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Encyclopedia > Stanley Bruce
The Viscount Bruce of Melbourne
Stanley Bruce

8th Prime Minister of Australia
Elections: 1925, 1928, 1929
In office
9 February 1923 – 22 October 1929
Preceded by Billy Hughes
Succeeded by James Scullin
Constituency Flinders (Victoria)

Born 15 April 1883(1883-04-15)
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Died 25 August 1967 (aged 84)
London, England, UK
Political party Nationalist

Stanley Melbourne Bruce, 1st Viscount Bruce of Melbourne, CH, MC, FRS, PC (15 April 188325 August 1967) was an Australian politician and diplomat, and the eighth Prime Minister of Australia. He was only the second Australian ever granted an hereditary peerage of the United Kingdom parliament, and the only one whose peerage was formally created. (The first had been John Forrest, who was advised he was to be made a peer, but died at sea on his way to take his seat in the House of Lords, and as a result his announced peerage did not actually come into existence).[1] Stanley Bruce File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on November 14, 1925. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on November 17, 1928. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on October 12, 1929. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Billy Hughes, see Billy Hughes (disambiguation). ... James Henry Scullin (September 18, 1876 – January 28, 1953), Australian Labor politician and ninth Prime Minister of Australia. ... The Division of Flinders is an Australian Electoral Division in Victoria. ... // Many people, places and things are named Victoria: Victoria (name), word origin and list of people Victoria of the United Kingdom, known as Queen Victoria Tomás Luis de Victoria, a Renaissance-era composer Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden Lisa Marie Varon, a professional wrestler going by the ring name... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... VIC redirects here. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Nationalist Party of Australia was an Australian political party formed in 1917 from a merger of pro-conscription members of the Labor Party (who had been operating under the banner National Labor after their earlier split with the Labor party) with the Commonwealth Liberal Party. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... John Forrest, 1898 John Forrest, 1st Baron Forrest of Bunbury GCMG PC (22 August 1847–2 September 1918) was an Australian explorer, the first Premier of Western Australia and a cabinet minister in Australias first federal parliament. ...

Contents

Early life

He was born in Melbourne, where his father was a prominent businessman of Scottish descent. He was educated at Glamorgan (now part of Geelong Grammar School), Melbourne Grammar School, and then at Cambridge University. After graduation he studied law in London and was called to the bar in 1907. He practised law in London, and also managed the London office of his father's importing business. When World War I broke out he joined the British Army, and was commissioned to the Worcestershire Regiment, seconded to the Royal Fusiliers. In 1917 he was severely wounded in France, winning the Military Cross and the Croix de Guerre. This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... Geelong Church of England Grammar School is an Anglican co-educational boarding and day-boarding Public School. ... Melbourne Grammar School, also known as MGS or Melbourne Boys, is an independent, day and boarding school predominantly for boys, located in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, . Founded in 1858, the school is a member of the Associated Public Schools of Victoria. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Worcestershire Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army, formed in 1881 by the amalgamation of the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot and the 36th (Herefordshire) Regiment of Foot. ... The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) was a regiment in the British Army. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ...


Political career

Bruce in the 1910s
Bruce in the 1910s

Bruce was invalided home to Melbourne, and soon became involved in recruiting campaigns for the Army. His public speaking attracted the attention of the Nationalist Party, and in 1918 he was elected to the House of Representatives as MP for Flinders, near Melbourne. His background in business led to his being appointed Treasurer (finance minister) in 1921. When the Nationalist Party lost its majority at the 1922 election, the Country Party demanded that Prime Minister Billy Hughes resign as the price of joining a coalition government, and Bruce found himself Prime Minister at the age of only 39. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Nationalist Party of Australia was an Australian political party formed in 1917 from a merger of pro-conscription members of the Labor Party (who had been operating under the banner National Labor after their earlier split with the Labor party) with the Commonwealth Liberal Party. ... The Division of Flinders is an Australian Electoral Division in Victoria. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Federal elections were held in Australia on December 16, 1922. ... The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ... For other persons named Billy Hughes, see Billy Hughes (disambiguation). ...

Prime Minister

Bruce's appointment marked an important turning point in Australian political history. He was the first Prime Minister who had not been involved in the movement for federation, who had not been a member of a colonial Parliament, and who had not been a member of the original 1901 federal Parliament. With his aristocratic manners and dress – he drove a Rolls Royce and wore white spats – he was also the first genuinely "Tory" Australian Prime Minister. This article is about federal states. ... Rolls-Royce car may refer to vehicles produced by: Rolls-Royce Limited (1906-1973) Rolls-Royce Motors (1973-2003) Rolls-Royce Motor Cars (2003-present) // Rolls-Royce cars Rolls-Royce Limited vehicles 1904-1906 10 hp 1905-1905 15 hp 1905-1908 20 hp 1905-1906 30 hp 1905-1906... Spats are a type of shoe accessory worn in the late 19th and early 20th Century. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ...


