FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Stalin" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Stalin
Joseph Stalin
Office General Secretary
Term of Office: 1922-1953
Predecessor: Vladimir Lenin
Successor: Georgy Malenkov
Date of Birth: December 21, 1879
Place of Birth: Gori, Georgia
Date of Death: March 5, 1953
Place of Death: Moscow, Russia
Profession: Politician
Political party: Soviet Communist Party

Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1]  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#endnote_Register)March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. Stalin became general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party in 1922; following the death of Vladimir Lenin, he prevailed over Leon Trotsky in a power struggle during the 1920s and brutally consolidated his authority with the Great Purge, a period of severe repression which reached its peak in 1937, remaining in power through World War II and until his death. Stalin molded the features that characterized the new Soviet regime; his policies, based on Marxist–Leninist ideology, are often considered to represent a political and economic system called Stalinism. Joseph Stalin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (sometimes called First Secretary) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Lenins death in 1924. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Georgy Malenkov Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov (Гео́ргий Максимилиа́нович Маленко́в) (GHYOR-ghee mah-leen-KOF) (January 13 [January 8, Old Style], 1902 - January 14, 1988) was a Soviet politician and Communist Party leader, and a close collaborator of Joseph Stalin. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1879 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Gori is also a small village in Chad on the banks of the Chari River, near Sarh, where Laal is spoken. ... Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow  listen? ( Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when... Anglicized refers to foreign words, often surnames, that are changed from a foreign language into English. ... Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... Georgian (also Kartvelian; Kartuli in Georgian) is the official language of Georgia, a republic in the Caucasus. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1879 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a political movement in Russia that climaxed in 1917 with the overthrow of the provisional government that had replaced the Russian Tsar system, and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its collapse in 1991. ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (sometimes called First Secretary) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Lenins death in 1924. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky ( Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij and Trotzky ) (October 26 ( O.S.) = November 7 ( N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s Years: 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Referred to as the Roaring 20s. ... The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism (a form of Communism); it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ...


Under Stalin, who replaced the New Economic Policy (NEP) of the 1920s with five year plans (introduced in 1928) and collective farming, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society to a major world industrial power by the end of the 1930s. However, Soviet agriculture, which had been exploited to finance the industrialization drive, continued to show poor returns throughout the decade. Collectivization had met widespread resistance, resulting in a bitter struggle of many peasants against the authorities. Meanwhile, Stalin argued that the ruling Communist Party's factionalism might weaken the Soviet Union in the face of foreign enemies. During the 1930s, he eliminated effective political opposition through a system of concentration camps (see Gulag) and executions, and by providing certain segments of the population benefits so as to win their support or co-opt them into the regime. The New Economic Policy, or NEP ( Russian: ) was a system of economic reforms, partly market-oriented, that Vladimir Lenin instituted in the Russian SFSR and then Soviet Union. ... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s Years: 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Referred to as the Roaring 20s. ... The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership and administrative planning. ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership and administrative planning. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... Agriculture in the Soviet Union was organized into a system of state and collective farms, known as sovkhozes and kolkhozes, respectively. ... Traditional farming In Imperial Russia, the Stolypin Reform was aimed at the development of capitalism in agriculture by giving incentives for creation of large farms. ... For other usage of the initials CPSU see CPSU (disambiguation). ... Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps) was the branch of the Soviet internal police and security service that operated the penal system of forced labour camps and associated detention and transit camps...


A hard-won victory in World War II (the Great Patriotic War, 194145), made possible in part through the capacity for production that was the outcome of industrialization, laid the groundwork for the formation of the Warsaw Pact and established the USSR as one of the two major world powers, a position it maintained for nearly four decades following Stalin's death in 1953. Nevertheless, future generations of Soviet leadership repudiated Stalinism; Stalin's successor as First Party Secretary, Nikita Khrushchev, denounced his use of mass repression and his "personality cult" in 1956.[2]  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#endnote_Khrushchev) The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Map of Warsaw Pact member countries. ... A superpower is a state with the ability to influence events or project power on a wide scale. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ... 1956 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ...

Contents

Childhood and early years

Stalin was born in Gori, Georgia, to a cobbler named Vissarion Jughashvili. His mother, Ekaterina Geladze, was born a serf. Their other three children died young; Joseph, nicknamed "Soso" (the Georgian pet name for Joseph, or the equivalent of the nickname "Joe" in the United States), was effectively an only child. Vissarion Ivanovich Jugashvili was a former serf who, when freed, became a cobbler. He opened his own shop, but quickly went bankrupt, forcing him to work in a shoe factory in Tiflis (Archer 11). Rarely seeing his family and drinking heavily, Vissarion often beat his wife and small son. One of Stalin's friends from childhood wrote, "Those undeserved and fearful beatings made the boy as hard and heartless as his father." The same friend also wrote that he never saw him cry (Hoober 15). Another of his childhood friends, Iremashvili, felt that the beatings by Stalin's father gave him a hatred of authority. He also said that anyone with power over others reminded Stalin of his father's cruelty. Gori is also a small village in Chad on the banks of the Chari River, near Sarh, where Laal is spoken. ... Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ... Cobbler may mean: a person who makes and repairs shoes and boots for a living. ... Vissarion (Beso) Ivanovich Jugashvili (Виссарион (Бесо) Иванович Джугашвили in Russian; Georgian: ?) (c. ... Ekaterina Geladze (familiarly known as Keke ) was the mother of Joseph Stalin. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... View of Tiflis from the Grounds of Saint David Church, ca. ...


One of the people Ekaterina did laundry and housecleaning for was a Gori Jew, David Papismedov. Papismedov gave Joseph, who would help out his mother, money and books to read, and encouraged him. Decades later, Papismedov came to the Kremlin to learn what had become of little Soso. Stalin surprised his colleagues by not only receiving the elderly Jewish man, but happily chatting with him in public places. Gori is also a small village in Chad on the banks of the Chari River, near Sarh, where Laal is spoken. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin ( Russian citadel). ...


In 1888, Stalin's father left to live in Tiflis, leaving the family without support. Rumors said he died in a drunken bar fight; however, others said they had seen him in Georgia as late as 1931. At eight years old, Soso began his education at the Gori Church School. When attending school in Gori, Soso was among a very diverse group of students. Stalin and his classmates were mostly Georgian and spoke one of the seventy Caucasian languages. However, at school they were forced to use Russian. Even when speaking in Russian, their Russian teachers mocked Stalin and his classmates because of their Georgian accents. His peers, most of whom were the sons of rich priests, officials, and merchants, also ridiculed Soso. They made fun of his ragged school uniform and his pockmarked face. Young Soso learned to overcome his tormenters by intimidating them. He exploited the weaknesses of his fellow students by brutally mocking them. To avoid physical confrontation, he scorned his aggressors by accusing them of using violence as "a substitute for brains." He would then assert leadership over his peers. 1888 is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... View of Tiflis from the Grounds of Saint David Church, ca. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Although Stalin later sought to hide his Georgian origins, during his childhood he was fascinated by Georgian folklore. The stories he read told of Georgian mountaineers who valiantly fought for Georgian independence. Stalin's favorite hero of these stories was a legendary mountain ranger named Koba. He had all of his classmates call him Koba, and this name also became his first alias as a revolutionary. This meant being the strongest athlete and the brightest scholar. He excelled in school and graduated first in his class, and when he was 14 he was awarded a scholarship to the Tiflis Theological Seminary, a Russian Orthodox institution which he attended from 1894 onward. In addition to the small stipend from the scholarship he was also paid for singing in the choir. Although his mother wanted him to be a priest (even after he was leader of the Soviet Union), he attended seminary not because of any religious vocation but because it was one of the few educational opportunities available as the Tsarist government of Russia was wary of establishing a university in Georgia. A seminary is a specialised university-like institution for the purpose of training candidates for positions within a religious context. ... Saint Basils Cathedral, a well-known Russian Orthodox church situated in Moscow The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Stalin in exile, 1915

Stalin's involvement with the socialist movement (or, to be more exact, the branch of it that would later grow into the communist movement) began at seminary school, from which he was expelled in 1899 after failing to appear at scheduled examinations. He worked for a decade with the political underground in the Caucasus, facing repeated arrests and exile to Siberia between 1902 and 1917. He adhered to Vladimir Lenin's doctrine of a strong centralist party of "professional revolutionaries". His practical experience made him useful in Lenin's Bolshevik party, gaining him a place on its Central Committee in January 1912. Some historians have argued that, during this period, Stalin was actually a Tsarist spy, who was working to infiltrate the Bolshevik party but there are no reliable documents to prove this statement. In 1913 he adopted the name Stalin, which means "man of steel" in Russian. Copied from http://www. ... Copied from http://www. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This is a list of decades which have articles with more information about them. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... The Caucasus is a region in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... The Chicago Police Department arrests a man An arrest is the action of police or other authority, or even in some circumstances a private civilian, to apprehend and take under guard a person who is suspected of committing a crime. ... See Exile (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia ( Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Events January-April January 28 - The Carnegie Institution is founded in Washington, DC with a $10 million gift from Andrew Carnegie. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. ... Tsar ( Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,  listen?; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to... Spy and secret agent redirect here; for alternate use, see Spy (disambiguation) and Secret agent (disambiguation). ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


His only significant contribution to the development of Marxist theory at this time was a treatise written while briefly exiled in Vienna, Marxism and the national question. It presents an orthodox Marxist position on this important debate. This treatise may have contributed to his appointment as People's Commissar for Nationalities Affairs after the revolution. (see Lenin's article On the right of nations to self-determination for comparison) From 1919 to 1946, functions of ministers in the government of Russia and, later, the Soviet Union were performed by Peoples Commissars (Russian title: Narodny Komissar, or Narkom). ...


