phaidon Press. ISBN 0-7148-4438-1. 
  • 12. Alison Castle (editor) and Stanley Kubrick (photographs) (2005). The Stanley Kubrick Archives. Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-2284-1. 
  • 13. Lobrutto, Vincent. Stanley Kubrick: A Biography. New York: Donald I. Fine, 1997.

Nova Publishers is a New York publishing house whose Nova Science division publishes scientific research books in the fields of physics and medical research. ...

Additional external sources

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Stanley Kubrick
Persondata
NAME Kubrick, Stanley
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American film director
DATE OF BIRTH 26 July 1928
PLACE OF BIRTH Manhattan, New York City, United States
DATE OF DEATH 7 March 1999
PLACE OF DEATH Harpenden, Hertfordshire, England, U.K.

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