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Encyclopedia > Stalinist Communism
Communism

History of communism
This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Schools of communism
Marxism · Leninism
Trotskyism · Maoism
Left communism
Council communism
Anarchist communism
Christian communism
Link titleghjhjhjhjyhjInsert non-formatted text here #REDIRECT Insert textItalic text To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Anarchist communism, also known as Communist anarchism, Anarcho-communism, or Libertarian communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. ... Christian communism is a form of religious communism centered around Christianity. ...


Communist parties
Communist International
World Communist Movement
International Communist Current
Communist Workers International
Fourth International In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ... The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The International Communist Current is a centralised international left communist organisation with sections throughout the world. ... The Communist Workers International (German: Kommunistische Arbeiter-Internationale, KAI), also known as the Fourth International, was a council communist international. ... For the left communist Fourth International, see Communist Workers International. ...


Communist states
The Soviet Union
People's Republic of China
Cuba · Vietnam
Laos · North Korea
A communist state is a state governed by a single political party which declares its allegiance to the principles of Marxism-Leninism. ...


Related subjects
Socialism
Titoism
Marxism-Leninism
Eurocommunism
Religious communism
New Left
Planned economy
Historical materialism
Anti-communism
Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are controlled by the people. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various European communist parties to widen their appeal by embracing public sector middle-class workers, new social movements such as feminism and gay liberation, rejecting support of the Soviet Union, and expressing more clearly their fidelity to democratic institutions. ... Religious communism is a term used by some Communists that claim that before communism became associated with atheism, the word communism was mainly used by religious groups. ... The New Left is a term used in political discourse to refer to radical left-wing movements from the 1960s onwards. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services is planned ahead of time, in either a centralized or decentralized fashion. ... Historical materialism (or what Marx himself called the materialist conception of history - materialistische Geschichtsauffassung) is a social theory and an approach to the study of history and sociology, normally considered the intellectual basis of Marxism. ... Anti-communism is the opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either an ideological or pragmatic basis. ...

Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. Niccolò Machiavelli, ca 1500, became the key figure in realistic political theory, crucial to political science Political Science is the systematic study of the allocation and transfer of power in decision making. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An economic system is a mechanism which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... (help· info) is the form usually used in English for the Russian name of Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), born with the Georgian name Ioseb Jugashvili (Georgian: ოისებ ჯუღაშილი, Russian: Иосиф Джугашвили); (18 December [O.S. 6 December] 1878 – 5 March 1953). ...


The term "Stalinism" was first used by Trotskyists opposed to the regime in the Soviet Union, particularly in an attempt to separate the policies of the Soviet government from those they regarded as more true to Marxism. It was soon adopted by anarchists and anti-communists. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Link titleghjhjhjhjyhjInsert non-formatted text here #REDIRECT Insert textItalic text To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ...


Like many other "-isms" it is also used as a pejorative term when referring to nation-states, political parties, or the ideological stance(s) of individuals. Look up -ism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up pejorative in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ...

Contents


Stalinism as political theory

"Stalinism", strictly speaking, refers to a style of government, rather than an ideology per se. However, Stalinism can also refer to a set of interpretations of the works of Marx and Lenin that emerged in the Soviet Union under Stalin's rule as Marxism-Leninism. Marx is a common German surname. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ...


The term "Stalinism" is sometimes used to denote the brand of communist theory that dominated the Soviet Union and the countries within the Soviet sphere of influence during and after the leadership of Joseph Stalin. The term used in the Soviet Union and by most who uphold its legacy, however, is "Marxism-Leninism", reflecting that Stalin himself was not a theoretician, but a communicator who wrote several books in language easily understood, and, in contrast to Marx and Lenin, made few new theoretical contributions. Rather, Stalinism is more in the order of an interpretation of their ideas, and a certain political system claiming to apply those ideas in ways fitting the changing needs of society, as with the transition from "socialism at a snail's pace" in the mid-twenties to the forced industrialization of the Five-Year Plans. Sometimes, although rarely, the compound terms Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism (used by the Brazilian MR-8), or teachings of Marx/Engels/Lenin/Stalin, are used to show the alleged heritage and succession. Simultaneously, however, many people professing Marxism or Leninism view Stalinism as a perversion of their ideas; Trotskyists, in particular, are virulently anti-Stalinist, considering Stalinism a counter-revolutionary policy using Marxism to achieve power. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... (help· info) (Владимир Ильич Ленин) IPA: born Ulyanov (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Communist revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of Leninism, which he described as an adaptation of Marxism to the... Five-Year Plans for the National Economy of the USSR or Piatiletkas (пятилетка) were a series of nation-wide centralized exercises in rapid economic development in the Soviet Union. ... Link titleghjhjhjhjyhjInsert non-formatted text here #REDIRECT Insert textItalic text To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... The Movimento Revolucionário 8 de Outubro (Portuguese for Revolutionary Movement 8th October) is a left-wing Brazilian political movement, formerly an urban guerrilla faction. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820–August 5, 1895) was a 19th-century German political philosopher. ... (help· info) (Владимир Ильич Ленин) IPA: born Ulyanov (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Communist revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of Leninism, which he described as an adaptation of Marxism to the... (help· info) is the form usually used in English for the Russian name of Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), born with the Georgian name Ioseb Jugashvili (Georgian: ოისებ ჯუღაშილი, Russian: Иосиф Джугашвили); (18 December [O.S. 6 December] 1878 – 5 March 1953). ... Link titleghjhjhjhjyhjInsert non-formatted text here #REDIRECT Insert textItalic text To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ...