Marriage and family

Stalin's first wife was Ekaterina Svanidze, to whom he was married for just three years until her death in 1907. At her funeral, Stalin said that any warm feelings he had for people died with her, for only she could melt his heart. With her he had a son, Yakov Dzhugashvili, with whom he did not get along in later years. Yakov served in the Red Army and was captured by the Nazis. They offered to exchange him for a German officer of higher rank, but Stalin turned the offer down, and Yakov is said to have died running into an electric fence in the camp where he was being held. Ekaterina Svanidze (1880 - 1907) was the Georgian first wife of Joseph Stalin; they married in 1903. ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


His second wife was Nadezhda Alliluyeva, who died in 1932; she may have committed suicide by shooting herself after a quarrel with Stalin, leaving a suicide note which according to their daughter was "partly personal, partly political"[3]  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#endnote_Koba). Officially, she died of an illness. With her, he had two children: a son, Vassili, and a daughter, Svetlana. Vassili rose through the ranks of the Soviet Air Force, but died an alcoholic in 1962. Stalin doted on Svetlana when she was young, but she ended up defecting from the Soviet Union in 1967. Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1901 - November 9, 1932) was the second wife of Joseph Stalin. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Svetlana Alliluyeva (born February 28, 1926), née Svetlana Josifovna Stalina, is a writer and the youngest child and only daughter of Joseph Stalin. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...


In March 2001, Russian Independent Television NTV discovered a previously unknown grandson living in Novokuznetsk. Yuri Davydov told NTV that his father had told him of his lineage, but, because the campaign against Stalin's cult of personality was in full swing at the time, he was told to keep quiet. Several historians, including Alexander Solzhenitsyn, had mentioned a son being born to Stalin and his common law wife, Lida, in 1914 during his exile in northern Siberia. 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Novokuznetsk (Russian Новокузнецк, pop. ... Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union for his book The Gulag Archipelago. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia ( Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ...


Rise to power

Joseph Stalin

In 1912 Stalin was co-opted to the Bolshevik Central Committee at the Prague Party Conference. In 1917 Stalin was editor of Pravda while Lenin and much of the Bolshevik leadership were in exile. Following the February Revolution, Stalin and the editorial board took a position in favour of supporting Kerensky's provisional government and, it is alleged, went to the extent of declining to publish Lenin's articles arguing for the provisional government to be overthrown. When Lenin returned from exile, he wrote the April Theses which put forward his position. Joseph Stalin Source of this picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Joseph Stalin Source of this picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Front page of a Pravda issue published during the August 1991 coup. ... The February Revolution of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Alexander Kerensky Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Russian:Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский) (April 22, 1881 (May 2, New Style) - June 11, 1970) was the second prime minister of the Russian Provisional Government, immediately before the Bolsheviks and Lenin came to power. ... A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a previous administration or regime. ... The Bolshevik leader Russia, Petrograd, on April 3, 1917, just over a month following the February Revolution which had brought about the establishment of the liberal Provisional Government. ...


In April 1917, Stalin was elected to the Central Committee with the third highest vote total in the party and was subsequently elected to the Politburo of the Central Committee (May 1917); he held this position for the remainder of his life. Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ...


According to many accounts, Stalin only played a minor role in the revolution of November 7 and embellished his role in party histories once he rose to power. Other writers such as Adam Ulam stressed that each man in the Central Committee had a job he was assigned to do. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a political movement in Russia that climaxed in 1917 with the overthrow of the provisional government that had replaced the Russian Tsar system, and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its collapse in 1991. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ...


During the Russian Civil War and Polish-Soviet war Stalin was political commissar of the Red Army at various fronts. Stalin's first government position was as People's Commissar of Nationalities Affairs (1917–23). Also, he was People's Commissar of Workers and Peasants Inspection (191922), a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the republic (1920–23) and a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets (since 1917). The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1920. ... Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919– 1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic and Second Polish Republic. ... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a communist party to oversee a unit of the military. ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... From 1919 to 1946, functions of ministers in the government of Russia and, later, the Soviet Union were performed by Peoples Commissars (Russian title: Narodny Komissar, or Narkom). ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Workers and Peasants Inspection was a government organization that was part of the socialist economic planning apparatus of the state during Stalins reign in Russia. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic or Revvoyensoviet (Революционный Военный Совет, Реввоенсовет) was the supreme military authority of the Soviet Russia. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... The Supreme Soviet (Верховный Совет, Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ...


In April 1922 Stalin became general secretary of the ruling Communist Party, a post that he subsequently built up into the most powerful in the country. This position was an unwanted one within the party (Stalin was sometimes referred to as "Comrade Card-Index" by fellow party members) but Stalin saw its potential as a power-base. The position had great influence on who joined the party. This allowed him to fill the party with his allies. Stalin's accumulation of personal power increasingly alarmed the dying Lenin, and in Lenin's Testament he famously called for the removal of the "rude" Stalin. However, this document was suppressed by members of the Central Committee, many of whom were also criticised by the Bolshevik leader in the testament. 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other usage of the initials CPSU see CPSU (disambiguation). ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Lenins Testament is the name given to a document written by Vladimir Lenin in the last weeks of 1922 and the first week of 1923. ... The 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China meets in 2002 The Central Committee is a leading body of an organization, most often a political party, especially Communist parties. ...


After Lenin's death in January 1924, Stalin, Kamenev, and Zinoviev together governed the party, placing themselves ideologically between Trotsky (on the left wing of the party) and Bukharin (on the right). Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Death is either the cessation of life in a living organism or the state of the organism after that event. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Categories: People stubs | Old Bolsheviks | Soviet politicians | Exonerated Soviet death sentences | Russian Jews ... Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евсе́евич Зино́вьев, real name Ovsel Gershon Aronov Radomyslsky (Радомысльский), also known as Hirsch Apfelbaum), (September 23 [September 11, Old Style], 1883 - August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky ( Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij and Trotzky ) (October 26 ( O.S.) = November 7 ( N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: Николай Иванович Бухарин), (October 9 (September 27 Old Style) 1888 - March 13, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and then a Soviet politician, and intellectual. ...


During this period, Stalin abandoned the traditional Bolshevik emphasis on international revolution in favor of a policy of building "Socialism in One Country", in contrast to Trotsky's theory of Permanent Revolution. Stalin would soon switch sides and join with Bukharin. Together, they fought a new opposition of Trotsky, Kamenev, and Zinoviev. By 1928 (the first year of the Five-Year Plans) Stalin was supreme among the leadership, and the following year, Trotsky was exiled. Having also outmaneuvered Bukharin's Right Opposition and now advocating collectivisation and industrialisation, Stalin can be said to have exercised control over the party and the country. However, as the popularity of other leaders such as Sergei Kirov and the so-called Ryutin Plot were to demonstrate, Stalin did not achieve absolute power until the Great Purge of 193638. The Socialism in one country theory is the foundation of Stalinism (or Stalinist socialism), though it was actually developed by Bukharin and then adopted by Stalin. ... Permanent Revolution is the theory of how to sustain Communism within an undeveloped (backward) state. ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Five-Year Plans or Piatiletkas (пятилетка) were a series of nation-wide centralized exercises in rapid economic development in the Soviet Union. ... The Right Opposition was the name given to the tendency made up of Nikolai Bukharin, Alexei Rykov and their supporters within the Soviet Union in the late 1920s. ... Sergei Mironovich Kirov (Серге́й Миро́нович Ки́ров) (March 15 O.S. = March 27 N.S., 1886 - December 1, 1934) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet communist. ... The Ryutin Affair was a serious indication of the extent of the opposition to aspects of Stalins policies. ... The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Stalin and changes in Soviet society

Industrialization

Main article: Industrialisation of the USSR Stalinist development Planning At the Fifteenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in December 1927, Stalin attacked the left by expelling Trotsky and his supporters from the party and then moving against the right by abandoning Lenins New Economic Policy which had been championed by Bukharin...


