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Encyclopedia > Stanford prison experiment

The Stanford prison experiment was ostensibly a psychological study of human responses to captivity and its behavioral effects on both authorities and inmates in prison. It was conducted in 1971 by a team of researchers led by Philip Zimbardo of Stanford University. Undergraduate volunteers played the roles of both guards and prisoners living in a mock prison in the basement of the Stanford psychology building. Psychological science redirects here. ... The term captivity is used to refer to the following meanings: the state of being confined to a space from which it is hard or impossible to escape; see imprisonment. ... Philip G. Zimbardo (born March 23, 1933) is an American psychologist, best known for his Stanford prison experiment and bestselling introductions to psychology. ... “Stanford” redirects here. ...


Prisoners and guards rapidly adapted to their roles, stepping beyond the boundaries of what had been predicted and leading to dangerous and psychologically damaging situations. One-third of the guards were judged to have exhibited "genuine" sadistic tendencies, while many prisoners were emotionally traumatized and two had to be removed from the experiment early.


Ethical concerns surrounding the famous experiment often draw comparisons to the Milgram experiment, which was conducted in 1961 at Yale University by Stanley Milgram, Zimbardo's former high school friend. The following is a list of historically important scientific experiments and observations. ... The experimenter (V) orders the subject (L) to give what the subject believes are painful electric shocks to another subject (S), who is actually an actor. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Stanley Milgram Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 – December 20, 1984) was a psychologist at Yale University, Harvard University and the City University of New York. ...


Tom Peters and Robert H. Waterman Jr wrote in 1981 that the Milgram Experiment in the 1960s and the later Zimbardo Experiment were frightening in their implications about the danger which lurks in the darker side of human nature.[1] Thomas J. Peters (born November 7, 1942) is an American writer and expert on business management practices, best-known for co-writing the classic book, In Search of Excellence, with Robert H. Waterman, Jr. ... Robert H. Waterman Jr is the co-author, with Tom Peters, of In Search of Excellence. ...

Contents

Goals and methods

Zimbardo and his team intended to test the hypothesis that prison guards and convicts were self-selecting of a certain disposition that would naturally lead to poor conditions. Participants were recruited via a newspaper ad and offered $15 a day ($75 adjusted for inflation in 2007) to participate in a two-week "prison simulation." Of the 75 respondents, Zimbardo and his team selected 24 males of whom they deemed to be the most psychologically stable and healthy. These participants were predominantly white and middle-class. Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A cell and galleries at Londons Newgate Prison in 1896. ... Self-selection is a term used to indicate any situation in which individuals select themselves into a group. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


The prison itself was in the basement of the Stanford Psychology Department, which had been converted into a mock jail. An undergraduate research assistant was the "warden" and Zimbardo the "superintendent". Zimbardo set up a number of specific conditions on the participants which he hoped would promote disorientation, depersonalization and deindividuation. In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... A research assistant (RA) is a junior graduate scholar, employed on a temporary contract by a college or university for the purpose of academic research. ... Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: (1) time, (2) place and (3) person. ... Depersonalization is an alteration in the perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of, ones mental processes or body. ... Deindividuation refers to the phenomenon of relinquishing ones sense of identity. ...


Guards were given wooden batons and a khaki, military-style uniform that they had chosen at a local military surplus store. They were also given mirrored sunglasses to prevent eye contact. Unlike the prisoners, the guards were to work in shifts and return home during off hours, though at times many would later volunteer for added duty without additional pay. “Truncheon” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Uniform (disambiguation). ... A surplus store sells items that are used, or purchased but never used, but no longer needed. ... Mirrorshades are sunglasses with a special coating on the outside of the lenses to make them appear like small mirrors, although the wearer just sees things in a brown or grey tinted point of view, usually. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gaze aversion. ...


