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Encyclopedia > Stained glass
A large Perpendicular style Gothic window of eight lights in Canterbury Cathedral, c. 1400, which contains medieval glass.
A large Perpendicular style Gothic window of eight lights in Canterbury Cathedral, c. 1400, which contains medieval glass.

The term stained glass refers either to the material of coloured glass or to the art and craft of working with it. Throughout its thousand-year history the term "stained glass" was applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches, cathedrals and other significant buildings. Although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern stained glass artists also include three-dimensional structures and sculpture. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2396x3546, 1725 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stained glass ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2396x3546, 1725 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stained glass ... Winchester Cathedral Sherborne Abbey The Perpendicular Gothic period (or simply Perpendicular) is the third historical division of English Gothic architecture, and is so-called because it is characterised by an emphasis on vertical lines; it is also known as the Rectilinear style, or Late Gothic. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... This article is about the material. ...


Modern vernacular usage has often extended the term "stained glass" to include domestic leadlight and objets d'art created from lead came and copper foil glasswork such as exemplified in the famous lamps of Louis Comfort Tiffany. Leadlight is the term used for decorative windows made of small sections of glass supported in lead cames. ... In the English language the term Art object may also be encountered in its French form Objet DArt. ... This article is on the techniques of lead came and copper foil glasswork. ... Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) circa 1908 Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass and is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau and...


As a material the term stained glass generally refers to glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which small pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures, held together (traditionally) by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the design. The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which all the colours have been painted onto the glass and then annealed in a furnace.


Stained glass, as an art and a craft, requires the artistic skill to conceive the design, and the engineering skills necessary to assemble the decorative piece, traditionally a window, so that it will fit snugly into the window frame for which is is made and also, especially in the larger windows, is capable of supporting its own weight and surviving the elements. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained substantially intact since the late Middle Ages. In Western Europe they constitute the major form of pictorial art to have survived. In this context, the purpose of a stained glass window is not to allow those within a building to see the world outside or even primarily to admit light but rather to control it. For this reason stained glass windows have been described as 'illuminated wall decorations'. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Craft (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The design of a religious window may be non-figurative or figurative. It may incorporate narratives drawn from the Bible, history or literature, or represent saints or patrons. It may have symbolic motifs, in particular armorial. Windows within a building may be thematic, for example: within a church - episodes from the life of Christ; within a parliament building - shields of the constituencies; within a college hall - figures representing the arts and sciences; or within a home - graphic and stylistic images.

Contents

Manufacture

Glass production

From the 10th or 11th century, when stained glass began to flourish as an art, glass factories were set up where there was a ready supply of silica, the essential product of glass manufacture. Glass was usually coloured by adding metallic oxides to the glass while in a molten state in a clay pot over a furnace. Glass coloured in this way was known as pot metal. Copper oxides were added to produce green, cobalt for blue, and gold was added to produce a red glass, though green and blue are made similar today, other more modern ingredients are used for red, gold is used for a more pinkish red than in the past.


Cylinder glass This glass is collected from the pot into a molten ball and blown, being continually manipulated until it formed a large cylindrical bottle shape of even diameter and wall-thickness. It was then cut open, laid flat and annealed to make it stable. This is the type of glass most commonly used for ancient stained glass windows. Annealing, in glassblowing and lampworking, is the process of heating, and then slowly cooling glass to increase softness (ductility) and durability. ...


Crown glass This glass is partly blown into a hollow vessel, then put onto a revolving table which could be rapidly spun like a potter's wheel. The centrifugal force caused the molten material to flattened and spread outwards. It could then be cut into small sheets. This glass could be made colored and used for stained glass windows, but is typically associated with small paned windows of 16th and 17th century houses. The concentric, curving ripples are characteristic of this process. The center of each piece of glass received less force during the spinning, and thus produced was a thicker piece. These centers were, and still are used for the special effect created by their lumpy, refractive quality. They are known as bull's eye and are feature of late 19th century domestic lead windows and are sometimes used with cathedral glass or quarry glass in church windows of that date. In Portuguese: Olhos de boi This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Cathedral glass is monochromatic sheet glass, which may be textured on one side. ...