World War I and the Russian Civil War had a devastating effect on the country's economy. Industrial output in 1922 was 13% of that in 1914. Under Stalin's direction, the New Economic Policy, which allowed a degree of market flexibility within the context of socialism, was replaced by a system of centrally-ordained Five-Year Plans in the late 1920s. These called for a highly ambitious program of state-guided crash industrialisation and the collectivisation of agriculture. In spite of early breakdowns and failures, the first two Five-Year Plans achieved rapid industrialisation from a very low economic base. The Soviet Union, generally ranked as the poorest nation in Europe in 1922, now industrialised at a phenomenal rate, far surpassing Germany's pace of industrialisation in the 19th century and Japan's earlier in the 20th. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1920. ... The New Economic Policy, or NEP ( Russian: ) was a system of economic reforms, partly market-oriented, that Vladimir Lenin instituted in the Russian SFSR and then Soviet Union. ... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s Years: 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Referred to as the Roaring 20s. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Poverty is the state of being without, often associated with need, hardship and lack of resources across a wide range of cirstance. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


With no seed capital, little foreign trade, and barely any modern industry to start with, Stalin's government financed industrialisation by both restraining consumption on the part of ordinary Soviet citizens, to ensure capital went for re-investment into industry, and by ruthless extraction of wealth from the peasantry. In specific but common cases, the industrial labor was knowingly underpaid. First, there was the usage of the almost free labor of prisoners in forced labor camps. Second, there was frequent "mobilisation" of communists and Komsomol members for various construction projects. Wiktionary has a definition of: Trade Trade centers on the exchange of goods and/or services. ... An industry is generally any grouping of businesses that share a common method of generating profits, such as the movie industry, the automobile industry, or the cattle industry. It is also used specifically to refer to an area of economic production focused on manufacturing which involves large amounts of upfront... Finance addresses the ways in which individuals, business entities and other organizations allocate and use monetary resources over time. ... Investment is a term with several closely related meanings in finance and economics. ... Wealth usually refers to money and property. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist Union of Youth. The organisation served as the youth wing of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( CPSU), the youngest members being fourteen years old, the upper limit for an age...


Collectivisation

Main article: Collectivisation in the USSR Traditional farming In Imperial Russia, the Stolypin Reform was aimed at the development of capitalism in agriculture by giving incentives for creation of large farms. ...

Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin

Stalin's regime moved to force collectivisation of agriculture. The theory behind collectivisation was that it would replace the small-scale un-mechanised and inefficient farms with large-scale mechanised farms that would produce food far more efficiently. real photo of Josef Stalin This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 50 years. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Bales of hay on a farm near Ames, Iowa A farm is the basic unit in agriculture. ... Food from plant sources Food is any substance normally eaten or drunk by living organisms. ...


Collectivisation meant drastic social changes, on a scale not seen since the abolition of serfdom in 1861, and alienation from control of the land and its produce. Collectivisation also meant a drastic drop in living standards for many peasants (but not all; the poorest peasants actually saw their living standards increase), and it faced widespread and often violent resistance among the peasantry. 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Alienation is estrangement or splitting apart. ...


In the first years of collectivisation, agricultural production actually dropped. Stalin blamed this unexpected drop on kulaks (rich peasants), who resisted collectivisation. Therefore those defined as "kulaks", "kulak helpers" and later "ex-kulaks" were to be shot, placed into Gulag labor camps or deported to remote areas of the country, depending on the charge. Kulaks (from the Russian кулак (kulak, fist)) is a pejorative term extensively used in Soviet political language, originally referring to relatively wealthy peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor, as a result of the Stolypin reform introduced since 1906. ... Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps) was the branch of the Soviet internal police and security service that operated the penal system of forced labour camps and associated detention and transit camps... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ...


The two-stage progress of the collectivisation, interrupted for a year by Stalin's famous editorial "Dizzy with success" (Pravda, March 2, 1930), is a prime example of his ability for tactical retreats. Front page of a Pravda issue published during the August 1991 coup. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


Many historians agree that the disruption caused by forced collectivisation was largely responsible for major famines which caused up to 5 million deaths in 1932–33, particularly in Ukraine and the lower Volga region. A famine is an phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are undernourished and death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ... Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge 8,000 m³/ s Area watershed 1. ...


Science

Main article: Research in the Soviet Union. Contents // Categories: Country Studies | Stub | Soviet science and technology ...


Science in the Soviet Union was under strict ideological control, along with art, literature and everything else. On the positive side, there was significant progress in "ideologically safe" domains due to the free Soviet education system and state-financed research. However, in several cases the consequences of ideological pressure were dramatic, the most notable examples being "bourgeois pseudosciences", genetics and cybernetics. Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Soviet education was organized in a highly centralized government-run system, designed to fulfill political and military purposes foremost. ... Bourgeois pseudoscience (Буржуазная лженаука) was a cliche in the Soviet Union of certain scientific disciplines that were deemed inadmissible from the ideological point of view. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Cybernetics is a theory of the communication and control of regulatory feedback. ...


In the late 1940s, there were also attempts to suppress special and general relativity, as well as quantum mechanics on the grounds of idealism. However, top Soviet physicists made it clear that without using these theories, they would be unable to create a nuclear bomb. Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s - 1940s - 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Years: 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Events and trends Technology First nuclear bomb First cruise missile, the V1 flying bomb and the first ballistic missile, the... Special relativity (SR) or the special theory of relativity is the physical theory published in 1905 by Albert Einstein. ... General relativity (GR) or general relativity theory (GRT) is the theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915. ... Fig. ... In philosophy, idealism is any theory positing the primacy of spirit, mind, or language over matter. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


Linguistics was the only area of Soviet academic thought to which Stalin personally and directly contributed. At the beginning of Stalin's rule, the dominant figure in Soviet linguistics was Nikolai Yakovievich Marr, who argued that language is a class construction and that language structure is determined by the economic structure of society. Stalin, who had previously written about language policy as People's Commissar for Nationalities, felt he grasped enough of the underlying issues to coherently oppose this simplistic Marxist formalism, ending Marr's ideological dominance over Soviet linguistics. Stalin's principal work discussing linguistics is a small essay called Marxism and the Problems of Linguistics [4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#endnote_StalinLinguistics). Although there are no great theoretical contributions or insights that have come from it, neither are there any apparent errors in Stalin's understanding of linguistics, his influence arguably relieved Soviet linguistics from the sort of ideologically driven theory that dominated genetics. Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr (1864-1934) was a controversial Soviet scholar whose monogenetic theory of language constituted the officially approved ideology of Soviet linguists until 1950, when Joseph Stalin personally slammed it as anti-scientific. ...


Scientific research in nearly all areas was hindered by the fact that many scientists were sent to labor camps (including Lev Landau, later a Nobel Prize winner, who spent a year in prison in 1938–39), or executed (like Lev Shubnikov, who was shot in 1937). They were persecuted for their (real or imaginary) dissident views, and seldom for "politically incorrect" research. A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Lev Davidovich Landau (Ле́в Дави́дович Ланда́у) (January 22, 1908 – April 1, 1968) was a prominent Soviet physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics whose broad field of work included the theory of superconductivity and superfluidity, quantum electrodynamics, nuclear physics and particle physics. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... A dissident is a person who actively opposes the established order. ...


Nevertheless, great progress was made in some areas of science and technology under Stalin. It gave ground for famous achievements of the Soviet science in the 1950s, such as developing the BESM-1 computer in 1953 and launching Sputnik in 1957. Indeed, many politicians in the United States began to fear after the "Sputnik crisis" that their country had been eclipsed by the Soviet Union in science and in public education. Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... BESM BESM (БЭСМ) stands for Большая Электронно-Счётная Машина (Bolshaja Elektronno-Schetnaja Mashina) in Russian, which can be translated as Large Electronic-Computing Machine or simply Large Computer. Several types of BESM have been built. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Sputnik crisis was a turning point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ...


Social services

Enlarge
A Soviet postage stamp ca. 1950, the "Peace will prevail over war" series. The poster reads: "Thank you dear Stalin for our happy childhood." The word "родной" (translated as "dear") is normally reserved only for close relatives.

Stalin's government placed heavy emphasis on the provision of free medical services. Campaigns were carried out against typhus, cholera, and malaria; the number of doctors was increased as rapidly as facilities and training would permit; and death and infant mortality rates steadily decreased. All education was free and also dramatically expanded, with many more Soviet citizens learning to read and write, and higher education expanded. The people, of course, did not have the ability to study what they wanted, but were limited to the material that Stalin and the Soviet leadership permitted. The generation that grew up under Stalin also saw a major expansion in job opportunities, especially for women. Soviet 1950 stamp: Peace will triumph over war. ... Soviet 1950 stamp: Peace will triumph over war. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... This is about the disease Typhus. ... distribution of cholera Cholera (also called Asiatic cholera) is an infectious disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. ... Red blood cell infected with Malaria (Italian: bad air; formerly called ague or marsh fever in English) is an infectious disease which causes about 500 million infections and 2 million deaths annually, mainly in the tropics and sub-Saharan Africa. ... Doctor means teacher in Latin. ... Infant mortality is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ...