Prisoners were to wear only intentionally ill-fitting muslin smocks without underwear and rubber thong sandals, which Zimbardo said would force them to adopt "unfamiliar body postures" and discomfort in order to further their sense of disorientation. They were referred to by assigned numbers instead of by name. These numbers were sewn onto their uniforms, and the prisoners were required to wear tight-fitting nylon pantyhose caps to simulate shaven heads similar to those of military basic training. In addition, they wore a small chain around their ankles as a "constant reminder" of their imprisonment and oppression. Muslin is a type of finely-woven cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. ... This article is about the type of footwear. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... U.S. Army recruits learn about bayonet fighting skills in an infantry Basic Combat Training at Fort Benning, Georgia. ...


The day before the experiment, guards attended a brief orientation meeting but were given no formal guidelines other than that no physical violence was permitted. They were told it was their responsibility to run the prison, and they could do so in any way they wished.


Zimbardo provided the following statements to the "guards" in the briefing:

You can create in the prisoners feelings of boredom, a sense of fear to some degree, you can create a notion of arbitrariness that their life is totally controlled by us, by the system, you, me, and they'll have no privacy… We're going to take away their individuality in various ways. In general what all this leads to is a sense of powerlessness. That is, in this situation we'll have all the power and they'll have none. — The Stanford Prison Study video, quoted in Haslam & Reicher, 2003.

The participants who had been chosen to play the part of prisoners were told simply to wait in their homes to be "called" on the day the experiment began. Without any other warning, they were "charged" with armed robbery and arrested by the actual Palo Alto police department, who cooperated in this part of the experiment. Downtown Palo Alto Palo Alto is a city in Santa Clara County, in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, USA. Palo Alto is located at the northern end of the Silicon Valley, and is home to Stanford University (which is technically located in an adjacent area — Stanford, California...


The prisoners were put through a full booking procedure by the police, including fingerprinting, having their mug shots taken, and information regarding their Miranda rights. They were transported to the mock prison where they were strip-searched, deloused, and given their new identities. A macro shot of a palm and the base of several fingers; as seen here, debris can gather between the ridges. ... Al Capone. ... The Miranda warning is given by police officers of the United States to suspects they have arrested and intend to question. ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse), also known as fly babies, (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3,000 species of wingless phthiraptra. ...


Results

Guards force prisoners to do push-ups, while another (standing) is made to sing.

The experiment quickly grew out of hand. Prisoners suffered — and accepted — sadistic and humiliating treatment from the guards, and, by experiment's end, many showed severe emotional disturbances. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ...


After a relatively uneventful first day, a riot broke out on the second day. The guards volunteered to work extra hours and worked together to break the prisoner revolt, attacking the prisoners with fire extinguishers without supervision from the research staff.


Prisoner counts, initially devised for the prisoners to learn their identity numbers, degenerated to hour-long ordeals where guards tormented the prisoners and imposed physical punishments, including long bouts of forced exercise. The prison became dirty and inhospitable; bathroom rights became privileges, which could be, and frequently were, denied. Some prisoners were forced to clean toilets with bare hands. Mattresses were removed from the "bad" cell block and the prisoners forced to sleep naked on the concrete floor. Moreover, prisoners endured forced nudity and even sexual humiliation.


Zimbardo cited his own absorption in the experiment he guided, and in which he actively participated as Prison Superintendent. On the fourth day, he and the guards reacted to an escape rumour, by attempting to move the entire experiment to a real, unused cell block at the local police station, because it was more secure. The police department refused, citing insurance liability concerns; Zimbardo recalls his anger and disgust with the lack of co-operation, between his and the police's jails.


As the experiment proceeded, several guards became progressively sadistic. Experimenters said that approximately one-third of the guards exhibited genuine sadistic tendencies. Interestingly, most of the guards were upset when the experiment concluded early. Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ...