Table glass This glass is produced by pouring molten glass onto a metal table and frequently rolling it with a large metal cylinder, which imprinted whatever pattern was inscribed on it, onto/into the glass. The glass thus produced is heavily textured by the reaction of the glass with the cold metal. Glass of this appearance is commercially produced and widely used today, under the name of cathedral glass, although it was not the type of glass favoured for stained glass in ancient cathedrals. It has been much used for lead lighting in churches in the 20th century. Cathedral glass is monochromatic sheet glass, which may be textured on one side. ...


Flashed glass Red pot metal glass was often undesirably dark in colour and prohibitively expensive. The method developed to produce red glass was called flashing. In this procedure, a semi-molten cylinder of clear glass was dipped into a pot of red glass so that the red glass formed a thin coating. The laminated glass thus formed was cut, flattened and heat annealed.


There are a number of advantages to this technique. It allows a variety in the depth of red (and many other colors today), ranging from very dark and almost opaque, through ruby red to pale and sometimes streaky red that was often used for thin border pieces. The other advantage was that the red of double-layered glass could be engraved or abraded to allow light to shine through the clear glass underneath. In the late Medieval period, this method was often employed to add rich patterns to the robes of Saints. The other advantage, much exploited by late Victorian and early 20th century artists, was that sheets could be flashed in which the depth of colour varied across the sheet. Some stained glass studios, notably Lavers and Barraud in England, made extensive use of large segments of irregularly flashed glass in robes and draperies.


There are still a number of glass factories, notably in the countries of Germany, USA, England, France, Poland and Russia which continue to produce high quality glass by traditional methods. These are produced primarily for the restoration of older windows from 1920s and before. Modern stained glass windows often use a variety of these different types of glass and especially for Victorian and Arts & Craft and Mission styles, cathedral glass which was the glass of choice. Victorian can refer to: people from or attributes of places called Victoria (disambiguation page), including Victoria, Australia, people who lived during the British Victorian era of the 19th century, and aspects of the Victorian era, for example: Victorian architecture Victorian fashion Victorian morality Victorian literature This is a disambiguation page... Look up mission in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cathedral glass is monochromatic sheet glass, which may be textured on one side. ...


Creating stained glass windows

  • The first stage in the production of a window is to make, or acquire from the architect or owners of the building, an accurate template of the window opening that the glass was to fit.
  • The subject matter of the window is determined to suit the location, a particular theme, or the whim of the patron. A small design called a Vidimus is prepared which can be shown to the patron.
  • A traditional narrative window has panels which relate a story. A figurative window could have rows of saints or dignitories. Scriptural texts or mottoes are sometimes included and perhaps the names of the patrons or the person as whose memorial the window is dedicated. In a window of a traditional type, it is usually at the discretion of the designer to fill the surrounding areas with borders, floral motifs and canopies.
  • A full sized cartoon is drawn for every "light" (opening) of the window. A small church window might typically be of two lights, with some simple tracery lights above. A large window might have four or five lights. The east or west window of a large cathedral might have seven lights in three tiers with elaborate tracery. In Medieval times the cartoon was drawn straight onto a whitewashed table, which was then used for cutting, painting and assembling the window.
  • The designer must take into account the design, the structure of the window, the nature and size of the glass available and his own preferred technique. The cartoon is then be divided into a patchwork as a template for each small glass piece. The exact position of the lead which holds the glass in place is part of the calculated visual effect.
  • Each piece of glass is selected for the desired colour and cut to match a section of the template. An exact fit is ensured by grozing the edges with a tool which can nibble off small pieces.
  • Details of faces, hair and hands can be painted onto the inner surface of the glass in a special glass paint which contains finely ground lead or copper filings, ground glass, gum arabic and a medium such as wine, vinegar or (traditionally) urine. The art of painting details became increasingly elaborate and reached its height in the early 20th century.
  • Once the window is cut and painted, the pieces are assembled by slotting them into H-sectioned lead cames. The joints are then all soldered together and the glass pieces are stopped from rattling and the window made weatherproof by forcing a soft oily cement or mastic between the glass and the cames.
  • Traditionally, when the windows were inserted into the window spaces, iron rods were put across at various points, to support the weight of the window, which was tied to the rods by copper wire. Some very large early Gothic windows are divided into sections by heavy metal frames called ferramenta. This method of support was also favoured for large, usually painted, windows of the Baroque period.
  • From 1300 onwards, artists started using silver stain which was made with silver nitrate. It gave a yellow effect ranging from pale lemon to deep orange. It was usually painted onto the outside of a piece of glass, then fired to make it permanent. This yellow was particularly useful for enhancing borders, canopies and haloes, and turning blue glass into green glass for green grass.
  • By about 1450 a stain known as Cousin's rose was used to enhance flesh tones.
  • In the 1500s a range of glass stains were introduced, most of them coloured by ground glass particles. They were a form of enamel. Painting on glass with these stains was initially used for small heraldic designs and other details. By the 1600s a style of stained glass had evolved that was no longer dependent upon the skilful cutting of coloured glass into sections. Scenes were painted onto glass panels of square format, like tiles. The colours were annealed to the glass and the pieces were assembled into metal frames.

