FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Stage lighting instruments

Lighting instruments are used in stage lighting to illuminate theatrical productions, rock concerts and other performances taking place in a large auditorium or staduim. They are also used to light television studios and sound stages. They can be broadly separated into two categories: floodlights, which illuminate a wide area, and spotlights, which produce a narrower, more controllable light beam. The terminology below is representative of professional stage lighting craft in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States. Classical Spectacular used ordinary stage lighting plus special laser effects In the 2005 Classical Spectacular performance, a state of the art lighting system designed by Durham Marenghi was used to accompany the music Starry lighting such as is shown on the RHS of this photo are much more interesting than... It has been suggested that Drama (art form) be merged into this article or section. ... A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... An auditorium is the area within a theatre, concert hall or other performance space where the audience is located in order to hear and watch the performance. ... The Olympia Stadium: start and finish lines visible, defining the length of one stadium (in this case 192. ... A television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place, either for live television, for recording live on tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for postproduction. ... A sound stage is a hangar-like structure, building or room, that is soundproof for the production of theatrical motion pictures and television, usually inside a movie studio. ... The items in the Metroid series are the driving force behind its gameplay. ...

Contents


Floodlights

PAR lights

Par 64
Enlarge
Par 64

Parabolic Aluminized Reflector lights, or PAR lights, are used when a substantial amount of flat lighting is required for a scene. PAR lights resemble a car headlight, in that they possess a lens, that is an integral part of the lamp, whose position relative to the filament cannot be altered. They are frequently used in rock and roll shows, especially in combination with smoke or haze machines which make the path of the beam visible. They are also used as top lights in the theatre and for special effects. A Parabolic Aluminized Reflector light, or PAR light, is a type of light commonly used in motion picture production when a substantial amount of light is required for a scene. ... A SAAB headlight with combination projector/reflector optics A headlight or headlamp is a lamp, usually attached to the front of a vehicle such as a car, with the purpose of illuminating the road ahead during periods of low visibility, such as night or precipitation. ... A lens. ... Lamp can be: A portable light fixture such as a table lamp or reading lamp (common usage) Lamp (electrical component), a replacable component that produces light, such as: Incandescent light bulb, also known as an incandescent lamp Fluorescent lamp Gas discharge lamp Arc lamp Signal lamp, a device used for... Filaments surrounding a solar flare, caused by the interaction of the plasma in the Suns atmopshere with its magnetic field. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Fog Machine A fog machine is a device, used primarily in theatrical environments, which converts a water and glycol-based or glycerine-based fluid into a dense smoke-like vapor. ... The items in the Metroid series are the driving force behind its gameplay. ...


The lamp produces an intense oval pool of light with fixed focus and soft edges. The only adjustment is a knob that allows the lamp/lens unit to be rotated within its casing, thus changing the orientation of the oval. This characteristic of traditional PARs is falling into disuse with modern PARs favoring a PC based lens, which is able to produce a more controllable circular pool of light. An oval or ovoid was originally an egg shape (from Latin OVVM); it is now usually used to refer to ellipses, but can also mean any similar shape, such as egg shapes or race-course shapes (a semicircle on either side of a quadrilateral). ...


Strip lights

Cyc or strip lights
Enlarge
Cyc or strip lights
Scoop light
Enlarge
Scoop light

Strip lights, also known as cyclorama (Cyc) lights, battens or by the brand name codas, are long housings typically containing multiple lamps arranged along the length of the instrument and emitting light perpendicular to its length. Lamps are often covered with individual gels of multiple colors (often Red, Green, and Blue, which allow almost any colour to be "dialed up") with each color controlled by a separate electrical circuit. Many striplights use round pieces of glass (called roundels) rather than plastic gels for color. Varying the intensity of the different colors enables the lighting designer to establish mood or time of day. A striplight lighting fixture is a long row of small connected lights, used to have multiple colors of light coming from roughly the same direction. ... A Color Gel, Color Filter, or simply Gel is a translucent or transparent coloured material that is used in theatre to colour light. ... Mood may refer to: chese Grammatical mood Emotional mood This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


See also: Cyclorama (theater) A cyclorama is a large curtain or wall, often concave, positioned at the back of the stage area. ...


Scoop lights

Scoop lights or scoops are circular fixtures that do not have any lenses. They have a reflector at the back of the fixture that directs the light out of the fixture. Since they do not have any sort of lens system they are cheaper than other fixtures. However, the downside of this is that the light cannot be focused at all (even PARs allow more control than scoops). They are also called ERFs (Ellipsoidal Reflector Floodlights). Scoops are most often used to flood the stage with light from above. They are most often used as toplight hung above the stage. A large, simple lighting fixture with a dome-like reflector. ...

House lights
Enlarge
House lights
Work lights
Enlarge
Work lights

House lights and work lights

House lights are incandescent or fluorescent floodlights. House lights provide light for the audience before and after performances and during intermissions. Work lights provide general lighting backstage, or in the house. House lights are often controlled by dimmers, but are sometimes on simple switches. Work lights are almost always switched only. House and work lights are usually off during performances but are occasionally included in the lighting design to establish focus or emphasize plot elements. An audience is a group of people who participate in and experience or encounter a work of art, literature, theatre, music or academics in any medium. ... An intermission is a break between two performances or sessions, as in events such as a theatrical play, opera or musical concert. ... FOH is an acronym for Front Of House. ...