Zimbardo argued that the prisoner participants had internalized their roles, based on the fact that some had stated that they would accept parole even with the attached condition of forfeiting all of their experiment-participation pay. Yet, when their parole applications were all denied, none of the prisoner participants quit the experiment. Zimbardo argued they had no reason for continued participation in the experiment after having lost all monetary compensation, yet they did, because they had internalised the prisoner identity, they thought themselves prisoners, hence, they stayed. To internalize is to put something inside of borders where it did not originally belong. ...

Prisoner 416

A replacement prisoner was introduced; Prisoner No. 416, horrified at the guards' treatment of the other prisoners, went on a hunger strike in an attempt to force his release. Instead, he was forced into a small closet for three hours of solitary confinement.The other prisoners perceived Prisoner 416 as a troublemaker. To exploit this feeling, the guards offered the prisoners a choice: Either the prisoners could give up their blankets, or No. 416 would be kept in overnight solitary confinement. All, but one, of the prisoners chose to keep his blanket. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ... Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding guards, chaplains and doctors. ...


Zimbardo concluded the experiment early when Christina Maslach, a graduate student he was then dating (and later married) objected to the appalling conditions of the prison after she was introduced to the experiment to conduct interviews. Zimbardo noted that of more than fifty outside persons who had seen the prison, Maslach was the only one who questioned its morality. After only six days, of a planned two weeks' duration, the Stanford Prison experiment was shut down.


Conclusions

The Stanford experiment ended on August 20, 1971, only 6 days after it began instead of the 14 it was supposed to have lasted. The experiment's result has been argued to demonstrate the impressionability and obedience of people when provided with a legitimizing ideology and social and institutional support. It is also used to illustrate cognitive dissonance theory and the power of authority. is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Cognitive dissonance is a psychological term which describes the uncomfortable tension that may result from having two conflicting thoughts at the same time, or from engaging in behavior that conflicts with ones beliefs. ... This article is about authority as a concept. ...


In psychology, the results of the experiment are said to support situational attributions of behavior rather than dispositional attribution. In other words, it seemed the situation caused the participants' behavior, rather than anything inherent in their individual personalities. In this way, it is compatible with the results of the also-famous Milgram experiment, in which ordinary people fulfilled orders to administer what appeared to be damaging electric shocks to a confederate of the experimenter. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Situation ethics. ... Dispositional attribution is the explanation of individual behavior as a result caused by innate characteristics that reside within the individual, as opposed to outside influences that stem from the environment or culture in which that individual is placed. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... The experimenter (V) orders the subject (L) to give what the subject believes are painful electric shocks to another subject (S), who is actually an actor. ... Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a human or animal body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or nerves. ...


Coincidentally, shortly after the study had been completed, there were bloody revolts at both the San Quentin and Attica prison facilities, and Zimbardo reported his findings on the experiment to the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary. Categories: Buildings and structures stubs | US geography stubs | Prisons in California ... The Attica Prison riots were a rebellion by prisoners at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, New York, United States. ... U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Criticism of the experiment

The experiment was widely criticized as being unethical and bordering on unscientific. Critics including Erich Fromm challenged how readily the results of the experiment could be generalized. Fromm specifically writes about how the personality of an individual does in fact affect behavior when imprisoned (using historical examples from the Nazi concentration camps). This runs counter to the study's conclusion that the prison situation itself controls the individual's behavior. Fromm also argues that the amount of sadism in the "normal" subjects could not be determined with the methods employed to screen them. For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Erich Fromm Erich Pinchas Fromm (March 23, 1900 – March 18, 1980) was an internationally renowned Jewish-German-American social psychologist, psychoanalyst, and humanistic philosopher. ... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ... Look up sadism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Because it was a field experiment, it was impossible to keep traditional scientific controls. Zimbardo was not merely a neutral observer, but influenced the direction of the experiment as its "superintendent". Conclusions and observations drawn by the experimenters were largely subjective and anecdotal, and the experiment would be difficult for other researchers to reproduce. Fieldwork refers to scientific activity conducted in the field, outside the laboratory, of subject matter in an as-found state, by anthropologists, geologists, botanists, archaeologists or others who study the natural or human world. ... A scientific control augments integrity in experiments by isolating variables as dictated by the scientific method in order to make a conclusion about such variables. ... For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... Anecdotal evidence is an informal account of evidence in the form of an anecdote, or hearsay. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

