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Encyclopedia > Stamen
Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen
Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen
Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination

The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning "thread of the warp") is the male organ of a flower. Each stamen generally has a stalk called the filament (from Latin filum, meaning "thread"), and, on top of the filament, an anther (from Ancient Greek anthera, feminine of antheros "flowery," from anthos "flower,"). Download high resolution version (1500x1130, 213 KB) Amaryllis stamens This image shows the stamens of an Amaryllis flower. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1130, 213 KB) Amaryllis stamens This image shows the stamens of an Amaryllis flower. ... Binomial name Amaryllis belladonna L. Amaryllis is a monotypic genus of plant containing one species, the Belladonna Lily (Amaryllis belladonna), a native of South Africa. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 270 KB) Summary A bee collecting pollen on a rose. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 270 KB) Summary A bee collecting pollen on a rose. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... WaRp. ... In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ... A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


The anther is usually composed of four pollen sacs, called microsporangia. The development of the microsporangia and the contained haploid spores, (called pollen-grains) is closely comparable with that of the microsporangia in gymnosperms or heterosporous ferns. The pollen is set free by the opening (dehiscence) of the anther, generally by means of longitudinal slits, but sometimes by pores, as in the heath family (Ericaceae), or by valves, as in the barberry family (Berberidaceae). It is then dropped, or carried by some external agent — wind, water or some member of the animal kingdom — onto the receptive surface of the carpel of the same or another flower, which is thus pollinated. SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... A sporangium (pl. ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... This article is about a biological reproductive structure; for the video game, see Spore (video game). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Divisions Pinophyta - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Gymnosperms (Gymnospermae) are a group of Spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, the sporophylls usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... CoopersBold textBold textBold textItalic text Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... For other uses, see Erika. ... Genera See text The plant Family Ericaceae (Heath Family) or ericaceous plants are mostly lime-hating or calcifuge plants that thrive in acid soils. ... Species About 450-500; see text Berberis thunbergii shoot with fruit Berberis is a genus of about 450-500 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from 1-5 m tall with thorny shoots, native to the temperate and subtropical regions of Europe, Asia, Africa, North America and South America. ... Genera See text. ... Ernst Haeckels presentation of a three-kingdom system (Plantae, Protista, Animalia) in his 1866 Generelle Morphologie der Organismen). ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ...


Typical flowers have six stamens inside a perianth (the petals and sepals together), arranged in a whorl around the carpel (pistil). But in some species there are many more than six present in a flower (see, for example, the spider tree flower, below). Collectively, the stamens are called an androecium (from Greek andros oikia: man's house). They are positioned just below the gynoecium. The anthers are bilocular, i.e. they have two locules. Each locule contains a microsporangium. The tissue between the locules and the cells is called the connective. It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ...


In an immature, unopened flower bud, the filaments are still short. Their function is then to transport nutrients to the developing pollen. They start to lengthen once the bud opens. The anther can be attached to the filament in two ways: Flower buds have not yet bloomed into a full-size flower. ... A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ...

  • basifixed : attached at its base to the filament; this gives rise to a longitudinal dehiscence (opening along its length to release pollen)
  • versatile : attached at its center to the filament; pollen is then released through pores (poricidal dehiscence).
Scanning electron microscope image of Penta lanceolata anthers, with pollen grains on surface
Scanning electron microscope image of Penta lanceolata anthers, with pollen grains on surface

Stamens can be connate (fused or joined in the same whorl): Source and public domain notice at [1] Scanning electron microscope image of Penta lanceolata anther, with unacetolyzed pollen on the surface This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Source and public domain notice at [1] Scanning electron microscope image of Penta lanceolata anther, with unacetolyzed pollen on the surface This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

  • monadelphous : fused into a single, compound structure
  • diadelphous : joined partially into two androecial structures
  • synantherous : only the anthers are connate (such as in the Asteraceae)

Stamens can also be adnate (fused or joined from more than one whorl): Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae...

  • epipetalous : adnate to the corolla
  • didynamous : occurring in two pairs of different length
  • tetradynamos : occurring as a set of six filaments with two shorter ones
  • exserted : extending beyond the corolla
  • included : not extending from the corolla.

Corolla can be: A Latin-language term for crown The Toyota Corolla, a model of automobile manufactured by Toyota The corolla is one whorl of the perianth of a flower and composed of petals The town of Corolla, North Carolina This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that...

Plant sexuality

Main article: Plant sexuality

In the typical flower (that is, the majority of flowering plant species) each flower has both a pistil and stamens. Bisexual plants are named hermaphrodites or perfect flowers. Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... The 1st-century BC sculpture The Reclining Hermaphrodite, in the Museo Nazionale Romano, Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme in Rome A hermaphrodite is an organism that possesses both male and female sex organs during its life. ...


In some species, however, the flowers are unisexual with only either male or female parts (monoecious = on the same plant; dioecious = on different plants). A flower with only male reproductive parts is called androecious. A flower with only female reproductive parts is called gynoecious. Plant sexuality deals with the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. ... In biology, Dioecious is an adjective which indicates the exisistence of separate sexes in a species of organisms. ...


A flower having only functional stamens is called a staminate flower.


An abortive or rudimentary stamen is called a staminodium, such as in Scrophularia nodosa. Species See text Scrophularia L., 1753 - Figworts A Genus with about 200 species of the family Scrophulariaceae, mostly subshrubs and herbaceous perennials. ...


The pistil and the stamens of orchids are fused into a column. The top part of the column is formed by the anther. This is covered by an anther cap. Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... The column, or technically the gynostemium, is a reproductive structure in the center of an orchid flower (also in the birthwort family Aristolochiaceae, such as in Thottea hainanensis ). It is derived from the fusion of both male and female parts (stamens and pistil) into a single organ. ...



References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  Results from FactBites:
 
stamen - definition of stamen in Encyclopedia (430 words)
The stamen is the male organ of a flower.
Typical flowers have six stamens inside a perianth (the petals and sepals together), arranged in a whorl around the pistil.
The pistil and the stamens of orchids are fused into a column.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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