This article is on the techniques of lead came and copper foil glasswork. ...

Technical details

History

Origins

Coloured glass has been produced since ancient times. Both the Egyptians and the Romans excelled at the manufacture of small coloured glass objects. The British Museum holds two of the finest Roman pieces, the Lycurgus Cup, which is a murky mustard colour but glows purple-red to transmitted light, and the Portland vase which is midnight blue, with a carved white overlay. The British Museum in London, England is a museum of human history and culture. ... In Ancient Greece and/or Greek mythology, the name Lycurgus/Lykurgus can refer to: An alternate name for Lycomedes. ...


In Early Christian churches of the 4th and 5th centuries there are many remaining windows which are filled with ornate patterns of thinly-sliced alabaster set into wooden frames, giving a stained-glass like effect. Similar effects were achieved with greater elaboration using coloured glass rather than stone by Muslim architects in Southwest Asia. In the 8th century, the Arab chemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) scientifically described 46 original recipes for producing coloured glass in Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl), in addition to which 12 recipes were inserted by al-Marrakishi in a later edition of the book. Jabir also described the production of high quality coloured glass cut into artificial gemstones.[1] The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ...

Medieval glass

Main article: Poor Man's Bible

Stained glass, as an art form, reached its height in the Middle Ages when it became a major pictorial form and was used to illustrate the narratives of the Bible to a largely illiterate populace. The term Poor Mans Bible has come into use in modern times to describe works of art within churches and cathedrals which either individually or collectively have been created to illustrate the teachings of the Bible for a largely illiterate population. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


In the Romanesque and Early Gothic period, from about 950 CE to 1240 CE, the untraceried windows demanded large expanses of glass which of necessity were supported by robust iron frames, such as may be seen at Chartres Cathedral and at the eastern end of Canterbury Cathedral. As Gothic architecture developed into a more ornate form, windows grew larger, affording greater illumination to the interiors, but were divided into sections by vertical shafts and tracery of stone. The elaboration of form reached its height of complexity in the Flamboyant style in Europe and windows grew still larger with the development of the Perpendicular style in England. South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady in Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre_Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles from Paris, is considered the finest example in all France of the high Gothic style of architecture. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Winchester Cathedral Sherborne Abbey The Perpendicular Gothic period (or simply Perpendicular) is the third historical division of English Gothic architecture, and is so-called because it is characterised by an emphasis on vertical lines; it is also known as the Rectilinear style, or Late Gothic. ...


Integrated with the lofty verticals of Gothic cathedrals and parish churches, the glass designs became more daring. The circular form, or rose window developed in France from relatively simple windows with pierced openings through slabs of thin stone to wheel windows, as exemplified by that in the West front of Chartres Cathedral, and ultimately to designs of enormous complexity, the tracery being drafted from hundreds of different points, such as those at Sainte-Chapelle, Paris and the "Bishop's Eye" at Lincoln Cathedral. The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ... The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady in Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre_Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles from Paris, is considered the finest example in all France of the high Gothic style of architecture. ... La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ...

Destruction and continuation

At the Reformation, in England large numbers of these windows were smashed and replaced with plain glass. The Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII and the injunctions of Oliver Cromwell against 'abused images' (the object of veneration) resulted in the loss of thousands of windows. Few remain undamaged; of them the windows in the private chapel at Hengrave Hall in Suffolk are among the finest. With the latter wave of destruction the traditional methods of working with stained glass died and were not to be rediscovered in England until the early 19th century. For more details The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... Hengrave Hall is a Tudor manor house near Bury St. ... In early 19th century Britain, beginning with an armorial window created by Willement in 1811, there was a revival of the art and craft of stained glass window manufacture. ...


