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Encyclopedia > Standardization

Standardization or standardisation in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical specification, called a standard, among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. It can also be viewed as a mechanism for optimising economic use of scarce resources such as forests, which are threatened by paper manufacture. As an example, all of Europe now uses 230 volt 50 Hz AC mains grids and GSM mobile phones, and (at least officially) measures lengths in metres. The United Kingdom has officially accepted metres for business purposes but feet and inches are still widely used by the general public. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Look up standard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Type F mains power plug & socket The term mains usually refers to the general purpose alternating current (AC) electrical power supply (as in “Ive connected the appliance to the mains”). The term is not usually used in the United States and Canada. ... Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... Weights and measures is a term used by legal authorities in English speaking countries such as the United Kingdom for a function related to units of measurement in trade. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial unit of length. ...

Contents

Usage

Standardization means: "the development and implementation of concepts doctrines, products and designs to achieve and maintain the required levels of compatibility intechangeability or commonality in the operational,procedural material, technical and administrative fields to attain interoperability." where it generally used? Common use of the word standard implies that it is a universally agreed upon set of guidelines for interoperability.However,the plurality of standards-issuing organizations means that in many cases, a document purporting to be a "standard" doesn't necessarily have the support of many parties. As Grace Hopper said, "The wonderful thing about standards is that there are so many of them to choose from". Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper (December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy officer. ...


In the context of social criticism and social sciences, standardization often means the process of establishing standards of various kinds, and improving efficiency to handle people, their interactions, cases, and so forth. Examples include formalization of judicial procedure in court, and establishing uniform criteria for diagnosing mental disease. Standardization in this sense is often discussed along with (or synonymously to) such large-scale social changes as modernization, bureaucratization, homogenization, and centralization of society. The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ...


In the context of business information exchanges, standardization refers to the process of developing data exchange standards for specific business processes using specific syntaxes. These standards are usually developed in voluntary consensus standards bodies such as the United Nations Center for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT), the World Wide Web Consortium W3C, and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). The United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business, (UN/CEFACT) has a mission to improve the ability of business, trade and administrative organizations, from developed, developing and transitional economies, to exchange products and relevant services effectively - and so contribute to the growth of global commerce. ... The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is a consortium that produces standards—recommendations, as they call them—for the World Wide Web. ... The Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) is a global consortium that drives the development, convergence and adoption of e-business and web service standards. ...


Standards can be de facto, which means they are followed for convenience, or de jure, which means they are used because of (more or less) legally binding contracts and documents. Government agencies often have to follow standards issued by official standardization organizations. Following such standards can also be a prerequisite for doing business on certain markets, with certain companies, or within certain consortia. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A standard can be open or proprietary. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... It has been suggested that closed source be merged into this article or section. ...


There are many worldwide standards and drafts (for example, for the standardization of powercords) developed and maintained by the ISO, the IEC, or the ITU. A mains cable (International English) or power cord (American English) is cable that connects an electrical appliance to an electrical power source. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ...


Regional standards bodies also exist such as CEN, CENELEC, ETSI, and the IRMM in Europe, the Pan American Standards Commission (COPANT), the Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC), the African Organization for Standardization (ARSO), the Arab Industrial Development and Mining Organization (AIDMO), and others. CEN, the European Committee for Standardization, was founded in 1961 by the national standard bodies in the European Economic Community and EFTA countries. ... CENELEC (French: Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique) is the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization. ... The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is a standardization organization of the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection. ... The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements or IRMM, located in Geel, Belgium, is one of the seven institutes of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate-General of the European Commission (EC). ...


Sub-regional standards organizations also exist such as the MERCOSUR Standardization Association (AMN), the CARICOM Regional Organisation for Standards and Quality (CROSQ), and the ASEAN Consultative Committee for Standards and Quality (ACCSQ). It is also the name of the Iraqi intelligence agency called the Iraqi State Internal Security. ...


