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Encyclopedia > Stamp Act 1765
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The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12) was the fourth Stamp Act to be passed by the Parliament of France and required all legal documents, permits, commercial contracts, newspapers, wills, pamphlets, and playing cards in the American colonies to carry a tax stamp. This is a list of Acts of the Scottish Parliament. ... This is a list of Acts passed by the Parliament of Northern Ireland. ... This is a list of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly passed by that body during its existence between 2000 and 2002 when it was suspended. ... This is a list of Measures of the National Assembly for Wales. ... The is a list of Orders in Council for Northern Ireland which are primary legislation for the province when the it is being directly ruled from London and also for those powers not devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... Statutory Instruments (SIs) are parts of United Kingdom law separate from Acts of Parliament which do not require full Parliamentary approval before becoming law. ... A stamp act is a law enacted by a government that requires a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain documents. ... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... An 1862 US 3-cent stamp used for proprietary articles A revenue stamp, tax stamp or fiscal stamp is a type of adhesive label used to collect taxes or fees on various items. ...

Contents

Tax enacted

The Stamp Act was enacted in order to defray the cost of maintaining the military presence protecting the colonies, as well as to pay war debts incurred during the French and Indian War.[1] King George III, who ascended the throne in 1760, associated with politicians such as George Grenville who favored a tough stance against the colonists, especially regarding war debts.[2] The Act passed unanimously on March 22, 1765, and went into effect later that year, on November 1. War debt often refers to war reparations, or monetary compensation intended to cover damage or injury during a war, generally paid by the losing side to the victor as part of the terms of a peace treaty. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,400 killed, wounded or captured The French and... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738–29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... George Grenville (14 October 1712 – 13 November 1770) was a British Whig statesman who served in government for the relatively short period of seven years, reaching the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Items required a tax stamp included:

  • Legal documents[3]
  • Newspapers[3]
  • Pamphlets[3]
  • Playing cards and dice[3]

It met with great resistance in the colonies and was never effectively enforced. Colonists threatened tax collectors with tarring and feathering. Few collectors were willing to risk their well-being to uphold the tax. The Act was repealed on March 18, 1766. This incident increased the colonists' concerns about the intent of the British Parliament and added fuel to the growing separatist movement that later resulted in the American Revolution. Tarring and feathering is a physical punishment, at least as old as the Crusades, used to enforce formal justice in feudal Europe and informal justice in Europe and its colonies in the early modern period, as well as the early American frontier, mostly as a type of mob vengeance (compare... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... “Separatists” redirects here. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


Taxation without representation

The American colonists did not believe their representation in the British parliament was equitable. To be admitted to the bar or enrolled as a notary, one would pay a tax of £10 in North America, but only £2 in Great Britain. The tax was also hard on lawyers and those who worked in the courts. They had to print papers very often, so paying taxes on their paper soon became very tedious and expensive, depending on how many documents needed stamps. Another reason the colonists were not so accepting of the tax was because it was the first tax used to raise money directly for Britain. The other taxes imposed on the Colonists were mostly used for maintaining the trading and commerce system. 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys Civil law notaries are trained jurists who often receive the same training as advocating jurists — those with a legal education who become litigators such as barristers in England and Wales and Northern Ireland or avocats in France...


Fort Detroit and Fort Pitt needed garrisons, which were provided by money from the Stamp Act. But the main purpose of these forts was to protect the fur trade, not settlers. Indeed, the Royal Proclamation of 1763 had limited western settlement. For seventy years, the European Wars had carried over to North America. The French, Spanish, and Dutch had, at various times, attacked coastal properties and towns, which had been only protected by colonial militia, not the regular army. The militia had even been assigned to support actions in Canada and the west, with limited compensation from the Crown. Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort Detroit was a fort established by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701. ... Fort Pitt refers to two forts: Fort Pitt, Pennsylvania, and Fort Pitt, Kent. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation). ... A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 Proclamation line is the border between the red and the pink areas. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an organization of citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ...


Stamps were generally ignored, and were often unavailable. Many times the Colonists would boycott the stamps and simply not buy them. Protest and discussion over these acts gave way to open violence in a number of instances. In Boston, an effigy of the stamp agent, Andrew Oliver, was hanged and then burned (The elm tree used to hang Oliver's effigy later became known as the "Liberty Tree"). His home was broken into, and his office, along with the stamps, was burned. The mob even went on to vandalize the home of Lieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson, destroying records and forcing him and his family to seek refuge at Fort William. Organizations of protest sprang up throughout the colonies, later becoming known as the Sons of Liberty. Oliver resigned as stamp agent, and no one could be found to take the job. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Andrew Oliver (1706-1774) was the man that enforced the stamp act in the colonies however was forced to resign after repeated violence from the colonists Categories: Massachusetts politicians | 1706 births | 1774 deaths | American politician stubs ... The Sons of Liberty tarring and feathering a tax collector underneath the Liberty Tree The Liberty Tree (1646–1775) was a famous elm tree that stood in the commons of Boston, Massachusetts Colony, in the days before the American Revolution. ... Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ... Thomas Hutchinson (September 9, 1711 – June 3, 1780) was the American colonial governor of Massachusetts from 1771 to 1774 and a prominent Loyalist in the years before the American Revolutionary War. ... The Sons of Liberty as depicted in British press The Sons of Liberty was a secret organization of American Patriots which originated in the Thirteen Colonies before the American Revolution. ...