Culture and religion

It was during Stalin's reign that the official and long-lived style of Socialist Realism was established for painting, sculpture, music, drama, and literature. Previously fashionable "revolutionary" expressionism, abstract art, and avant-garde experimentation were discouraged or denounced as formalism. Stalin as an Organiser of the October Revolution by Karp Trokhimenko Socialist realism is a teleologically-oriented style of realistic art which has as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of socialism and communism. ... The Mona Lisa is perhaps the best-known artistic painting in the Western world. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Drama is a term generally used to refer to a literary form involving parts written for actors to perform. ... Literature is literally an acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has, however, generally come to identify a collection of texts. ... On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... One of Kandiskys most famous paintings Yellow Red Blue (Kandinsky 1925) Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses shapes and colours in a non-representational or non-objective way. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ... The word formalism has several meanings: A certain school in the philosophy of mathematics, stressing axiomatic proofs through theorems specifically associated with David Hilbert. ...


Careers were made and broken, some more than once. Famous names were repressed, both "revolutionaries" (among them Isaac Babel, Vsevolod Meyerhold) and "non-conformists" (for example, Osip Mandelstam). Others, representing both the "Soviet man" (Arkady Gaidar), and remnants of the older pre-revolutionary Russia (Konstantin Stanislavski), thrived. A number of former emigrés returned to the Soviet Union, among them Alexei Tolstoi in 1925, Alexander Kuprin in 1936, and Alexander Vertinsky in 1943. It is of note that Anna Akhmatova was subjected to several cycles of suppression and rehabilitation, but was never herself arrested, although her first husband, Nikolai Gumilev the poet, had been shot already in 1921, and her son, Lev Gumilev the historian, spent two decades in the Gulag. Isaac Babel Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel, Russian: Исаак Бабель (July 13 (New Style), 1894 - January 27, 1940) was a Russian journalist, playwright, and short story writer. ... Vsevolod Emilevich Meyerhold (born Karl Kazimir Theodor Meyerhold) (1874 - 1940) was a Russian theatrical director, actor and theorist. ... Arkady Petrovich Golikov (, in Russian) (1. ... Konstantin (Constantin) Stanislavski (Константи́н Серге́евич Станисла́вский / Алексе́ев) (January 5, 1863 - August 7, 1938) was a Russian theatre and acting innovator. ... Émigré is a French term that literally refers to a person who has migrated out, but often carries a connotation of politico-social self-exile. ... Aleksei Nikolaevich Tolstoi (1883-1945), nicknamed the Comrade Count, was a Russian writer from Soviet era who wrote erotic stories, science fiction, and historical novels. ... This article is about the writer. ... Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова, Анна Андреевна Горенко, June 23, 1889 (June 11, Old Style and also St. ... Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps) was the branch of the Soviet internal police and security service that operated the penal system of forced labour camps and associated detention and transit camps...


The degree of Stalin's personal involvement in both the general and the specific developments has been assessed variously. His name, however, was constantly invoked during his reign in discussions of culture as in just about everything else; and in several famous cases, his opinion was final.


Stalin's occasional beneficence showed itself in strange ways. For example, Mikhail Bulgakov was driven to poverty and despair, yet, after a personal appeal to Stalin, was allowed to keep working. His play "The Days of the Turbins", with its sympathetic treatment of an anti-Bolshevik family caught in the Civil War, was finally staged, apparently also on Stalin's intervention, and began a decades-long uninterrupted run at the Moscow Arts Theatre. Mikhail Bulgakov Mikhail Afanasievich Bulgakov (or Bulhakov, Михаил Афанасьевич Булгаков; May 15 (May 3 Old Style), 1891–March 10, 1940) was a Soviet novelist and playwright of the first half of the 20th century. ...


In architecture, a Stalinist Empire Style (basically updated neoclassicism to a very large scale, exemplified by the seven skyscrapers of Moscow) replaced the constructivism of the 1920s. An amusing anecdote has it that the Moskva Hotel in Moscow was built with mismatching side-wings because Stalin had mistakenly signed off both of the two proposals submitted, and the architects were too afraid to clarify the matter. (This was actually just a joke: the hotel was built by two independent teams of architects that had different visions on how the hotel should look.) Architecture (in Greek αρχή = first and τέχνη = craftsmanship) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... In education, constructivism is a learning theory which holds that knowledge is not transmitted unchanged from teacher to student, but instead that learning is an active process of learning. ...


Stalin's role in the fortunes of the Russian Orthodox Church is complex. Continuous persecution in the 1930s resulted in near-extinction: by 1939 active parishes numbered in the low hundreds (down from 54,000 in 1917), many churches had been levelled, and tens of thousands of priests, monks, and nuns were dead or imprisoned. During WWII, however, the Church was allowed a partial revival, as a patriotic organisation: thousands of parishes were reactivated until a further round of suppression in Khrushchev's time. The Church Synod's recognition of the Soviet government and of Stalin personally led to a schism with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia that remains not fully healed to the present day. Saint Basils Cathedral, a well-known Russian Orthodox church situated in Moscow The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, or ROCOR) is a jurisdiction of Eastern Orthodoxy formed in response against the policy of bolsheviks with respect to religion in the Soviet Union soon after the Russian Revolution. ...


Purges and deportations

The purges

Main article: Great Purge The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...


Stalin, as the head of the Politburo, consolidated near-absolute power in the 1930s with the Great Purge against his political and ideological opponents (both real or merely suspected), culminating in the extermination of the majority of the original Bolshevik Central Committee, and over half of the largely pliant delegates of the 17th Party Congress in January 1934. Measures used ranged from imprisonment in labour camps of the Gulag to execution after a show trial or speedy trial by NKVD troikas. Some argue that one of the motivations of the purge was the feeling that the party needed to be unified in the face of anticipated conflict with Nazi Germany; others believe that it was motivated only by Stalin's desire to consolidate his own power. Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China meets in 2002 The Central Committee is a leading body of an organization, most often a political party, especially Communist parties. ... January is the first month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps) was the branch of the Soviet internal police and security service that operated the penal system of forced labour camps and associated detention and transit camps... The term show trial serves most commonly to label a type of public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the accused: the actual trial has as its only goal to present the accusation and the verdict to the public as an impressive example and... The Russian word troika, threesome, was used during the Great Purge period in the Soviet Union to denote commissions of three persons as an additional instrument of extrajudicial punishment (внесудебная расправа, внесудебное преследование) introduced to supplement the legal system with a means for quick punishment of anti-Soviet elements. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Several trials known as the Moscow Trials were held, but the procedures were replicated throughout the country. There were four key trials during this period: the Trial of the Sixteen (August 1936); Trial of the Seventeen (January 1937); the trial of Red Army generals, including Marshal Tukhachevsky (June 1937); and finally the Trial of the Twenty One (including Bukharin) in March 1938. The Moscow Trials were a series of trials of political opponents of Joseph Stalin during the Great Purge. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 11, 1937), Soviet military commander, was one of the most prominent victims of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... The Trial of the Twenty One was the last of the Moscow Trials —Stalinist show trials of prominent Bolsheviks. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: Николай Иванович Бухарин), (October 9 (September 27 Old Style) 1888 - March 13, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and then a Soviet politician, and intellectual. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Trotsky's August 1940 assassination in Mexico, where he had lived in exile since 1936, eliminated the last of Stalin's opponents among the former Party leadership. Only three members of the "Old Bolsheviks" (Lenin's Politburo) now remained—Stalin himself, "the all-Union Chieftain" (всесоюзный староста) Mikhail Kalinin, and Chairman of Sovnarkom Vyacheslav Molotov. The repression of so many formerly high-ranking revolutionaries and party members led Leon Trotsky to claim that a "river of blood" separated Stalin's regime from that of Lenin. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States of America, to the southeast by Guatemala and Belize, to... An Old Bolshevik (старый большевик) was a member of the Bolsheviks before the Russian Revolution. ... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Categories: Stub | 1875 births | 1946 deaths | Old Bolsheviks | Soviet politicians | Leaders of the Soviet Union ... Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР) (1946-1991), who... Vyacheslav Molotov Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov (Russian: Вячесла́в Миха́йлович Мо́лотов) (vyah-cheh-SLAHF mih-KHY-lo-vihch MOL-uh-tawf) (February 25, 1890 (O.S.) (March 9, 1890 (N.S.))–November 8, 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky ( Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij and Trotzky ) (October 26 ( O.S.) = November 7 ( N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ...