One of the most abused prisoners, #416, and the guard known as "John Wayne", who was one of the most abusive guards, confront each other in an "encounter session" two months later.
One of the most abused prisoners, #416, and the guard known as "John Wayne", who was one of the most abusive guards, confront each other in an "encounter session" two months later.

Some of the experiment's critics argued that participants based their behavior on how they were expected to behave, or modeled it after stereotypes they already had about the behavior of prisoners and guards. In other words, the participants were merely engaging in role-playing. In response, Zimbardo claimed that even if there was role-playing initially, participants internalized these roles as the experiment continued. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... For the term used in computing, see stereotype (UML). ... In role-playing, participants adopt characters, or parts, that have personalities, motivations, and backgrounds different from their own. ... To internalize is to put something inside of borders where it did not originally belong. ...


Additionally, it was criticized on the basis of ecological validity. Many of the conditions imposed in the experiment were arbitrary and may not have correlated with actual prison conditions, including blindfolding incoming "prisoners", not allowing them to wear underwear, not allowing them to look out of windows and not allowing them to use their names. Zimbardo argued that prison is a confusing and dehumanizing experience and that it was necessary to enact these procedures to put the "prisoners" in the proper frame of mind; however, it is difficult to know how similar the effects were to an actual prison, and the experiment's methods would be difficult to reproduce exactly so that others could test them. Ecological validity is one of the forms of validity for an experiment. ...


Some said that the study was too deterministic: reports described significant differences in the cruelty of the guards, the worst of whom came to be nicknamed "John Wayne." (This guard alleges he started the escalation of events between "guards" and "prisoners" after he began to emulate a character from the Paul Newman film Cool Hand Luke. He further intensified his actions because he was nicknamed "John Wayne" though he was trying to mimic actor Strother Martin who played the role of the sadistic "Captain" in the movie.[2]) Other guards were kinder and often did favors for prisoners. Zimbardo made no attempt to explain or account for these differences. Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition and behavior, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... This article is about the American actor and race team owner. ... Cool Hand Luke is a 1967 American film starring Paul Newman and directed by Stuart Rosenberg. ... Strother Martin, (March 26, 1919 – August 1, 1980) was an American character actor in numerous films and television programs. ...


Lastly, the sample size was very small, with only 24 participants taking part over a relatively short period of time.


Haslam and Reicher

Alex Haslam and Steve Reicher (2003), psychologists from the University of Exeter and University of St Andrews, conducted a partial replication of the experiment with the assistance of the BBC, who broadcast scenes from the study as a reality TV program called The Experiment. Their results and conclusions were very different from Zimbardo's and led to a number of publications on tyranny, stress and leadership (moreover, unlike results from the SPE, these were published in leading academic journals; e.g., British Journal of Social Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, Social Psychology Quarterly) . While their procedure was not a direct replication of Zimbardo's, their study does cast further doubt on the generality of his conclusions. Specifically, it questions the notion that people slip mindlessly into role and the idea that the dynamics of evil are in any way banal. Their research also points to the importance of leadership in the emergence of tyranny (of the form displayed by Zimbardo when briefing guards in the Stanford experiment). [3] Alex Haslam is a Professor of Social Psychology in the School of Psychology at the University of Exeter. ... Stephen D Reicher (Steve Reicher) is Professor of Social Psychology and Head of the School of Psychology at the University of St Andrews. ... The University of Exeter (usually abbreviated as Exon. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Reality television is a genre of television programming in which the fortunes of real life people (as opposed to fictional characters played by actors) are followed. ... This article is about the reality television show. ...