He formed an effective partnership with the Country Party leader, Dr Earle Page, and exploited public fears of communism and militant trade unions to dominate Australian politics through the 1920s. Despite predictions that Australians would not accept such an aloof leader, he won a smashing victory over a demoralised Labor Party at the 1925 election. He pursued a policy of support for the British Empire, the League of Nations, and the White Australia Policy: Sir Earle Christmas Grafton Page GCMG, CH (August 8, 1880–December 20, 1961), Australian politician, was the eleventh Prime Minister of Australia. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... ALP redirects here. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on November 14, 1925. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration...

"We intend to keep this country white and not allow its peoples to be faced with the problems that at present are practically insoluble in many parts of the world." [2]

In his policy launch speech made at the Shire Hall in Dandenong on 25 October 1925, Bruce reiterated his government's commitment to the White Australia Policy: See also Mount Dandenong, Victoria for the mountain and a different suburb with similar name. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration...

"It is necessary that we should determine what are the ideals towards which every Australian would desire to strive. I think those ideals might well be stated as being to secure our national safety, and to ensure the maintenance of our White Australia Policy to continue as an integral portion of the British Empire." [3]

Maritime Industries crisis

Bruce in the 1920s
Bruce in the 1920s

Strikes of sugar mill workers in 1927, waterside workers in 1928, then of transport workers, timber industry workers and coal miners erupted in riots and lockouts in New South Wales in 1929. Bruce responded with a Maritime Industries Bill that was designed to do away with the Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration and return arbitration powers to the States. On 10 September 1929, Billy Hughes and five other Nationalist members joined Labor in voting against the Bill. The Bill was lost 34 votes to 35 when Littleton Groom, the Speaker, abstained, bringing down the Bruce–Page government and sending Australians to the polls in the 1929 election just one year after the Nationalists won the 1928 election. Labor won a landslide victory and Bruce was defeated by Labor's Ted Holloway in his electorate of Flinders, making him the first Australian Prime Minister to lose his seat. The only other serving Australian prime minister to have lost his seat was John Howard, at the 2007 election. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration is a defunct Australian court, which had jurisdiction to arbitrate interstate industrial disputes. ... For other persons named Billy Hughes, see Billy Hughes (disambiguation). ... The Honourable Littleton Ernest Groom (22 April 1867 - 1936), Australian commonwealth Minister and Speaker of the House, and Australias 10th longestest serving commonwealth Parliamentarian (33 years 1 month). ... Federal elections were held in Australia on October 12, 1929. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on November 17, 1928. ... Rt Hon Ted Holloway Edward James Ted Holloway (1875 - 3 December 1967), Australian politician, was born in Hobart, the son of a stonemason. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... The 2007 election for the federal Parliament of Australia, in which 13. ...

Later life

After his 1929 electoral defeat, Bruce went to England for personal business reasons and contested the 1931 election from that country. In 1931 Bruce won his seat back and became a Minister without Portfolio in the government of Joseph Lyons. Lyons quickly dispatched Bruce to England to represent the government there and he led the Australian delegation to the 1932 Ottawa Imperial Conference. But Lyons wanted Bruce out of politics altogether and in 1933 he resigned from Parliament in order to take the position in London as High Commissioner. This post he held with great distinction for 12 years, playing a notable role in the Abdication Crisis triggered by Edward VIII, and representing Australia's interests in London during World War II. He was appointed a member of the Imperial War Cabinet and the Pacific War Cabinet. Federal elections were held in Australia on December 19, 1931. ... A Minister without Portfolio is a government minister with no specific responsibilities. ... Joseph Aloysius Lyons (15 September 1879 – 7 April 1939), Australian politician, tenth Prime Minister of Australia. ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ... The Instrument of Abdication signed by Edward VIII and his three brothers The Edward VIII abdication crisis refers to events which occurred in 1936, when King-Emperor Edward VIII of the British Empire precipitated a constitutional crisis throughout his realms by his desire to marry his mistress, Mrs. ... King Edward VIII King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King of Ireland Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VIII, (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David), later His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was the second British monarch of the House... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Imperial War Cabinet in 1917 The Imperial War Cabinet was created by British Prime Minister David Lloyd George in the spring of 1917 as a means of co-ordinating the British Empires military policy during the First World War. ...