No segment of society was left untouched during the purges. Article 58 of the legal code, listing prohibited "anti-Soviet activities", was applied in the broadest manner. Initially, the execution lists for the enemies of the people were confirmed by the Politburo. Over time the procedure was greatly simplified and delegated down the line of command. The Russian word troika gained a new meaning: a quick, simplified trial by a committee of three subordinated to NKVD. Towards the end of the purge, the Politburo relieved NKVD head Nikolai Yezhov, from his position for overzealousness. He was subsequently executed. Some historians such as Amy Knight and Robert Conquest postulate that Stalin had Yezhov and his predecessor, Yagoda, removed in order to deflect blame from himself. Article 58 of the Russian SFSR Penal Code was put in force on February 25, 1927 to arrest those suspected guilty of counter-revolutionary activities. ... For the play by Henrik Ibsen, see An Enemy of the People. ... A general meaning of the Russian word troika is a collection of three of any kind. ... The Russian word troika, threesome, was used during the Great Purge period in the Soviet Union to denote commissions of three persons as an additional instrument of extrajudicial punishment (внесудебная расправа, внесудебное преследование) introduced to supplement the legal system with a means for quick punishment of anti-Soviet elements. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov (Николай Иванович Ежов) (May 1, 1895–February 4?, 1940) was a head of the Soviet secret police, the NKVD (1936–1938), during the Great Purge (sometimes known as the Yezhovschina (Yezhovshchina, Ежовщина, Yezhov era) after him). ...


Deportations

Main article: Population transfer in the Soviet Union The wholesale removal of potentially trouble-making ethnic groups was a technique used consistently by Joseph Stalin during his career: Poles (1934), Koreans (1937), Ukrainians, Jews, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians (1940-1941 and 1945-1949), Volga Germans (1941), Balkars, Chechens, Ingushs (1943), Kalmyks (1944), Meskhetian Turks (1944), Crimean Tatars (18 May...


Shortly before, during and immediately after World War II, Stalin conducted a series of deportations on a huge scale which profoundly affected the ethnic map of the Soviet Union. Over 1.5 million people were deported to Siberia and the Central Asian republics. Separatism, resistance to Soviet rule and collaboration with the invading Germans were cited as the main official reasons for the deportations. Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia ( Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ...


The following ethnic groups were deported completely or partially: Poles, Koreans, Volga Germans, Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachays, Meskhetian Turks, Bulgarians, Greeks, Armenians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Estonians. Large numbers of Kulaks, regardless of their nationality, were resettled to Siberia and Central Asia. The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to former Polish citizens or Polish-speaking people who resided in the Soviet Union. ... The Korean people are one of the main East Asian ethnic groups. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... The term Tatar may refer to A member of the Tatars, Crimean Tatars Tatar language, Crimean Tatar language Native people of Crimea, Tatarstan See also: Turkic peoples, Turkic languages. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Chechen Republic (Russian: Чеченская Республика; Chechen: Нохчийн Республика/Noxçiyn Respublika), also known as Chechnya (Russian: Чечня, Chechen: Нохчичьо/Noxçiyçö), Chechnia or Chechenia, is a constituent republic of the Russian Federation. ... The Republic of Ingushetia (Russian: Респу́блика Ингуше́тия; Ingush: Гiалгiай Мохк) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Balkar (малкъар /malqar/) people are a Turkic people of the Caucasus region, thet titular population of Kabardino-Balkaria. ... The Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia (Russian: Карача́ево-Черке́сская респу́блика, or, less formal, Карача́ево-Черке́ссия) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... 1. ... The Republic of Bulgaria is a republic in the southeast of Europe. ... Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia (Latvian: Latvija), is a country in Northern Europe. ... The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. ... The Republic of Estonia is a country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the north. ... Kulaks (from the Russian кулак (kulak, fist)) is a pejorative term extensively used in Soviet political language, originally referring to relatively wealthy peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor, as a result of the Stolypin reform introduced since 1906. ... Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia ( Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Map of Central Asia outlined in orange showing one set of possible borders Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


In February 1956, Nikita Khrushchev condemned the deportations as a violation of Leninist principles, and reversed most of them, although it was not until as late as 1991 that the Tatars, Meskhs and Volga Germans were allowed to return en masse to their homelands. The deportations had a profound effect on the peoples of the Soviet Union. The memory of the deportations played a major part in the separatist movements in the Baltic republics, Tatarstan and Chechnya. 1956 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism (a form of Communism); it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1. ... A new page based on the new template is being worked on at Tatarstan/Temp, please make any changes you want to make on that page. ... The Chechen Republic (Russian: Чеченская Республика; Chechen: Нохчийн Республика/Noxçiyn Respublika), also known as Chechnya (Russian: Чечня, Chechen: Нохчичьо/Noxçiyçö), Chechnia or Chechenia, is a constituent republic of the Russian Federation. ...


Death toll

About one million people were shot during the periods 1935–38, 1942 and 194550 and millions of people were transported to Gulag labour camps. In Georgia about 80,000 people were shot during 1921, 1923–24, 1935–38, 1942 and 1945-50, and more than 100,000 people were transported to Gulag camps. 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Events January January 5 - US Senator Estes Kefauver introduces a resolution calling for examination of organized crime in the USA January 6 - The United Kingdom recognizes the Peoples Republic of China. ... Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps) was the branch of the Soviet internal police and security service that operated the penal system of forced labour camps and associated detention and transit camps... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ...


On March 5, 1940, Stalin himself and other Soviet leaders signed the order to execute 25,700 Polish intelligentsia including 14,700 Polish POWs. It became known as Katyn massacre. See massacre of prisoners. March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Katyń Forest Massacre, also known as the Katyn massacre, was the mass execution of Polish citizens by the Soviet Union during World War II. Initially, the expression referred to the massacre of the Polish officers from the Kozielsk POW camp in Katyn forest near the village of Gnezdovo, a... Massacre of prisoners was a massacre committed by Soviet NKVD on prisoners in cities from which the Red Army was withdrawing after the German invasion in 1941. ...


It is generally agreed by historians that if famines, prison and labour camp mortality, and state terrorism (deportations and political purges) are taken into account, Stalin and his colleagues were directly or indirectly responsible for the deaths of millions. How many millions died under Stalin is greatly disputed. Although no official figures have been released by the Soviet or Russian governments, most estimates put the figure between 8 and 20 million. Comparison of the 192637 census results suggests 5–10 million deaths in excess of what would be normal in the period, mostly through famine in 193134. The 1926 census shows the population of the Soviet Union at 147 million and in 1937 another census found a population of between 162 and 163 million. This was 14 million less than the projected population value and was suppressed as a "wrecker's census" with the census takers severely punished. A census was taken again in 1939, but its published figure of 170 million has been generally attributed directly to the decision of Stalin[5]  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#endnote_Cunningham) (see also Demographics of the Soviet Union). Note that the figure of 14 million does not have to imply 14 million additional deaths, since as many as 3 million may be births that never took place due to reduced fertility and choice. A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... State terrorism is a controversial term that is separate from the more common term state sponsored terrorism. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... This articles details the demographics of the Soviet Union. ...


A quote popularly attributed to Stalin is "The death of one man is a tragedy. The death of millions is a statistic." (possibly said in response to Churchill at the Potsdam Conference in 1945). Attlee, Truman, and Stalin at Potsdam The Potsdam Conference was held in Potsdam, Germany (near Berlin), from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ...


World War II

In his speech on August 19, 1939, Stalin prepared his comrades for the great turn in Soviet policy, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany which divided Central Europe into the two powers' respective spheres of influence. The exact motivations behind this pact are disputed, but it appears that neither side expected it to last very long. Big 3 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Big 3 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... President of the United States - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... This is the most common use of FDR. For other uses, see FDR (disambiguation). ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ... Stalins speech on Aug 19, 1939 is argued to have been a secret speech of Stalin to Soviet leaders, wherein he supposedly described the strategy of the Soviet Union in the eve of WW2. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin (far right) The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact and formally known as the Treaty of Nonaggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe Central Europe is the region of Europe between Eastern Europe and Western Europe. ...


On September 1, 1939, the German invasion of Poland started World War II. According to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Eastern Poland was in the Soviet sphere of influence. Hence, Stalin decided to intervene and on September 17 the Red Army invaded Poland as well. Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to modify the spheres of influences slightly and Poland was divided between these two states. September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country or a region of economic influence around an urban area. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


In June 1941, Hitler broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. Stalin had not expected this — at the very least, he had not expected an invasion to come so soon — and the Soviet Union was largely unprepared for this invasion. Until the last moment, Stalin had sought to avoid any obvious defensive preparation which might provoke German attack, in the hope of buying time to modernise and strengthen his military forces. Even after the attack commenced Stalin appeared unwilling to accept the fact and, according to some historians, was too stunned to react appropriately for a number of days. A controversial theory put forward by Viktor Suvorov asserts that Stalin had been preparing an invasion of Germany while neglecting preparations for defensive warfare, which left Soviet forces vulnerable despite their heavy concentration near the border. Such speculations are difficult to substantiate, as information on the Soviet Army from 1939 to 1941 remains classified, but it is known that the Soviets had advanced and detailed warnings of the German invasion through their extensive foreign intelligence agents, such as Richard Sorge. 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945), a German politician who was the founder of the Third Reich (1933-1945), is widely regarded as one of the most significant and reviled leaders in world history. ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Original German plan Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which commenced on June 22, 1941. ... Categories: People stubs | 1947 births | Defectors | Russian writers | Ukrainian people ... Richard Sorge Dr Sorge aka Ramsay Richard Sorge (Russian: Рихард Зорге) (October 4, 1895 - November 7, 1944) was a German journalist and a spy for the Soviet Union in Japan before and during World War II. KGB codename Ramsay Richard Sorge was born in Adjikent, Baku, Russia. ...