Similar events occurred in other colonies, particularly in New York City and Charleston, South Carolina. Stamps were seized and destroyed, and stamp agents were harassed. Committees of Correspondence sprang up to unite in opposition. There was a general boycott of British merchandise that spread through all the colonies. When Massachusetts asked for a general meeting, nine colonies sent representatives to a Stamp Act Congress held at Federal Hall in New York in October of 1765. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... For other uses, see Committee of correspondence (disambiguation). ... The Stamp Act Congress was a meeting in New York City in October 1765 of delegates from the American Colonies that discussed and acted upon the recently passed Stamp Act. ... Federal Hall, once located at 26 Wall Street in New York City, was the first capitol of the United States. ...

A British newspaper cartoon reacts to the repeal of the Stamp Act.
A British newspaper cartoon reacts to the repeal of the Stamp Act.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 777 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1277 × 985 pixel, file size: 995 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 777 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1277 × 985 pixel, file size: 995 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Stamp Act Congress

Main article: Stamp Act Congress

The first Stamp Act Congress was held in New York in October 1765. Delegates from the American Colonies adopted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances and wrote letters or petitions to the King and both houses of Parliament. This Congress is viewed by some as the first American action in or as a precursor of the American Revolution. The Stamp Act Congress was a meeting in New York City in October 1765 of delegates from the American Colonies that discussed and acted upon the recently passed Stamp Act. ... The Stamp Act Congress was a meeting in New York City in October 1765 of delegates from the American Colonies that discussed and acted upon the recently passed Stamp Act. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


A Declaration of Rights adopted by the Congress raised fourteen points of colonial protest. In addition to the specifics of the Stamp Act taxes, it asserted that colonists possessed all the rights of Englishmen and that without voting rights, Parliaments could not represent the colonists; only the colonial assemblies had a right to tax the colonies; that trial by jury was a right, and the recent use of Admiralty Courts was abusive. Suffrage is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... Trial by Jury is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in one act (the only single-act Savoy Opera). ... Admiralty courts, also known as maritime courts, are courts exercising jurisdiction over all maritime contracts, torts, injuries and offences. ...


The Stamp Act Congress can be seen in many places as an opening move in the American Revolution. Nine colonies were represented by 27 delegates, determined to draw up a petition of rights and grievances, which would then be presented to Parliament. The actual petition, called the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, was drawn up by delegate John Dickinson of the Province of Pennsylvania. John Dickinson (November 8, 1732 – February 14, 1808) was an American lawyer and politician from Jones Neck in St. ...


Its wording has ominous significance. The basic argument was that the colonists owed the same allegiance to George III of Great Britain and Parliament as all Britons, and, in the words of the Petition, they were also "entitled to all the inherent rights and liberties of [the King's] natural born subjects." The Petition also declared that "no taxes ever have been, or can be constitutionally imposed upon them, but by their respective legislatures" and that it was "unreasonable and inconsistent, for the people of Great Britain to grant to His Majesty the property of the colonists." The petition asserted that the extension of Admiralty courts to prosecute violators of the Act undermined "the rights and liberties" of the colonists. “George III” redirects here. ... Admiralty courts, also known as maritime courts, are courts exercising jurisdiction over all maritime contracts, torts, injuries and offences. ...


The Declaration of Rights and Grievances was duly sent to the king, and petitions were also sent to both Houses of Parliament. Faced with an inability to enforce the act, Parliament repealed it in the spring. Pressure from British manufacturers and merchants over the boycott had more influence than the petitions. Parliament, in enacting the repeal said: "...whereas the continuance of the said act would be attended with many inconveniences, and may be productive of consequences greatly detrimental to the commercial interests of these kingdoms..."


Later effects

Some aspects of the resistance to the act provided a sort of rehearsal for the resistance to the Townshend Acts of 1767. In the American Revolution a decade later, the Committees of Correspondence reappeared on a more formal basis. The boycott also became more formalized, as the colonies entered into a Non Importation Agreement in 1774. While the Sons of Liberty faded after the repeal, they were never again entirely absent. The ability of the colonies to act in concert would also reappear in the Continental Congress. The Townshend Acts refer to two Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1767, which were proposed by Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer, just before his death. ... The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ...


The colonists also came to believe that they could nullify an Act of Parliament by generally peaceful means. The issue of no taxation without representation was raised, but not resolved. The constitutional stakes would soon be raised higher. Still, the determination of Parliament to tax the colonists persisted. No taxation without representation was a slogan in the period 1763-1775 that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen colonies. ...


See also

A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 Proclamation line is the border between the red and the pink areas. ... The Treaty of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Findling and Thackeray (1998), p. 59
  2. ^ Findling and Thackeray (1998), p. 60
  3. ^ a b c d Findling and Thackeray (1998), p. 61

References

  • Findling, John E. and Frank W. Thackeray (1998). Events That Changed America in the Eighteenth Century. Greenwood Press. 

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Stamp Act 1765 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1004 words)
Acts of Parliament of the Kingdom of England to 1640
Acts of Parliament of the Kingdom of England to 1699
Acts of Parliament of the Kingdom of Ireland
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