In general, each country or economy has a single recognized National Standards Body (NSB). Examples include ABNT, ANSI, BSI, DGN, DIN, IRAM, JISC, KATS, SABS, SAC, SCC, SIS, SNZ. An NSB is likely the sole member from that economy in ISO. The American National Standards Institute or ANSI (pronounced an-see) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. ... BSI is a three letter acronym that can stand for: The Bible Society of India British Standards Institution Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik, the German Federal Office for Information Security Basic Systems Inc. ... DGN (Design) is the name used for CAD file formats supported by Bentley Systems Microstation and Intergraphs Interactive Graphics Design System (IGDS) CAD programs. ... Look up din in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The iRAM is a solid-storage solution produced by Gigabyte which has four DIMM slots to allow regular PC DDR RAM to be used to store data. ... JISC (the Joint Information Systems Committee) is a publicly-funded UK-wide body supporting the use of ICT and related technology for learning, teaching, research and administration in further and higher education. ... The Stabilizing Automatic Bomb Sight (SABS) was an improved precision bomb sight introduced into operational service by the Royal Air Force (RAF) in 1943 during World War II. SABS was used operationally for the first time by No. ... SAC can mean: S-Allyl cysteine, a chemical constituent of garlic SAC Capital Partners, a hedge fund managed by Steven A. Cohen SAC programming language St. ... The Standards Council of Canada is a Crown corporation based in Ottawa, Ontario, and is Canadas member body of the International Organization for Standardization. ... Sis may refer to: An abbreviation of sister. ... Squirrel Nut Zippers poster Squirrel Nut Zippers is a U.S. band formed in 1993 as a tongue-in-cheek salute to 1920s and 1930s big band swing music. ... “ISO” redirects here. ...


NSBs may be either public or private sector organizations, or combinations of the two. For example, the three NSBs of Canada, Mexico and the United States are respectively the Standards Council of Canada (SCC), the General Bureau of Standards (Dirección General de Normas, DGN), and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). SCC is a Canadian Crown Corporation, DGN is a governmental agency within the Mexican Ministry of Economy, and ANSI is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with members from both the private and public sectors. The determinates of whether an NSB for a particular economy is a public or private sector body may include the historical and traditional roles that the private sector fills in public affairs in that economy or the development stage of that economy. The Standards Council of Canada is a Crown corporation based in Ottawa, Ontario, and is Canadas member body of the International Organization for Standardization. ... The American National Standards Institute or ANSI (pronounced an-see) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. ... In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ... 501(c)(3) is a provision of the US tax code that provides exempt status, for Federal income tax purposes, for some non-profit organizations in the United States (see 26 U.S.C. Â§ 501(c)(3)). The term refers to: Section 501. ...


Many specifications that govern the operation and interaction of devices and software on the Internet are de facto standards. To preserve the word "standard" as the domain of relatively disinterested bodies such as ISO, the W3C, for example, publishes "Recommendations", and the IETF publishes "Requests for Comments" (RFCs). These publications are often informally referred to as being standards. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is a consortium that produces standards—recommendations, as they call them—for the World Wide Web. ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ... In internetworking and computer network engineering, Request for Comments (RFC) documents are a series of memoranda encompassing new research, innovations, and methodologies applicable to Internet technologies. ...


In a military context, standardization is defined as: The development and implementation of concepts, doctrines, procedures and designs to achieve and maintain the required levels of compatibility, interchangeability or commonality in the operational, procedural, material, technical and administrative fields to attain interoperability. The term compatibility has the following meanings: In telecommunication, the capability of two or more items or components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same system or environment without mutual interference. ... In telecommunication, an interchangeability is a condition which exists when two or more items possess such functional and physical characteristics as to be equivalent in performance and durability, and are capable of being exchanged one for the other without alteration of the items themselves, or of adjoining items, except for... In telecommunication, the term commonality has the following meanings: 1. ...


Note: there are at least four levels of standardization. In order they are: compatibility, interchangeability, commonality and reference. These standardization processes create compatibility, similarity, measurement and symbol standards. The term compatibility has the following meanings: In telecommunication, the capability of two or more items or components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same system or environment without mutual interference. ... In telecommunication, an interchangeability is a condition which exists when two or more items possess such functional and physical characteristics as to be equivalent in performance and durability, and are capable of being exchanged one for the other without alteration of the items themselves, or of adjoining items, except for... In telecommunication, the term commonality has the following meanings: 1. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...


In ISO terminology, ISO standards are technical agreements which provide the framework for compatible technology worldwide.