The Nazis initially made huge advances, capturing and killing millions of Soviet troops. The 193738 execution of many of the Red Army's experienced generals had a severely debilitating effect on the ability of the USSR to organize defences. Hitler's experts had expected eight weeks of war, and early indications evidenced their prescience. 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


In response on November 6, 1941, Stalin addressed the Soviet Union for only the second time during his three-decade rule (the first time was earlier that year on July 2). He claimed that although 350,000 troops had been killed by German attacks, the Germans had lost 4.5 million soldiers (an inflated figure) and that Soviet victory was near. The Soviet Red Army did put up fierce resistance, but during the war's early stages was largely ineffective against the better-equipped and trained German forces, until the invaders were halted and then driven back in December 1941 in front of Moscow. Stalin then worked with independent-minded Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov to orchestrate the decisive German defeat at the Battle of Stalingrad. November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow  listen? ( Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. Prewar career Born into a peasant family in Strelkovka, Kaluga... Battle of Stalingrad Conflict World War II Date June 28, 1942 - February 2, 1943 Place Stalingrad, USSR Result Soviet victory The Battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point in World War II, and is considered the bloodiest battle in human history and arguably one of the greatest come-backs...


Stalin met in several conferences with Churchill and/or Roosevelt in Moscow, Tehran, Yalta, and Potsdam to plan military strategy. His shortcomings as strategist are frequently noted regarding massive Soviet loss of life and early Soviet defeats. (In his autobiography Khrushchev claimed that Stalin tried to conduct tactical decisions using a world globe.) Yet Stalin did rapidly move Soviet industrial production east of the Volga river, far from Luftwaffe-reach, to sustain the Red Army's war machine with astonishing success. Additionally, Stalin was well aware that other European armies had utterly disintegrated when faced with Nazi military efficacy and responded effectively by subjecting his army to galvanizing terror and unrevolutionary patriotism. List of World War II conferences Note: links to conference, not location. ... From left to right, Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill The Tehran Conference was the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943 that took place in Tehran, Iran. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ... Attlee, Truman, and Stalin at Potsdam The Potsdam Conference was held in Potsdam, Germany (near Berlin), from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ... Military strategy in the Waterloo campaign Military strategy is a collective name for planning the conduct of warfare. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... The Luftwaffe (literally, air weapon, pronounced looft-vaaf-feh) is the air force of Germany. ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


Stalin's Order No. 227 of July 27, 1942 illustrates the ruthlessness with which he sought to stiffen army resolve: all those who retreated or otherwise left their positions without orders to do so were to be summarily shot. Other orders declared that the families of those who surrendered were subject to NKVD terror. Barrier forces of SMERSH were soon set up behind advances to machine-gun anyone who retreated. The surrendering Soviet troops of the first years of Barbarossa were sent to the Gulag after their release from POW camps. Order No. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Black Ravens by Boris Vladimirski, a depiction of the cars used by NKVD agents. ... SMERSH (short for SMERt SHpionam (СМЕРть Шпионам), or Death to Spies) was the name of counterintelligence departments in the Soviet Union formed during the Great Patriotic War, to secure the rear of the active Red Army, on the front to arrest traitors, deserters, spies, and criminal elements. History The organization... Prisoner of War camps Contents // Categories: Substubs | Prisons and detention centres ...


In the war's opening stages, the retreating Red Army also sought to deny resources to the enemy through a scorched earth policy of destroying the infrastructure and food supplies of areas before the Germans could seize them. Unfortunately, this, along with abuse by German troops, caused inconceivable starvation and suffering among the civilian population that were left behind.


The Soviet Union bore the brunt of civilian and military losses in World War II. Approximately 7 million Red Army personnel and 20 million civilians died. The Nazis considered Slavs to be "sub-human," and many people believe the Nazis killed Slavs as an ethnically targeted genocide. This concept of Slavic inferiority was also the reason why Hitler did not accept into his army many Russians who wanted to fight the Stalinist regime until 1944, when the war was lost for Germany. In the Soviet Union, World War II left a huge deficit of men of the wartime fighting-age generation. To this day the war is remembered very vividly in Russia, Belarus, and other parts of the former Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War, and May 9, Victory Day, is one of Russia's biggest national holidays. Genocide has been defined as the deliberate killing of people based on their ethnicity, nationality, race, religion, or (sometimes) politics, as well as other deliberate actions leading to the physical elimination of any of the above categories. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь or Biełaruś, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ...

Enlarge
Many elderly Russians are nostalgic for the Stalin era.

1-May-2002 Demonstration File links The following pages link to this file: Joseph Stalin ... 1-May-2002 Demonstration File links The following pages link to this file: Joseph Stalin ...

Post-war era

Following World War II, the Red Army occupied much of the territory that had been formerly held by the Axis countries: there were Soviet occupation zones in Germany and Austria, and Hungary and Poland were under practical military occupation, despite the fact that the latter was formally an Allied country. Soviet-friendly governments were established in Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and homegrown communist regimes existed in Yugoslavia and Albania. Finland retained formal independence, but was politically isolated and economically dependent on the Soviet Union. Greece, Italy and France were under the strong influence of local communist parties, which were at the very least friendly towards Moscow. Stalin hoped that the withdrawal of the Americans from Europe would lead to Soviet hegemony over the whole continent. The foundation of Trizonia and American help for the anti-communist side in the Greek Civil War changed the situation. East Germany was proclaimed a separate country in 1949, ruled by German communists. Moreover, Stalin made a decision to switch to direct control over his satellites in Central Europe: all of the countries were to be ruled by local communist parties that tried to implement the Soviet template locally. The Soviet Occupation Zone (German: Sowjetische Besatzungszone (SBZ) or Ostzone) was the area of eastern Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II. It became East Germany. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... Romania (formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania; Romanian: România) is a country in southeastern Europe. ... The Republic of Bulgaria is a republic in the southeast of Europe. ... Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1992 (except for the World War II period). ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Albania is a Mediterranean country in southeastern Europe. ... The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. ... Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... An ELAS resistance fighter The Greek Civil War was a war fought between 1944 and 1949 in Greece. ... For the historical eastern German provinces, see Historical Eastern Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a Communist Party-led state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...


In 1948 this decision led to the establishment of Stalinist governments in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria, later called the "Communist Bloc". Communist Albania remained an ally, but Yugoslavia under Josip Broz Tito broke with the USSR. Stalin viewed Soviet consolidation of power in the region as a necessary step to protect the USSR by surrounding it with countries with friendly governments, to act as a buffer against possible invaders. 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1992 (except for the World War II period). ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ... Romania (formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania; Romanian: România) is a country in southeastern Europe. ... The Republic of Bulgaria is a republic in the southeast of Europe. ... Albania is a Mediterranean country in southeastern Europe. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ...


This action reversed the hopes of the West that Eastern Europe would be friendly to the West and form a cordon sanitaire (buffer) against Communism. It confirmed the fears of many in the West that the Soviet Union still intended to spread communism across the world. The relations between the Soviet Union and its former World War II western allies soon broke down, and gave way to a prolonged period of tension and distrust between east and west known as the Cold War. (See also Iron curtain.) West is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of Europe from the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the East to an arbitrarily chosen boundary in the West. ... The Cold War ( 1947- 1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. ... In the summer of 1989, the foreign ministers of Austria and Hungary, Alois Mock and Gyula Horn, ceremoniously cut through the border defences separating their countries. ...


At home, Stalin presented himself as a great wartime leader who had led the USSR to victory against the Nazis. By the end of 1940s, Russian nationalism increased. For instance, some inventions and scientific discoveries were reclaimed by ethnic Russian researchers. Examples include the boiler engine, reclaimed by father and son Cherepanovs; the electric bulb, by Yablochkov and Lodygin; the radio, by Popov; the airplane, by Mozhaysky; etc. Cherepanovs, Yefim Alekseyevich (1774-1842) and Miron Yefimovich (1803-1849), Russian inventors and industrial engineers, father and son. ... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... Pavel Nikolayevich Yablochkov (Павел Николаевич Яблочков in Russian) (September 14/September 2 (O. S.), 1847 – March 31/March 19 (O.S.) 1894 ) was a Russian electrical engineer, the inventor of the Yablochkov candle (a type of electric carbon arc lamp) and businessman. ... Alexander Nikolayevich Lodygin (1847 - 1923) (Александр Николаевич Лодыгин in Russian), Russian electrical engineer and inventor. ... Radio transmission diagram and electromagnetic waves Radio is a technology that allows the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of light. ... Alexander Stepanovich Popov (Russian: Александр Степанович Попов) (March 4, 1859 - December 31, 1905) was a Russian physicist who was the first to publicly demonstrate transmission of radio waves (March 1896) but didnt care to apply for a patent for this great invention. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ...