Abu Ghraib

When the Abu Ghraib military prisoner torture and abuse scandal was published in March 2004, many observers immediately were struck by its similarities to the Stanford Prison experiment — among them, Philip Zimbardo, who paid close attention to the details of the story. He was dismayed by official military and government efforts shifting the blame for the torture and abuses in the Abu Ghraib American military prison on to "a few bad apples" rather than acknowledging it as possibly systemic problems of a formally established military incarceration system. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse Beginning in 2004, accounts of abuse, rape, although this has not been proven,[1], homicide[2], and torture of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq (also known as Baghdad Correctional Facility) came to public attention. ... Philip G. Zimbardo (born March 23, 1933) is an American psychologist, best known for his Stanford prison experiment and bestselling introductions to psychology. ... Abu Ghraib cell block The Abu Ghraib prison (Arabic: سجن أبو غريب; also Abu Ghurayb) is in Abu Ghraib, an Iraqi city 32 km (20 mi) west of Baghdad. ...


Eventually, Zimbardo became involved with the defense team of lawyers representing Abu Ghraib prison guard Staff Sergeant Ivan "Chip" Frederick. He had full access to all investigation and background reports, testifying as an expert witness in SSG Frederick's court martial, resulting in an eight-year prison sentence for Frederick in October 2004. Sgt. ... An expert witness is a witness, who by virtue of education, profession, publication or experience, is believed to have special knowledge of his or her subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially (and legally) rely upon his opinion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Zimbardo drew on his knowledge gained from participating in SSG Frederick's case to write The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil, (Random House, 2007), dealing with the many alleged connections between the Stanford Prison Experiment and the Abu Ghraib abuses.[4]


Similar Incidents

In April 2007, it was reported[5] that high-school students in Waxahachie, Texas who were participating in a role-playing exercise fell into a similar abusive pattern of behaviour as exhibited in the original experiment. Waxahachie is a city located in Ellis County, Texas. ...


In 2002, the BBC conducted a similar experiment in the BBC Prison Study For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


See also

DVD cover to Das Experiment; same image as movie poster. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Ron Jones was a teacher in Palo Alto, California, USA. He started The Third Wave. ... The Wave is a young adult novel by Todd Strasser (under the pen name Morton Rhue). ... Morton Rhue, the penname of the american author Todd Strasser (born May 5, 1950 in New York, USA), is an author of young-adult novels, including Boot Camp, Asphalt Tribe and The Wave, a novelization of a social experiment which happened in Cubberley High School in Palo Alto, California during... The experimenter (V) orders the subject (L) to give what the subject believes are painful electric shocks to another subject (S), who is actually an actor. ... Peer pressure comprises a set of group dynamics whereby a group in which one feels comfortable may override personal habits, individual moral inhibitions or idiosyncratic desires to impose a group norm of attitudes and/or behaviors. ... Lord of the Flies is an allegorical novel by Nobel Prize-winning author William Golding. ... Sir William Gerald Golding (19 September 1911 – 19 June 1993) was a British novelist, poet and winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature (1983), best known for his novel Lord of the Flies. ... The House of Stairs (1974) (ISBN 0140345809) is a science fiction novel by William Sleator. ... William Warner Sleator III (born February 13, 1945), known as William Sleator, is an American science fiction author who writes primarily young adult novels but has also written for younger readers. ... Natural justice is a legal philosophy used in some jurisdictions in the determination of just, or fair, processes in legal proceedings. ... The Dispossessed: An Ambiguous Utopia is a 1974 utopian science fiction novel by Ursula K. Le Guin, set in the same fictional universe as that of The Left Hand of Darkness (the Hainish Cycle). ... Ursula Kroeber Le Guin [ˌɜɹsÉ™lÉ™ ËŒkɹobɜɹ ləˈgWɪn] (born October 21, 1929) is an American author. ... Malcolm Gladwell Malcolm Gladwell (born September 1, 1963) is a United Kingdom-born, Canadian-raised journalist now based in New York City who has been a staff writer for The New Yorker since 1996. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse Beginning in 2004, accounts of abuse, rape, although this has not been proven,[1], homicide[2], and torture of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq (also known as Baghdad Correctional Facility) came to public attention. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Peters, Thomas, J.,, Waterman, Robert. H., "In Search of Excellence", 1981. Cf. p.78 and onward.
  2. ^ "John Wayne" (name withheld). Interview. "The Science of Evil." Primetime. Basic Instincts. KATU. 3 Jan. 2007.
  3. ^ see interviews at http://education.guardian.co.uk/academicexperts/story/0,,1605313,00.html and http://www.offthetelly.co.uk/interviews/experiment.htm
  4. ^ Lucifer Effect.
  5. ^ Holocaust Lesson Gets Out Of Hand, http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/jews-and-germans-lesson-gets-out-of-hand/2007/04/11/1175971162172.html