In Europe, however, stained glass continued to be produced in the Classical style which is widely represented in Germany, Belgium and Holland, despite the rise of Protestantism. In France much glass of this period was produced at the Limoges factory, and at Murano in Italy, where stained glass and faceted lead crystal are often coupled together in the same window. Ultimately, in France the French Revolution brought about the neglect or destruction of many windows. This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... This article is about the French commune. ... A shop with boats, Murano Murano is usually described as an island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an archipelago of islands linked by bridges. ... Lead crystal beads Lead crystal, (also called crystal), is lead glass that has been hand or machine cut with facets. ...

Revival

Main article: Stained glass - British glass, 1811-1918

The Catholic revival in England, gaining force in the early 19th century, with its renewed interest in the mediaeval church brought a revival of church building in the Gothic style, claimed by John Ruskin to be "the true Catholic style". The architectural movement was led by Augustus Welby Pugin. Many new churches were planted in large towns and many old churches were restored. This brought about a great demand for the revival of the art of stained glass window making. In early 19th century Britain, beginning with an armorial window created by Willement in 1811, there was a revival of the art and craft of stained glass window manufacture. ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (March 1, 1812–September 14, 1852) was an English-born architect, designer and theorist of design now best remembered for his work on churches and on the Houses of Parliament. ...


Hardman of Birmingham


Because of the technical requirements, stained glass making was generally on an industrial scale. Firms such as Hardman & Co. of Birmingham and Clayton and Bell of London employed artists who were never known outside their particular trade but who filled English churches with their glass. Initially most of Hardman's designs were by A.W.N. Pugin and were installed in buildings of which he was the architect, but on his death in 1852, his nephew John Hardman Powell (1828-1895) took over. A keen Catholic, Powell's work appealed to Anglo-Catholic tastes but he also had a commercial eye and exhibited his works at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1873. After that the firm did a good deal of work in the United States of America. Hardman & Co. ... Clayton and Bell commenced business in 1855 and soon became one of Englands most successful producers of stained glass windows. ... Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (March 1, 1812–September 14, 1852) was an English-born architect, designer and theorist of design now best remembered for his work on churches and on the Houses of Parliament. ... The Cambridge Camden Society, known also as the Ecclesiological Society, was a learned architectural society founded in 1839 by undergraduates at Cambridge University to promote the study of Gothic Architecture, and of Ecclesiastical Antiques. ...


Famous manufacturers of the mid-19th century

William Morris


Among the foremost designers were the Pre-Raphaelites, William Morris (1834-1898) and Edward Burne-Jones (1833-1898). While Burne-Jones was best known as a painter, William Morris's studios created designs for architectural and interior decorating of many sorts including paintings, furniture, tiles and textiles. As part of Morris's enterprise, he set up his own glass works, producing glass to his own and Burne-Jones designs. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ... Love Among the Ruins, by Edward Burne-Jones. ...


Clayton and Bell, and Kempe


Clayton and Bell's output was considerable and it was said that most English churches had one of their windows and many had nothing else. Among their designers was Charles Eamer Kempe (1837–1907) who set up his own workshop in 1869. His designs were lighter than that of his former employers: it was he who designed all the windows for the chapel of Selwyn College, Cambridge. He is credited with having produced over 3,000 windows. His cousin Walter Tower took over the business — adding a Tower to the Wheatsheaf emblem used by Kempe — and which continued until 1934. Clayton and Bell commenced business in 1855 and soon became one of Englands most successful producers of stained glass windows. ... Charles Eamer Kempe (1837 - 1907) was a well-known Victorian stained glass designer. ... Selwyn College may refer to the following Selwyn College, Cambridge, England Selwyn College, Otago, New Zealand This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Gallery of 19th and early 20th century windows, displaying four very different styles.

Ward and Hughes, William Wailes


Another important firm was Ward and Hughes which, though it had begun by following the Gothic style changed direction in the 1870s towards a style influenced by the Aesthetic Movement. The firm remained operational until the late 1920s. Yet another was William Wailes (1808-1881) whose firm produced the West window of Gloucester cathedral. Wailes himself was a business man, not a designer but used designers such as Joseph Baguley (1834-1915) who eventually set up his own firm. Ward and Hughes was the name of an English company producing stained glass windows. ... The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth century Britain. ... Rose window from a church designed by Sir Gilbert Scott William Wailes, (1808-1881), was the proprietor of one of England’s largest and most prolific stained glass workshops. ...