Stalin's internal repressive policies continued and intensified (including in newly acquired territories), but never reached the extremes of the 1930s.


According to some witness accounts, the anti-Semitic campaigns of 1948-1953 (see Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, rootless cosmopolitan, doctors' plot) were only the precursors of greater repression to come, but if such plans did indeed exist, Stalin died before he could implement them. Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards Jews (not: Semites - see the Misnomer section further on). ... The Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC, Russian language: Еврейский анти-фашистский комитет, ЕАК) was formed in Kuibyshev in April 1942 with the official support of the Soviet authorities. ... Rootless cosmopolitan (Russian language: безродный космополит, bezrodny kosmopolit) was a Soviet euphemism during Joseph Stalins anti-Semitic campaign of 1948-1953, which culminated in the exposure of the alleged Doctors plot. The term and the persecutions by the authorities unmistakably targeted the Jews. ... The Doctors plot ( Russian language: дело врачей (doctors affair), врачи-вредители (doctors-saboteurs) or врачи-убийцы (doctors-killers)) was an alleged conspiracy to eliminate the leadership of the Soviet Union. ...


Stalin as a theorist

Stalin made very few contributions to Communist (or, more specifically, Marxist-Leninist) theory, but the contributions he did make were to be accepted and upheld by all Soviet political scientists during his rule.


In 1936, Stalin announced that the society of the Soviet Union consisted of two non-antagonistic classes: workers and kolkhoz peasantry. These corresponded to the two different forms of property over the means of production that existed in the Soviet Union: state property (for the workers) and collective property (for the peasantry). In addition to these, Stalin distinguished the stratum of intelligentsia. The concept of non-antagonistic classes was entirely new to Leninist theory. 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A kolkhoz (Russian: колхо́з) was a form of collective farming in the Soviet Union that existed along with state farms or sovkhozes. ... In Marxist economics and its contemporary derivatives, the means of production refers to physical, non-human, inputs used in production. ... The intelligentsia is a social class of intellectuals and social groups close to them (e. ...


Stalin and his supporters, in his own time and since, have highlighted the notion that socialism can be built and consolidated in one country, even one as underdeveloped as Russia was during the 1920s, and indeed that this might be the only means in which it could be built in a hostile environment. [6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#endnote_Stalin-Voprosy)


Death

According to Khrushchev's autobiography, Stalin frequently engaged in all night partying, with his aides, after which he would sleep all day and expect them to stay up and run the country. On March 1, 1953, after an all-night dinner with interior minister Lavrenty Beria and future premiers Georgi Malenkov, Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev, Stalin collapsed, having probably suffered a stroke that paralyzed the right side of his body. He died four days later, on March 5, 1953, at the age of 73, and was buried on March 9. Officially, the cause of death was listed as a cerebral hemorrhage. His body was preserved in Lenin's Mausoleum until October 31, 1961, when de-Stalinisation was taking place in the Soviet Union. Stalin's body was then buried by the Kremlin walls. March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Lavrenty Beria Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria (Russian: Лавре́нтий Па́влович Бе́рия) (29 March 1899 - 23 December 1953), Soviet politician and police chief, is remembered chiefly as the executor of Joseph Stalins Great Purge of the 1930s, although in fact he presided only over the closing stages of the Purge. ... Georgy Malenkov Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov (Гео́ргий Максимилиа́нович Маленко́в) (GHYOR-ghee mah-leen-KOF) (January 13 [January 8, Old Style], 1902 - January 14, 1988) was a Soviet politician and Communist Party leader, and a close collaborator of Joseph Stalin. ... Nikolai Bulganin (right), with Nikita Khrushchev (centre) and Tito in Belgrade in 1955 Nikolai Aleksandrovich Bulganin (Russian: Николай Александрович Булганин) (May 30, 1895 - February 24, 1975), Soviet politician, was born in Nizhny Novgorod, the son of an office worker. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... A cerebral hemorrhage is a condition in the brain in which a blood vessel leaks. ... Lenins Tomb, with wall of the Kremlin and Russian parliament behind Lenins Mausoleum, also known as Lenins Tomb, situated in Red Square, Moscow, Russia, is the resting place of Vladimir Lenin. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... 1961 (As MAD Magazine pointed out on its first cover for the year) was the first upside-down year - i. ...


It has been suggested that Stalin was murdered. The ex-Communist exile Avtorkhanov argued this point as early as 1975. The political memoirs of Vyacheslav Molotov, published in 1993, claimed Beria had boasted to Molotov that he poisoned Stalin. In 2003, a joint group of Russian and American historians announced their view that Stalin ingested warfarin, a powerful rat poison that thins the blood and causes strokes and hemorrhages. Since it is flavorless, warfarin is a plausible murder weapon. But the facts of Stalin's death will probably never be known with certainty, unless an autopsy is performed on his corpse, which is still embalmed. 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Vyacheslav Molotov Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov (Russian: Вячесла́в Миха́йлович Мо́лотов) (vyah-cheh-SLAHF mih-KHY-lo-vihch MOL-uh-tawf) (February 25, 1890 (O.S.) (March 9, 1890 (N.S.))–November 8, 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... Warfarin (also known under the brand name Coumadin®) is an anticoagulant medication that can be administered orally. ...


Cult of personality

Stalin is often credited with creating the modern-day cult of personality.

Stalin is well known for having created a cult of personality in the Soviet Union around both himself and Lenin. The embalming of the Soviet founder in Lenin's Tomb was done over the objection of Lenin's widow, Nadezhda Krupskaya. Stalin became the focus of massive adoration and even worship. Numerous towns, villages and cities were renamed after the Soviet leader (see List of places named after Stalin) and the Stalin Prize and Stalin Peace Prize were named in his honour. Trotsky criticized the cult of personality Stalin built as being against the values of socialism and Bolshevism by exalting the individual above the party and class and making criticism of Stalin unacceptable. The personality cult reached new levels during the Great Patriotic War with Stalin's name even being included in the new Soviet national anthem. Stalin became the focus of a body of literature including poetry as well as music, paintings and film. Stalin Personality cult File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Stalin Personality cult File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ... Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is a process used to temporarily preserve a human cadaver to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at a funeral. ... Lenins Tomb, with wall of the Kremlin and Russian parliament behind Lenins Mausoleum, also known as Lenins Tomb, situated in Red Square, Moscow, Russia, is the resting place of Vladimir Lenin. ... Nadezhda Krupskaya Nadezhda K. Krupskaya ( February 26, 1869 - February 27, 1939) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary. ... During Joseph Stalins rule, many places, mostly cities, in the Soviet Union and other communist countries were named or renamed in honor of him as part of the cult of personality. ... The USSR State Prize (Russian:Госуда́рственная пре́мия СССР) was the Soviet Unions highest civilian honour. ... The International Stalin Peace Prize (renamed Международная Ленинская премия «За укрепление мира между народами», the International Lenin Peace Prize as a result of destalinization) was the Soviet Unions answer to the Nobel Peace Prize. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... The National Anthem is the name of a song by the band Radiohead. ...

O great Stalin, O leader of the peoples,
Thou who broughtest man to birth.
Thou who fructifies the earth,
Thou who restorest to centuries,
Thou who makest bloom the spring,
Thou who makest vibrate the musical chords...
Thou, splendour of my spring, O thou,
Sun reflected by millions of hearts.
(A. O. Avdienko)

Policies and accomplishments

Overall, under Stalin's rule the Soviet Union was transformed from an agricultural nation to a global superpower. The USSR's industrialisation was successful in that the country was able to defend against and eventually defeat the Axis invasion in World War II though at an enormous cost of human lives. However, historian Robert Conquest and other Westerners claim that the USSR was bound for industrialisation which was not necessarily enhanced by Bolshevik influence. Several other "what if" speculations do exist, but they are by their very nature unprovable. Dr Robert Conquest Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication in 1968 of his classic account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ...


While Stalin's social and economic policies laid the foundations for the USSR's emergence as a superpower, the harshness in which he conducted Soviet affairs was subsequently repudiated by his successors in the Communist Party leadership, notably the denunciation of Stalinism by Nikita Khrushchev in February 1956. In his "Secret Speech", "On the Personality Cult and its Consequences", delivered to a closed session of the 20th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Khrushchev denounced Stalin for his cult of personality and his regime for "violation of Leninist norms of legality". However, his immediate successors continued to follow the basic principles of Stalin's rule — the political monopoly of the Communist Party presiding over a command economy and a security service able to suppress dissent. On the other hand the large-scale purges were never repeated. 1956 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ... The Secret Speech is the common name of a speech given on February 25, 1956 by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev denouncing the actions of Josef Stalin. ... Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ...