From 1917 to 1924, Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin often appeared united, but, in fact, their ideological differences never disappeared. In his dispute with Trotsky, Stalin de-emphasized the role of workers in advanced capitalist countries (for example, he postulated theses considering the U.S. working class as bourgeoisified labor aristocracy). Also, Stalin polemicized against Trotsky on the role of peasants, as in China, where Trotsky wanted urban insurrection and not peasant-based guerrilla warfare. 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Labor aristocracy (or aristocracy of labor) has two meanings: as a term with Marxist-Leninist theoretical underpinnings, and as a specific type of trade unionism. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ... Guerrilla War redirects here. ...


The main contributions of Stalin to communist theory were:

Stalinism has been described as being synonymous with totalitarianism, or a tyrannical regime. The term has been used to describe regimes that fight political dissent through violence, imprisonment, and killings. With the prospect of world revolution so close at hand in the early part of the 20th Century, communists, socialists and workers movements in general were dominated by a feeling of overwhelming optimism, which in the end proved to be quite premature. ... The theory of aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism was one of cornerstones of Stalinism in the internal politics of the Soviet Union. ... Totalitarianism is a typology employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... A tyrant (from Greek τυραννος) is a usurper of rightful power, possessing absolute power and ruling by tyranny. ...


Stalinist political economy

Building upon, and transforming Lenin's legacy, Stalin expanded the centralized administrative system of the Soviet Union during the 1920s and 1930s. A series of two five-year plans massively expanded the Soviet economy. Large increases occurred in many sectors, especially in coal and iron production. Society made great strides towards catching up from decades-long backwardness to the West within thirty years in key industrial areas, according to some statistical measurements. Some economic historians now believe it to be the fastest economic growth rate ever achieved, although the accompanying social costs and long term economic results are highly debatable. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... It has been suggested that Roaring Twenties be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Five-Year Plans for the National Economy of the USSR or Piatiletkas (пятилетка) were a series of nation-wide centralized exercises in rapid economic development in the Soviet Union. ...


Because of the perceived prestige and influence of the successful Russian revolution, many countries throughout the 20th century saw the politico-economic model developed in the USSR as an attractive alternative to the existing systems in place, often perceived as "market economy" systems, and took steps to follow the USSR's example. This included both revolutionary regimes and post-colonial states in the developing world. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... A market economy is an economic system in which goods and services are traded, with the price at which goods and services are exchanged being determined by trades that occur as a result of sellers asking prices matching buyers bid prices. ...


Points of view on Stalinism

After Stalin's death in 1953, his successor Nikita Khrushchev repudiated his policies, condemned Stalin's cult of personality in his Secret Speech to the Twentieth Party Congress in 1956, and instituted destalinization and liberalisation (within the same political framework). Consequently, most of the world's Communist parties, who previously adhered to Stalinism, abandoned it and, to a greater or lesser degree, adopted the moderately reformist positions of Khruschchev. 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... (help· info) (Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) IPA: (commonly anglicized as Khrushchev) April 17, 1894 â€“ September 11, 1971, was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Joseph Stalin is often credited with creating the first modern-day cult of personality. ... The Secret Speech is the common name of a speech given on February 25, 1956 by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev denouncing the actions of Josef Stalin. ... The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during February 14—February 26, 1956. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... De-Stalinization and the Khrushchev era For further details, see Nikita Khrushchev After Stalin had died in March 1953, he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Georgi Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. ...