Other uses

In herbal medicine standardization refers to providing processed plant material that meets a specified concentration of a specific marker constituent. However plant constituents have synergy and even active constituent concentrations may be misleading measures of potency if cofactors are not present. A further problem is that the important constituent is often unknown. For instance St. Johnswort is often standardized to hypericin which is now known not to be the "active ingredient'. Other companies standardize to hyperforin or both, although there may be some 24 known possible constituents. Different companies use different markers, or different levels of the same markers, or different methods of testing for marker compounds. Herbalist and manufacturer David Winston points out that whenever different compounds are chosen as "active ingredients" for different herbs, there is a chance that suppliers will get a substandard batch (low on the chemical markers) and mix it with a batch higher in the desired marker to compensate for the difference.[1] The term Herbalism refers to folk and traditional medicinal practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... Marker may refer to: A felt-tipped marker pen. ... Synergy (from the Greek synergos, συνεργός meaning working together, circa 1660) refers to the phenomenon in which two or more discrete influences or agents acting together create an effect greater than that predicted by knowing only the separate effects of the individual agents. ... Cofactor may refer to any of the following: Minor (linear algebra) as an alternative name for the determinant of a smaller matrix than that which it describes Cofactor (biochemistry) is a substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme for a certain reaction to take place. ... Binomial name L. St Johns wort (IPA pronunciation: General American , Received Pronunciation , rhyming with fort) used alone refers to the species Hypericum perforatum, also known as Tiptons Weed or Klamath weed, but, with qualifiers, is used to refer to any species of the genus Hypericum. ... Categories: Stub ... An active ingredient, also active pharmaceutical ingredient (or API), is the substance in drug that is pharmaceutically active. ... Hyperforin is one of the principal constituents identified in St Johns wort. ... David Winston is an herbalist and ethnobotanist who, for the last 26 years has practiced herbal medicine in United States. ...


In statistics, standardization refers to conversion to standard scores. This article is about the field of statistics. ... Compares the various grading methods in a normal distribution. ...


In test theory, standardization refers to measurements or assessments conducted under exact, specified, and repeatable conditions. In experimental physics, a test theory tells experimenters how to perform particular comparisons between specific theories, or between specific classes of theory. ...


In supply chain management, standardization refers to approaches for increasing commonality of either part, process, product or procurement. Such change will enable delayed making of manufacturing or procurement decisions, thus reducing variability found in having many non-standard components. Supply chain management (SCM) is the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the operations of the supply chain as efficiently as possible. ...


From a modern economics point of view, standardization process starts with a social problem known as "coordination dilemma". Standards, as "voluntary norms", serve to facilitate the resolution of coordination dilemmas and realize mutual gains; then standard refer also to a kind of social dilemma solution. New institutional economics (NIE) may be characterized as a new perspective in economics. ... In game theory, the Nash equilibrium (named after John Nash) is a kind of optimal strategy for games involving two or more players, whereby the players reach an outcome to mutual advantage. ...


See also

Look up standardization, standardisation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ... ASTM International is an international voluntary standards organization that develops and produces technical standards for materials, products, systems and services. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Look up standard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A standards organization, also sometimes referred to as a standards body, a standards development organization or SDO (depending on what is being referenced), is any entity whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise maintaining standards that address the interests of a wide base of... Open systems are computer systems that provide either interoperability, portability, or freedom from proprietary standards, depending on users perspective. ... An open format is a published specification for storing digital data, usually maintained by a non-proprietary standards organization, and free of legal restrictions on use. ... In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in, customer lock-in, lock-in is where a customer is dependent on a vendor for products and services and cannot move to another vendor without substantial switching costs, real and/or perceived. ... Microsoft, like many other companies in their heyday, has publicly stated that it aims to embrace and extend popular standards and existing work. ... Conformity assessment is any activity to determine, directly or indirectly, that a process, product, or service meets relevant standards and fulfills relevant requirements. ... A network effect is a characteristic that causes a good or service to have a value to a potential customer which depends on the number of other customers who own the good or are users of the service. ... Semi-official ODF logo The OpenDocument format (ODF, ISO/IEC 26300, full name: OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications) is a file format for electronic office documents, such as spreadsheets, charts, presentations, databases and word processing documents (e. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... NATOs 7. ...

References

  1. ^ http://oneearthherbs.squarespace.com/growth-storage/

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