Tiffany and La Farge


Notable American practitioners include John La Farge (1835-1910) who invented opalescent glass and for which he received a US patent February 24, 1880, and Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933), who received several patents for variations of the same opalescent process in November of the same year and is believed to have invented the copper foil method as an alternative to lead, and used it extensively in windows, lamps and other decorations. John LaFarge (March 31, 1835–November 14, 1910) was a painter,stained glass window maker, decorator, and writer. ... Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) circa 1908 Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass and is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau and...

Twentieth century

Many the 19th century firms failed in the twentieth century. The Gothic movement had been superseded by newer styles. A revival occurred because of the desire to restore the thousands of church windows throughout Europe, destroyed as a result of bombing during the World War II. German artists led the way. Notable artists include Ervin Bossanyi, Ludwig Schaffrath, Johannes Shreiter, Douglas Strachan, Judith Schaechter and many others who transformed an ancient art form into a contemporary art form. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ervin Bossanyi (born 3 March 1891 in southern Hungary, died 11 July 1975 in East Cote near London in England) was a Hungarian artist, who worked mainly in northern Germany until his emigration in 1934. ... Dr Douglas Strachan (1875-1950). ... Judith Schaechter is known for her work in the medium of stained glass. ...


Thus while there is a deal of often mundane representational work, much of which is not made by its designers but industrially produced, there have been notable examples of symbolic work of which the west windows of Manchester cathedral in England by Tony Hollaway are some of the finest. This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ...


In France one may retain the work of Jean René Bazaine at Saint Séverin and the Loire Studio of Gabriel Loire at Chartres. Stained glass window by Bazaine in the church of Saint-Séverin Jean René Bazaine (21st December, 1904 - 4th March 2001) was a French painter, designer of stained glass windows, and writer. ... Pillar in the shape of a palm tree in St Séverin church The Church of Saint-Séverin (Eglise Saint-Séverin) is a small church in the Latin Quarter of Paris, located on the lively tourist street Rue St-Séverin. ... Joan of Arc by Gabriel Loire (1951), Church of St. ... Chartres is a town and commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Eure-et-Loir département. ...


Today there are a few academic establishments that teach the traditional skills. One of those establishments is Florida State University's Master Craftsman Program who recently completed the world's largest secular stained-glass windows installed in Bobby Bowden Field at Doak Campbell Stadium. More info at Master Craftsman Program Bobby Bowden Field at Doak Campbell Stadium is the football stadium on the campus of the Florida State University in Tallahassee, Florida. ...

Buildings incorporating stained glass windows

Churches and Cathedrals


Stained glass windows were commonly used in churches for decorative and informative purposes. Many windows are donated to churches by members of the congregation as memorials of loved ones. For more information on the use of stained glass to depict religious subjects, see Poor Man's Bible The term Poor Mans Bible has come into use in modern times to describe works of art within churches and cathedrals which either individually or collectively have been created to illustrate the teachings of the Bible for a largely illiterate population. ...

Houses For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Cologne Cathedral, Germany, bearing the tallest paired spires in the world. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles (80 km) from Paris, is considered one of the finest examples in all France of the Gothic style of architecture. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... York Minster is the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe and is situated in the city of York in Northern England. ... La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... View of the façade with Giottos Bell Tower. ... St Andrews Cathedral, Sydney is the cathedral church of the Anglican diocese of Sydney, and the seat of the Anglican Archbishop of Sydney and Metropolitan of NSW, The Most Rev Dr Peter Jensen. ... The roofless ruins of the old cathedral. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church, c1875 Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church of Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., also known as Brown Memorial Park Avenue Presbyterian Church, is a large, Gothic Revival-style Presbyterian church located at Park and Lafayette Avenues in the citys Bolton Hill section. ... Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) circa 1908 Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass and is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau and...


Stained glass windows in houses were particularly popular in Victorian era and many domestic examples survive. In their simplest form they typically depict birds and flowers in small panels, often surrounded with machine-made cathedral glass, which, despite what the name suggests, is pale-coloured and textured. Some large homes have splendid examples of secular pictorial glass. For other uses, see House (disambiguation). ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Cathedral glass is monochromatic sheet glass, which may be textured on one side. ...

