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The word standard has several meanings:


Originally, standard referred to a conspicuous object used as a rallying point in battle. The term is probably from Frankish *standhart "steadfast" (literally, "stand hard"). In the High Middle Ages, a standard was a tapering flag or ensign flown by lower ranking knights, as opposed to the square banners flown by knights banneret; Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Jump to: navigation, search The tricolor flag of France A flag is a piece of coloured cloth flown from a pole or mast, usually for purposes of signalling or identification. ... An ensign is a distinguishing token, emblem, badge, or flag such as a symbol of office. ... For other meanings of the term banner, see banner (disambiguation). ... During the Middle Ages, a Knight banneret (sometimes known simply as banneret) was a knight who could lead a company of troops into battle under his own banner (which was square-shaped, in contrast to the tapering standard flown by the lower-ranking knights). ...


The modern primary meaning evolved through symbolism: "a quality or measure which is established by authority, custom, or general consent". In the phrase "light standard" it retains the older meaning of a vertical support.


In technical use, a standard is a concrete example of an item or a specification against which all others may be measured. In this meaning, the word related to Old French estendre "extend", and is attested in the meaning "unit of measure" in Anglo-French from 1327. For example, there are "primary standards" for length, mass (see Kilogram standard), and other units of measure, kept by laboratories and standards organizations. Officially certified measuring instruments must be checked for accuracy using such standards (or secondary standards made from the primary). See examples in chemistry below. Other technical standards define a set of properties that a product or service should have. There are "voluntary" standards to which the producers adhere voluntarily. Such standards are laid down by an organization gathering representatives of producers and users of the type of product or service. There are also "mandatory" or "regulatory" standards with which products and services have to comply by Law i.e. imposed by a regulator, their genesis is however similar to the voluntary ones. A "de facto" standard rather is a set of properties of an outstanding member of a product category, which the user community requires without that they have been laid down formally by a producer/user organization. Anglo-French is a term that may be used in several contexts: Nationality, eg. ... In general English usage, length (symbols: l, L) is but one particular instance of distance – an objects length is how long the object is – but in the physical sciences and engineering, the word length is in some contexts used synonymously with distance. Height is vertical distance; width (or breadth... Jump to: navigation, search Mass is a property of physical objects that, roughly speaking, measures the amount of matter they contain. ... Jump to: navigation, search The international prototype, made of platinum-iridium, which is kept at the BIPM under conditions specified by the 1st CGPM in 1889. ... Biochemistry laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Standards Organizations are bodies, organizations and institutions that produce, and in some cases measure, standards. ...


In analytical chemistry a standard is a preparation containing a known concentration of a specified substance. A simple standard may be a dilute solution of the substance; this serves as a reference to calibrate equipment used to measure a sample's composition in terms of compounds or elements. For accuracy, real samples are bracketed by known standards, that is, standards are analyzed that contain concentrations of the analyte that are less than and greater than the real sample's concentration. Analytical chemistry is the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. ... ... Jump to: navigation, search A chemical element, often called simply element, is the class of atoms which contain the same number of protons. ... An Analyte is the substance or chemical constituent that is undergoing analysis. ...


There are also certified reference materials available which contain independently verified concentrations of elements available in different matrices (a matrix is bulk material of the sample, for example blood).


Some of the succesors to the Standard Oil Trust formerly used Standard as a brand name. These included Amoco in the Midwest United States before their merger with BP, Chevron, Exxon, and Sohio. Jump to: navigation, search Standard Oil (1863 - 1911) was a large integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing organization. ... Amoco was a United States oil company formed from the dissolution of Standard Oil. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... Jump to: navigation, search BP (formerly British Petroleum and briefly known as BP Amoco) LSE: BP, NYSE: BP is a petroleum company headquartered in London, and one of the top four oil companies in the world (along with Royal Dutch Shell, ExxonMobil, and Total). ... Jump to: navigation, search Chevron Corporation NYSE: CVX is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Standard Oil of Ohio or Sohio was an American oil company that was acquired by British Petroleum, now part of BP. It was one of the successor companies to Standard Oil after the antitrust breakup in 1911. ...


The Standard Motor Company made cars in England from 1903 to 1963. 1933 Standard Ten. ...


The Standard type battleship was a series of US Navy battleships with relatively homogenous handling characteristics including a 21 knot flank speed and a 700 yard tactical diameter at flank speed. There were five classes in the Standard program, plus a sixth which was canceled: Nevada class, Pennsylvania class, New Mexico class, Tennessee class (called in contemporary European publications the California class, as USS California (BB-44) was commissioned first) and Colorado class (called in contemporary European publications the Maryland class for the same reasons as above). The class which was canceled and broken up was the BB-49 South Dakota class. The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Jump to: navigation, search HMS Victory in 1884 In naval warfare, battleships were the most heavily armed and armored warships afloat. ... The Nevada class battleships carried the United States Navys first triple gun turrets, a feature that would be seen in all but a few of its future battleship designs. ... The Pennsylvania-class battleships, of the United States Navy, were an enlargement of the Nevada class; having two additional 14 in (356 mm) 45 caliber main battery guns, greater length and displacement, four propellers and slightly higher speed. ... The New Mexico class battleships of the United States Navy, all three of whose construction began in 1915, were improvements on the design introduced three years earlier with the Nevada class. ... The United States Navy built two Tennessee-class battleships: USS Tennessee (BB-43) USS California (BB-44) Tennessee and her sister ship California were the first American battleships built to a post-Jutland hull design. ... The Colorado class battleships (or Maryland class, for those who prefer to name ship classes after the first unit to be completed) were up-gunned versions of the preceding Tennessee class, sharing their general design and appearance, but replacing the earlier ships twelve 14-inch/50-caliber guns with eight...


In linguistics, a standard can refer to either a written standard, an endorsed "proper" way of spelling words or even of constructing sentences, or to a spoken standard or pronunciation standard: an endorsed way of pronouncing the words of a language. In English, which has no legal or international standards, for instance, "The Queen's English" is widely regarded (especially outside the United States) as the "proper" pronuciation. Unofficial spelling standards for English also exist in various countries, especially where the language is dominant. For example, the "American standard" spelling for "harbor" and "defense" is at odds with the "standard" spellings of most other Anglophone countries, where these words are spelled "harbour" and "defence". For other languages, such as French or Spanish, there exist centralized authorities which determine the "proper" pronunciation and spelling of each and every word in the "standard" language (see List of language regulators). Jump to: navigation, search Broadly conceived, linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Jump to: navigation, search This is a list of bodies that regulate languages. ...


See also


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