In 1947 he was created Viscount Bruce of Melbourne, of Westminster Gardens in the City of Westminster and he was the first Australian to take his seat in the House of Lords. He was the only Australian ever created an hereditary peer; however, he died childless and the viscountcy became extinct at his death. (Sir John Forrest was to have been similarly honoured, but died before the peerage was officially created). This article is about the British House of Lords. ... John Forrest, 1898 John Forrest, 1st Baron Forrest of Bunbury GCMG PC (22 August 1847–2 September 1918) was an Australian explorer, the first Premier of Western Australia and a cabinet minister in Australias first federal parliament. ...


Bruce divided the rest of his life between London and Melbourne. He remained Australian High Commissioner until 1945. He represented Australia on various United Nations bodies and was considered as a possible candidate for the position of secretary-general for that organisation and was the chairman of the World Food Council for five years. He was also Chancellor of the Australian National University for a decade starting in 1951. He died in London on 25 August 1967. UN redirects here. ... The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... World Food Council (WFC) was a United Nations organization established by the UN General Assembly in December 1974 by recommendation of the World Food Conference. ... The Australian National University has had numerous notable alumni and faculty. ... The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, Australia. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Bust of Stanley Bruce by sculptor Wallace Anderson located in the Prime Minister's Avenue in the Ballarat Botanical Gardens
Bust of Stanley Bruce by sculptor Wallace Anderson located in the Prime Minister's Avenue in the Ballarat Botanical Gardens

The First Bruce Ministry was the seventeenth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 9th February 1923 to 14th November 1925. ... The Second Bruce Ministry was the eighteenth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 14th November 1925 to 29th November 1928. ... The Third Bruce Ministry was the nineteenth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 29 November 1928 to 22 October 1929. ...

References

The Dictionary of Australian Biography is a reference work containing information on notable people associated with Australian history. ... Melbourne University Publishing (MUP) is the book publishing arm of the University of Melbourne (Australia). ... Central garden of the National Museum of Australia The National Museum of Australia first opened its doors to the public in March 2001 in the nations federal capital city of Canberra. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Representatives Senate Speaker of the House of Representatives David Hawker, Liberal Party since 16 November 2004 President of the Senate Alan Ferguson, Liberal Party since 14 August 2007 Members 226 (150 Representatives, 76 Senators) Political groups Liberal Party ALP National Party Country Liberal Party Greens... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Bruce of Melbourne: Man of Two Worlds - C Edwards, 1965
  2. ^ Bowen, James; Bowen, Margarita (2002). The Great Barrier Reef: History, Science, Heritage. Cambridge University Press, 301. ISBN 0521824303. Retrieved on 2008-01-24. 
  3. ^ Policy Launch Speech: Stanley Bruce, Prime Minister (PDF) 11. The Age (1925-10-26). Archived from the original on 2006. Retrieved on 2008-01-24.
Political offices
Preceded by
Sir Joseph Cook
Treasurer
1921 – 1923
Succeeded by
Earle Page
Preceded by
Billy Hughes
Prime Minister
1923 – 1929
Succeeded by
James Scullin
Minister for External Affairs
1923–1929
Preceded by
Neville Howse
Minister for Health
1927 – 1928
Succeeded by
Neville Howse
Preceded by
Herbert Pratten
Minister for Trade and Customs
1928
Succeeded by
Henry Gullett
Parliament of Australia
Preceded by
William Irvine
Member for Flinders
1918 – 1929
Succeeded by
Ted Holloway
Preceded by
Ted Holloway
Member for Flinders
1931 – 1933
Succeeded by
James Fairbairn
Party political offices
Preceded by
Billy Hughes
Leader of the Nationalist Party of Australia
1922 – 1929
Succeeded by
John Latham
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
New creation
Viscount Bruce of Melbourne
1947–1967
Succeeded by
Extinct
Persondata
NAME Bruce, Stanley
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Australian politician
DATE OF BIRTH 15 April 1883
PLACE OF BIRTH Melbourne, Australia
DATE OF DEATH 25 August 1967
PLACE OF DEATH London
is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stanley Bruce (678 words)
Bruce was prime minister in a period of reasonable stability for the Australian economy, and the Coalition's policies for developing industry and agriculture won them victory in 1925, the first election when voting was compulsory.
Bruce allocated funds to hasten the development of Canberra as the National Capital, and in May 1927 the provisional Parliament House opened; the House would remain provisional for 61 years.
Bruce's downfall was the 1929 Maritime Industries Bill, aimed at handing over arbitration to the states except in the case of the maritime industries.
Stanley Bruce - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (600 words)
Stanley Melbourne Bruce, 1st Viscount Bruce of Melbourne (15 April 1883 – August 25, 1967), Australian politician and diplomat, was the eighth Prime Minister of Australia.
Bruce was invalided home to Melbourne, and soon became involved in recruiting campaigns for the Army.
Bruce formed an effective partnership with the Country Party leader, Dr Earle Page, and exploited public fears of communism and militant trade unions to dominate Australian politics through the 1920s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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