The notable exception was the People's Republic of China, which under Mao Zedong grew antagonistic towards the new Soviet leadership's "revisionism", resulting in the Sino-Soviet Split in 1960. Subsequently China independently pursued the ideology of Maoism, which still largely supported the legacy of Stalin and his policies. Albania took the Chinese party's side in the Sino-Soviet Split and remained committed, at least theoretically, to its brand of Stalinism for decades thereafter, under the leadership of Enver Hoxha. (help· info) (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976; Mao Tse-tung in Wade-Giles) was the chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death in 1976. ... Revisionism is a word which has several meanings. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) or Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Enver Hoxha, (IPA , October 16, 1908–April 11, 1985) was the paramount leader of Albania from the end of World War II until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Communist Albanian Party of Labour. ...


Some historians draw parallels between Stalinism and the economic policy of Tsar Peter the Great. Both men desperately wanted Russia to catch up to the western European states. Both succeeded to an extent, turning Russia temporarily into Europe's leading power. Others compare Stalin with Ivan IV of Russia, with his policies of oprichnina and restriction of the liberties of common people. Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ... Portrait of Peter by Paul Delaroche Peter I (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич or Pyotr I Alexeyevich)(Peter Alexeyevich Romanov) (10 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672– 28 January 1725 O.S.] ) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov. ... The Oprichnina (Russian: Опричнина) formed a section of Russia ruled directly by the Tsar under Ivan the Terrible. ...


Trotskyists argue that the "Stalinist USSR" was not socialist (and certainly not communist), but a bureaucratized degenerated workers' state—that is, a non-capitalist state in which exploitation is controlled by a ruling caste which, while it did not own the means of production and was not a social class in its own right, accrued benefits and privileges at the expense of the working class. Stalinism could not have existed without the overturning of Russia's prior regime by the October Revolution, but it is notable that Joseph Stalin himself played a minor role in the October Revolution. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are controlled by the people. ... Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science. ... In Trotskyist political theory, degenerated workers states are states where capitalism has been overthrown through social revolution and the property forms have changed into a collectivized planned economy, but where the working class has lost its political power and socialist democracy has been replaced by a form of dictatorship. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... State emblem of the Russian Provisional Government The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the tsars abdication. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ...


Stalinism's relationship to Leninism

The relationship between Stalinism and Leninism is disputed. "Continuity theorists" believe that Stalinism was the logical conclusion of Leninism, and that there are more similarities than differences between the two. Others argue that Stalinism marked a fundamental break with the legacy of Lenin and Marxism-Leninism as practised up to that point.


Continuity theory

Supporters of the view that Stalinism emerged from Leninism point to a number of areas of alleged continuity. For example, Lenin put a ban on factions within the Communist Party and introduced the one-party state in 1921 - a move that enabled Stalin to get rid of his rivals easily after Lenin's death. Moreover, Lenin used to purge his party of “unfaithful” Communists, a method used extensively by Stalin during the 1930s.


Under Lenin’s rule terror was used to suppress opposition. For that function the Cheka was set up in December 1917. Felix Dzerzhinsky, its leader, exclaimed with some enthusiasm: “We stand for organized terror – this should be frankly stated”. Western authorities estimate that by 1924 the Cheka had executed more than 250,000 people. The number of labour camps increased from 80 in 1919 to 315 by 1923.


Another important step of Lenin was to appoint Stalin to the key position of general secretary. The power of that post enabled him to appoint, dismiss or promote party members on all levels and thus provided his later power base.


The radical methods of Stalin’s modernisation programme were also not entirely his invention, they were mainly the further development of Lenin’s war communism. This policy was characterised by extensive nationalisation, the forceful grain collection from the countryside and harsh direction of labour. Labour discipline was draconian and lateness and absenteeism were punished severely. All workers were subjected to army style control. All those features can also be found in Stalin’s economic policy.


On the whole Lenin’s policies developed a totalitarian regime, which was later on radicalised by Stalin. Thus both ideologies can be seen as a continuous development.


Discontinuity theory

The historians who support that theory claim that Leninism and Stalinism were two opposing ideologies. They point out that Leninism was a much more flexible style of politics, whereas Stalin introduced a totally “orthodox” regime. According to them Lenin was head of a revolutionary dictatorship and Stalin imposed a totalitarian one. Lenin wanted to keep state influence low and called for the “withering away” of the worker’s state as soon as possible after the revolution. But Stalin enlarged the power of the state until it was dominating every aspect of Soviet life.