Public and commercial use of stained glass This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Beveled glass is usually made by taking one-quarter inch-thick clear glass and creating a one-inch bevel on one side around the entire periphery. ... Cathedral glass is monochromatic sheet glass, which may be textured on one side. ... It has been suggested that Prairie Houses be merged into this article or section. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ... A typical copper-foil Tiffany lamp, with a dragonfly design Lead-came and Copper-foil glasswork are the arts and crafts of cutting colored glass and joining the pieces into picturesque designs. ... An example of a (reproduction) Tiffany lamp A Tiffany lamp is a type of lamp with a stained glass shade. ...


Town halls, schools, colleges and other public buildings often incorporate stained glass or leadlighting.

  • Public houses — In Britain, traditional pubs make extensive use of stained glass and leaded lights to create a comfortable atmosphere and retain privacy.
  • Sculpture

Pub redirects here. ... Sculptor redirects here. ...

Gallery of windows

Details

References

  • Elizabeth Morris, Stained and Decorative Glass, Doubleday, ISBN 0-86824-324-8
  • Sarah Brown, Stained Glass- an Illustrated History, Bracken Books, ISBN 1-85891-157-5

See also

This small panel by G. Owen Bonawit in the Sterling Memorial Library at Yale University, c.1930, demonstrates effective use of glass painting and silver stain.
This small panel by G. Owen Bonawit in the Sterling Memorial Library at Yale University, c.1930, demonstrates effective use of glass painting and silver stain.
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Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (750 × 1000 pixel, file size: 426 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Stained glass by G. Owen Bonawit in Sterling Memorial Library at Yale University. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (750 × 1000 pixel, file size: 426 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Stained glass by G. Owen Bonawit in Sterling Memorial Library at Yale University. ... G. Owen Bonawit is an artist whose studio created thousands of pieces of stained glass in the early 1900s at Yale University, Duke University, Northwestern University, and others. ... Sterling Memorial Library Sterling Memorial Library is the largest library at Yale University, containing over 4 million volumes in over 15 floors. ... Yale redirects here. ... In early 19th century Britain, beginning with an armorial window created by Willement in 1811, there was a revival of the art and craft of stained glass window manufacture. ... Subcategories There is 1 subcategory to this category. ... Architectural glass has been used in buildings since the 11th century. ... Small wooden sculpture depicting a Native American mother holding her child. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Beveled glass is usually made by taking one-quarter inch-thick clear glass and creating a one-inch bevel on one side around the entire periphery. ... Cathedral glass is monochromatic sheet glass, which may be textured on one side. ... Float glass is made by melting raw materilas consisting of sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake. ... Sculpting hot blown glass. ... Lampwork glass beads. ... This article is on the techniques of lead came and copper foil glasswork. ... Leadlight is the term used for decorative windows made of small sections of glass supported in lead cames. ... Girl with Cherry Blossoms illustrates many types of glass employed by Tiffany including elaborate polychrome painting of the face, drapery glass for the dress, opalescent glass for the blossoms, streaky glass in the border, fracture-streamer glass in the background and what may be iridescent glass in the beads. ... In early 19th century Britain, beginning with an armorial window created by Willement in 1811, there was a revival of the art and craft of stained glass window manufacture. ... Cologne Cathedral, Germany, bearing the tallest paired spires in the world. ... The term Poor Mans Bible has come into use in modern times to describe works of art within churches and cathedrals which either individually or collectively have been created to illustrate the teachings of the Bible for a largely illiterate population. ... Venetian glass is a type of glass object made in Venice, Italy, world-renowned for being colorful, elaborate, and skilfully made. ... The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ... The Savior Not Made By Hands (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek εικων, eikon, image) is an artistic visual representation or symbol of anything considered holy and divine, such as God, saints or deities. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... Paint by number (or painting by numbers) are kits, popularized in the 1950s, by Max Klein and the Palmer Paint Company, among others. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

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Stained glass

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
History of Stained Glass (1206 words)
Gothic stained glass windows are a complex mosaic of bits of colored glass joined with lead into an intricate pattern illustrating biblical stories and saints lives.
Stained glass artists became glass painters as the form became closer and closer to panel painting.
The rise of the individual artist, new technologies and the growing interest in stained glass as a hobby craft have all lead to what is being called A a new golden age in glass.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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