Thomas J. Peters (born November 7, 1942) is an American writer and expert on business management practices, best-known for co-writing the classic book, In Search of Excellence, with Robert H. Waterman, Jr. ... Robert H. Waterman Jr is the co-author, with Tom Peters, of In Search of Excellence. ... In Search of Excellence is an international bestselling book written by Tom Peters and Robert H. Waterman Jr, first published in 1982. ...

References

  • Haney, C., Banks, W. C., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1973). Study of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison. Naval Research Reviews, 9, 1–17. Washington, DC: Office of Naval Research
  • Haney, C., Banks, W. C., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1973). Interpersonal dynamics in a simulated prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 69–97.
  • Haslam, S. Alexander & Reicher, Stephen (2003). Beyond Stanford: Questioning a role-based explanation of tyranny. Dialogue (Bulletin of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology), 18, 22–25.
  • Musen, K. & Zimbardo, P. G. (1991). Quiet rage: The Stanford prison study. Videorecording. Stanford, CA: Psychology Dept., Stanford University.
  • Reicher, Stephen., & Haslam, S. Alexander. (2006). Rethinking the psychology of tyranny: The BBC Prison Study. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 1–40.
  • Zimbardo, P. G. (1971). The power and pathology of imprisonment. Congressional Record. (Serial No. 15, 1971-10-25). Hearings before Subcommittee No. 3, of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session on Corrections, Part II, Prisons, Prison Reform and Prisoner's Rights: California. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • Zimbardo, P. G (2007) [1] "Understanding How Good People Turn Evil". Interview transcript. "Democracy Now!", March 30, 2007. Accessed March 31, 2007

Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Official Site
  • Homepage of Philip Zimbardo
  • Summary of the experiment
  • Zimbardo, P. (2007). From Heavens to Hells to Heroes. In-Mind Magazine.
  • Fromm's criticism of the experiment
  • The Experiment (IMDB) — German movie (Das Experiment) from 2001 inspired by the Stanford Experiment
  • The Lie of the Stanford Prison Experiment — Criticism from Carlo Prescott, ex-con and consultant/assistant for the experiment
  • The Artificial Prison of the Human Mind Article with Comments.
  • Philip Zimbardo on Democracy Now! March 30 2007
  • Philip Zimbardo on The Daily Show, March, 2007

Abu Ghraib and the experiment:


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still powerful after all these years (1/97) (2586 words)
She had walked into the experiment late and therefore was more likely to be startled than those who had been planning it for months and observing it for five days, she said.
Later, when she looked at the monitor of the prison yard again, she asked someone to point out John Wayne and was shocked to discover it was the young man she had talked with earlier.
In Zimbardo's view, prisons are "failed social-political experiments" that continue to bring out the worst in relations between people "because the public is indifferent to what takes place in secret there, and politicians use them, fill them up as much as they can, to demonstrate only that they are tough on crime.
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