In addition, Lenin always wanted to keep a revolutionary form of democracy. His party originated from a multi-party state and contained many different groups and factions under his rule. It was Stalin who made it a monolithic block that only carried out his directives. Lenin saw the ban on factions and opposition parties only as a preliminary measure and a distortion of the ideology, on the other hand, Stalin misused it to attack his political enemies.


Those historians also emphasise that Lenin’s terror differed both in quantity and quality from Stalin’s terror. Lenin let defeated opponents go to exile and never attempted to kill his party comrades. The number of affected people never reached the massive scale it did under Stalin. Furthermore, Lenin ended the Red terror and restricted the Cheka’s powers after the civil war.


Another very important shift of Lenin was the introduction of the NEP in place of the old war communism. Thus he steered a very moderate course in economic policies, which was totally different from Stalin’s brutal super-industrialisation programme.


Besides the appointment of Stalin to general secretary did not mean too much, because that post was unimportant at that time and no other party leader wanted it then. Later on Lenin even wanted to remove Stalin from that post when he realised the danger of a totalitarian dictatorship. He formulated his fears in his political testament:


“Comrade Stalin, having become General Secretary has immeasurable power concentrated in his hands, and I am not sure that he always knows how to use that power with sufficient control” (29 December 1922)


“Stalin is too rude, and this fault, entirely acceptable in relations between communists, becomes completely unacceptable in the office of General Secretary. Therefore I propose to the comrades that a way be found to remove Stalin from that post and replace him with someone else who differs from Stalin in all respects, someone more patient, more loyal, more polite, more considerate.” (postscript of 4 January 1923)


Between December 1922 and January 1923 Lenin looked for the support of Trotsky against Stalin and his associates. He opposed Stalin’s views on the state monopoly of foreign trade and especially his nationality policies in Georgia. Further Lenin wanted to reduce bureaucracy and restore inner party democracy.


Apart from that clear wish to dismiss Stalin from his post of general secretary Lenin envisaged an oligarchic rule of the party under the leadership of Trotsky after his death. He was definitely opposed to the prospect of a dictatorship of one person. In fact it was much more likely that Bukharin or especially Trotsky would become the new leaders of the party. Stalin just came to power because of failures of his rivals, well-planned intrigues and because of luck. Thus Stalinism was by far not the logical conclusion of Leninsm for the discontinuity theorists.


References

  • Alan Bullock, Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives, Goldmann
  • Isaak Deutscher, Stalin: A Political Biography, Dietz, 1990
  • Philip Ingram, Russia and the USSR 1905 – 1991, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997
  • Boris Souvarine, Stalin: A Critical Survey of Bolshevism, Octagon Books, 1972
  • Allan Todd, The European Dictatorships: Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003
  • John Traynor, Challenging History: Europe 1890 – 1990, Nelson Thornes Ltd, Cheltenham, 2002

See also

The Stalin Society is a British discussion group for individuals who see Joseph Stalin as a great Marxist-Leninist and wish to preserve what they see as his positive legacy. ... The History of the Soviet Union begins with the Russian Revolution of 1917 in an effort to implement socialism, eventually leading to communism by Vladimir Lenin on a large scale, until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 when its central government was dissolved. ... Joseph Stalin is often credited with creating the first modern-day cult of personality. ... This is a list of persons who self-identified as Stalinists or who have advocated the implementation of Stalins model of socialism. ...

External links

  • Stalin, Joseph V. Stalin Reference Archive at Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved May 11, 2005.
  • Blunden, Andy Stalinism: Its Origins & Future.
  • Strong, Anna L. The Stalin Era.
  • List of Stalinist Parties/Groups
  • Bill Bland on 'Stalinism'

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The Joy of Revolution (chap. 1) (4672 words)
The recent collapse of Stalinism is neither a vindication of capitalism nor proof of the failure of “Marxist communism.” Anyone who has ever bothered to read Marx (most of his glib critics obviously have not) is aware that Leninism represents a severe distortion of Marx’s thought and that Stalinism is a total parody of it.
Nor does government ownership have anything to do with communism in its authentic sense of common, communal ownership; it is merely a different type of capitalism in which state-bureaucratic ownership replaces (or merges with) private-corporate ownership.
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Communism also refers to a variety of political movements which claim the establishment of such a social organization as their ultimate goal.
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Despite the activity of the Comintern, the Soviet Communist Party adopted the Stalinist theory of "socialism in one country" and claimed that, due to the "aggravation of class struggle under socialism," it was possible, even necessary, to build socialism in one country alone.
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