Other names and rumors about ancestry

His first name is also transliterated as Josif. His original surname, ჯუღაშვილი (Jughashvili), is also transliterated as Jugashvili. The Russian transliteration is Джугашвили, which is in turn transliterated into English as Dzhugashvili and Djugashvili. –შვილი (–shvili) is a Georgian suffix meaning "child" or "son". Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one script into another script. ... Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ...


There are several etymologies of the ჯუღა (jugha) root. By one version, it is of Ossetian origin. The name Jugayev is common among Ossetians, and before the revolution the names in South Ossetia were traditionally written with the Georgian suffix, especially among Christianized Ossetians. By a second version, the name derives from the village of Jugaani in Kakhetia, eastern Georgia. An article in the newspaper Pravda in 1988 claimed that the word derives from the Old Georgian for "steel", which might be the reason behind his adoption of the name Stalin. Сталин (Stalin) is derived from combining Russian сталь (stal) "steel" with the possessive suffix –ин (–in), a formula used by numerous other Bolsheviks, including Lenin and Bukharin. Map of Ossetia Ossetia is a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains, inhabited by the Ossetians. ... The Republic of South Ossetia (in Russian Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya, Республика Южная Осетия; in Ossetian Respublikae Xussar Iryston, Республикæ Хуссар Ирыстон) is a de facto independent republic within Georgia. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Steel framework Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin ( Russian: Николай Иванович Бухарин), ( October 9 ( September 27 Old Style) 1888 – March 13, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ...


Also like other Bolsheviks, he became commonly known by one of his revolutionary noms de guerre, of which Stalin was only the most prominent. He was also known as Koba (following a Georgian folk hero, a Robin Hood-like brigand); and he is reported to have used at least a dozen other names for the purpose of secret communications, but for obvious reasons most of them remain unknown. Directly following World War II, as the Soviets were negotiating with the Allies over many matters, Stalin often sent directions to Molotov as Druzhkov. Among his other nicknames and aliases were Ivanovich, Soso or Sosso (mainly his boyhood name), David, Nizharadze or Nijeradze, and Chizhikov. A pseudonym or allonym is a name (sometimes legally adopted, sometimes purely fictitious) used by an individual as an alternative to their birth name. ... Koba was a Georgian folk hero whose legend bears a resemblance to Robin Hood. ... Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ... This article is about the type of character. ... Robin Hood is the archetypal English folk hero, an outlaw who, in modern versions of the legend, stole from the rich to give to the poor. ... The word dozen is another term for the number twelve. ... Secrecy is the condition of hiding information from others. ... Communication is the process of exchanging information usually via a common system of symbols. ... Dead Souls is a novel by the Russian author Nikolai Gogol. ...


There are a number of rumors about Stalin's ancestry, none of which is confirmed.


One of the rumors is that he was the son of his godfather, a wealthy Georgian noble Egnatashvili, whose family were hereditary clerics. Several facts support this case: Stalin's mother worked for Egnatashvili; he attended seminary; it was a prestigious seminary, which was not possible for a child from a poor family; and he kept in contact with Egnatashvili thoughout his life, including the war period. On the other hand, it would not have been unusual for a godfather to help his godson out.


Notes

  1. ^  According to the birth register of the Uspensky church in Gori, Georgia, Stalin was born on December 6, 1878. He himself maintained that he was born on December 21, 1879 (December 9, Old Style), and that was the day his birthday was celebrated in the Soviet Union.
  2. ^  Excerpts from Nikita Khrushchev's speech "On the Personality Cult and its Consequences" can be read online (Internet Modern History Sourcebook) at [7]  (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1956khrushchev-secret1.html).
  3. ^  page 133, Koba the Dread, ISBN 0786868767; page 354, Stalin: The Man and His Era, ISBN 0807070017, In a footnote he quotes the press announcement as speaking of her "sudden death"; he also cites pages 103–5 of his daughter's book, Twenty Letters to a Friend, the Russian edition, New York, 1967
  4. ^  Concerning Marxism in Linguistics (http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1950/jun/20.htm), J.V. Stalin, Pravda, 1950-06-20, available online as Marxism and Problems of Linguistics (http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1950/jun/20.htm) including other articles and letters published (also in Pravda) soon after on 1950-07-04 and 1950-08-02.
  5. ^  Revisionists vs. Anti Soviets (http://www.cyberussr.com/rus/revision.html), Hugo S. Cunningham, 1999 & 2001, retrieved 2005-02-03 from http://www.cyberussr.com/rus/revision.html
  6. ^  Stalin, "Voprosy leninizma", 2nd ed., Moscow, p. 589 "Istoricheskij materializm", ed. by F. B. Konstantinov, Moscow 1951, p. 402; P. Calvert, "The Concept of Class", New York 1982, pp. 144–145

Gori is also a small village in Chad on the banks of the Chari River, near Sarh, where Laal is spoken. ... Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January - April January – Cleopatras Needle arrives in London January 9 - Humbert I becomes King of Italy January 23 – Disraeli orders British fleet to Dardanelles January 28 - The Yale News becomes the first daily, college newspaper in the United States. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1879 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, taking force in 45 BC or 709 ab urbe condita. ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... The Secret Speech is the common name of a speech given on February 25, 1956 by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev denouncing the actions of Josef Stalin. ... Front page of a Pravda issue published during the August 1991 coup. ... Events January January 5 - US Senator Estes Kefauver introduces a resolution calling for examination of organized crime in the USA January 6 - The United Kingdom recognizes the Peoples Republic of China. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... Events January January 5 - US Senator Estes Kefauver introduces a resolution calling for examination of organized crime in the USA January 6 - The United Kingdom recognizes the Peoples Republic of China. ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... Events January January 5 - US Senator Estes Kefauver introduces a resolution calling for examination of organized crime in the USA January 6 - The United Kingdom recognizes the Peoples Republic of China. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

Further reading

Related topics

The Russian Revolution For details see the main article Russian Revolution. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... The 1936 Soviet constitution, adopted on December 5, 1936, and also known as the Stalin constitution, redesigned the government. ... Svetlana Alliluyeva (born February 28, 1926), née Svetlana Josifovna Stalina, is a writer and the youngest child and only daughter of Joseph Stalin. ... Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1901 - November 9, 1932) was the second wife of Joseph Stalin. ... The International Stalin Peace Prize (renamed Международная Ленинская премия «За укрепление мира между народами», the International Lenin Peace Prize as a result of destalinization) was the Soviet Unions answer to the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Animal Farm book cover Animal Farm is a satirical novel (which can also be understood as a modern fable or allegory) by George Orwell, ostensibly about a group of animals who oust the humans from the farm they live on and endeavour to run it themselves, only to have it... George Orwell George Orwell was the pen name of British author Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903–21 January 1950). ... Pharaoh (Polish: Faraon) is the fourth and last of the major novels by Bolesław Prus. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:


File links The following pages link to this file: Abraham Lincoln Aristotle Ayn Rand Adolf Hitler Al Gore Animal Farm Aldous Huxley Arthur Koestler Arthur Schopenhauer Animal Albert Einstein Art Abortion Apocalypse Now Alfred Hitchcock Alexander Graham Bell Andy Warhol Afrika Bambaataa Arthur C. Clarke Atheism Arthur Conan Doyle A... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Abu Dhabi Abraham Lincoln Australia Adolf Hitler Animation Andorra Alaska Anatomy Asia Albert Einstein Asterales Automobile Aircraft Alexander Graham Bell Apple Computer American Civil War Ancient Egypt Asteraceae Alps Arches National Park Aarhus Almond Caesar Augustus Acacia Acropolis Acupuncture Amaranth Alexander... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Ludo Martens (born c. ... The Progressive Labor Party (originally the Progressive Labor Movement) is a minor communist political party in the United States. ...

Preceded by:
Vladimir Lenin
General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party
19221953
Succeeded by:
Georgy Malenkov
Preceded by:
Vyacheslav Molotov
Premier of the Soviet Union
1941–1953


Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... An approximately chronological listing of Soviet leaders (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union). ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Georgy Malenkov Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov (Гео́ргий Максимилиа́нович Маленко́в) (GHYOR-ghee mah-leen-KOF) (January 13 [January 8, Old Style], 1902 - January 14, 1988) was a Soviet politician and Communist Party leader, and a close collaborator of Joseph Stalin. ... Vyacheslav Molotov Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov (Russian: Вячесла́в Миха́йлович Мо́лотов) (vyah-cheh-SLAHF mih-KHY-lo-vihch MOL-uh-tawf) (February 25, 1890 (O.S.) (March 9, 1890 (N.S.))–November 8, 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat. ... Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР) (1946-1991), who...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Glossary of Terms: St (9078 words)
First and foremost, Stalinism must be understood as the politics of a political stratum.
Specifically, Stalinism is the politics of the bureaucracy that hovers over a workers' state.
The political tenets of Stalinism revolve around the theory of socialism in one country–developed by Stalin to counter the Bolshevik theory that the survival of the Russian Revolution depended on proletarian revolutions in Europe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m