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Encyclopedia > Standardisation

Standardisation or standardization (sometimes abbreviated s13n), in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical standard among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. It can also be viewed as a mechanism for optimising economic use of scarce resources such as forests, which are threatened by paper manufacture. As an example, all of Europe now uses 230 volt 50 Hz AC mains grids and GSM cell phones, and (at least officially) measures lengths in metres. The word standard has several meanings: Classically, standard referred to a flag or banner; especially, a national or other ensign carried into battle; thus standard bearer indicates the one who bears, or carries, the standard. ... The hertz (symbol Hz) is the SI unit of frequency. ... What is usually hidden to the unaided eye, the 60Hz blinking of (non incandescent) lighting powered by AC mains, is revealed in this motion blurred long exposure of city lights. ... Type F Mains power plug & socket The term mains usually refers to the general purpose AC electrical power supply (as in Ive connected the appliance to the mains). The term is not usually used in the US and Canada. ... GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... Motorola T2288 mobile phone A mobile phone is a portable electronic device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (compare cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited range). ... The definition, agreement and practical use of units of weights and measures have played a crucial role in human endeavor from early ages up to this day. ... The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units (SI: Système International dUnités). ...


In the context of social criticism and social sciences, standardisation often means the process of establishing standards of various kinds, and improving efficiency to handle people, their interactions, cases, and so forth. Examples include formalisation of judicial procedure in court, and establishing uniform criteria for diagnosing mental disease. Standardisation in this sense is often discussed along with (or synonymously to) such large-scale social changes as modernisation, bureaucratisation, homogenisation, and centralisation of society. The social sciences comprise the claimed application of scientific methods to the study of the human aspects of the world. ...


In the context of business information exchanges, standardisation refers to the process of developing data exchange standards for specific business processes using specific syntaxes. These standards are usually developed in voluntary consensus standards bodies such as the United Nations Center for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT)and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS).


Standards can be de facto, which means they are followed for convenience, or de jure, which means they are used because of (more or less) legally binding contracts and documents. Government agencies often have to follow standards issued by official standardisation organisations. Following such standards can also be a prerequisite for doing business on certain markets, with certain companies, or within certain consortia. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary De jure (in Classical Latin de iure) is an expression that means based on law, as contrasted with de facto, which means in fact. The terms de jure and de facto are used like in principle and in practice when one...


A standard can be open or not (proprietary). Open standards are publicly available specifications for achieving a specific task. ... Proprietary indicates that a party exercises private ownership, control or use over an item of property, usually to the exclusion of other parties. ...


There are many worldwide standards and drafts (for example, for the standardisation of powercords) developed and maintained by the ISO, the IEC, and the ITU. A mains cable (International English) or power cord (American English) is cable that connects an electrical appliance to an electrical power source. ... Logo of the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO or iso) is an international standard-setting body made up of representatives from national standards bodies. ... The initials IEC can stand for: Independent Electoral Commission Industrial Emergency Council Inertial electrostatic confinement (in fusion energy) Institut des Experts-comptables et des Conseils fiscaux Institut dEstudis Catalans, Catalan Studies Institute Interactive Evolutionary Computation International Education Centre International Electrical Congress International Electrotechnical Commission See also IEC connector for... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ...


Many specifications that govern the operation and interaction of devices and software on the Internet are de facto standards. To preserve the word "standard" as the domain of relatively disinterested bodies such as ISO, the W3C, for example, publishes "Recommendations", and the IETF publishes "Requests for Comments" (RFCs). These publications are often informally referred to as being standards. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is a consortium that produces standards—recommendations, as they call them—for the World Wide Web. ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ... A Request for Comments (RFC) document is one of a series of numbered Internet informational documents and standards very widely followed by both commercial software and freeware in the Internet and Unix communities. ...


In a military context, standardisation is defined as: The development and implementation of concepts, doctrines, procedures and designs to achieve and maintain the required levels of compatibility, interchangeability or commonality in the operational, procedural, materiel, technical and administrative fields to attain interoperability. The term compatibility has the following meanings: In telecommunication, the capability of two or more items or components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same system or environment without mutual interference. ... In telecommunication, an interchangeability is a condition which exists when two or more items possess such functional and physical characteristics as to be equivalent in performance and durability, and are capable of being exchanged one for the other without alteration of the items themselves, or of adjoining items, except for... In telecommunication, the term commonality has the following meanings: 1. ...


Note: the three levels of standardisation in ascending order are: compatibility, interchangeability and commonality. The term compatibility has the following meanings: In telecommunication, the capability of two or more items or components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same system or environment without mutual interference. ... In telecommunication, an interchangeability is a condition which exists when two or more items possess such functional and physical characteristics as to be equivalent in performance and durability, and are capable of being exchanged one for the other without alteration of the items themselves, or of adjoining items, except for... In telecommunication, the term commonality has the following meanings: 1. ...


See also


In statistics, standardisation refers to conversion to standard scores. Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ... Open standards are publicly available specifications for achieving a specific task. ... The word standard has several meanings: Classically, standard referred to a flag or banner; especially, a national or other ensign carried into battle; thus standard bearer indicates the one who bears, or carries, the standard. ... Statistics is a type of data analysis whose practice includes the planning, summarizing, and interpreting of observations of a system possibly followed by predicting or forecasting of future events based on a mathematical model of the system being observed. ... In statistics, a standard score (z) is a dimensionless quantity derived by subtracting the population mean from an individual (raw) score and then dividing the difference by the populaton standard deviation: The quantity z represents the distance between the raw score and the population mean in units of the standard...


In supply chain management, standardisation refers to approaches for increasing commonality of either part, process, product or procurement. Such change will enable delayed making of manufacturing or procurement decisions, thus reducing variability found in having many non-standard components. Supply chain management (SCM) deals with the planning and execution issues involved in managing a supply chain. ...


External link

  • The UK Defence StandardiZation OrganiSation [sic]

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