Spotlights

A spotlight is general term for any luminaire or lantern used in theatre to create a pool of light on the stage. There are many different types of spotlight which break down into three general areas: Stone lantern A lantern is a portable lighting device used to illuminate broad areas. ... It has been suggested that Drama (art form) be merged into this article or section. ... Interior of the 1928 B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre, Boston, Massachusetts. ...

  • Fresnel lantern or PC spotlights which are small fixtures giving a soft-edged spot or pool of light.
  • "Profile spotlights" which tend to be longer fixtures containing convex lenses and having a gate at their focal point which enables the insertion of gobos or irises to shape the beam of light. They give a hard edged beam most often associated in the public mind with 'spotlights'. Large versions are operated by a technician as a 'followspot' to pick out performers on the stage.
  • "PAR" or '"beamlight" spotlights which throw a soft edged pool of light onto the Stage that is generally fixed and not as versatile, but can create a bright 'punch' of light to an area over a larger distance.

Fresnel A Fresnel lantern (or merely Fresnel) is a spotlight used in theatre, which employs a Fresnel lens to wash light over an area of the stage. ... Projected light shines through a Gobo and onto a screen for decorative, informational or dramatic effect. ... Followspot is a generic term used to describe any number of lighting instruments used to highlight performers on stage. ... Classical Spectacular used ordinary stage lighting plus special laser effects In the 2005 Classical Spectacular performance, a state of the art lighting system designed by Durham Marenghi was used to accompany the music Starry lighting such as is shown on the RHS of this photo are much more interesting than...

Fresnel lantern

Fresnel
Enlarge
Fresnel

A Fresnel lantern, or simply Fresnel, employs a Fresnel lens to wash light over an area of the stage. The distinctive lens has a 'stepped' appearance instead of the 'full' or 'smooth' appearance of those used in other lanterns. The resulting beam of light is wide and soft-edged, creating soft shadows, and is commonly used for back light and side light. Fresnel A Fresnel lantern (or merely Fresnel) is a spotlight used in theatre, which employs a Fresnel lens to wash light over an area of the stage. ... Fresnel Lens displayed in a Paris museum A Fresnel lens is a type of lens invented by Augustin-Jean Fresnel. ... Shadows on a pavement A shadow is a region of darkness where light is blocked. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Fresnels use a spherical reflector, with the lamp at the focus. The lamp and reflector remain a fixed unit inside the housing, and are moved back and forth to focus the light. This is done by a slider on the bottom of the lantern, or by a worm track. At very tight focus, the lanterns are the least efficient, as the least light can escape the housing. Therefore fresnels are not good for tight focus on small areas. They are most often used at medium distances from the stage for area lighting. Lamp can be: A portable light fixture such as a table lamp or reading lamp (common usage) Lamp (electrical component), a replacable component that produces light, such as: Incandescent light bulb, also known as an incandescent lamp Fluorescent lamp Gas discharge lamp Arc lamp Signal lamp, a device used for... The focus or image point is the point where light rays, originating from a point in the object, converge [1]. The principal focus or focal point of a lens or parabolic mirror is the point onto which collimated light parallel to the axis is focused. ... Interior of the 1928 B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre, Boston, Massachusetts. ...


ERS

Source Four ERS
Source Four ERS

The Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight or ERS is the most abundant and important instrument type currently in use. The flexibility of the ERS allows it to fulfill the bulk of lighting roles in the theatre, from broad area lighting to tight specials; from long throws from the back of the auditorium to shin kickers on the stage. They are sometimes known by their brand names, especially the Source Four (a popular lantern from ETC) and the Leko (short for Lekolite, from Strand lighting). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 428 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 428 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Source Four ERS Ellipsoidal, or Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight (abbreviated to ERS), is the name for a type of theatrical light, getting the name from the ellipsoidal reflector used to intensify the light of a back-loading lamp through the barrel and lens. ... An auditorium is the area within a theatre, concert hall or other performance space where the audience is located in order to hear and watch the performance. ... Electronic Theatre Controls (ETC) is a theatrical lighting, dimming, and control company based in Middleton, Wisconsin. ... A type of ERS (Elipsoidal Reflector Spot) designed by Strand Lighting, and widely used in theatre and entertainment venue environments during the 80s and 90s. ...


In the UK and Australia, the term ERS is not often used. Instead, an ERS is merely considered a very good profile, or known by its brand name. This article is about brands in marketing. ...


Follow spot

Followspot
Enlarge
Followspot

The follow spot is a lighting instrument that is moved, by an operator or by DMX control, to emphasize or provide extra illumination and usually to 'follow' a specific performer, especially when he or she is moving around the stage. When most people use the term "spotlight" they are referring to the follow spot. Follow spots are commonly used in musical theatre and opera to highlight the stars of a performance, but might find use in a drama to briefly focus the audience's attenion on a hand-motion or a prop; such as in a murder mystery or thriller. They are also used in sports venues, as well as many other applications. DMX512, often shortened to DMX (Digital MultipleX), is a communications protocol used mainly to control stage lighting. ...


These lighting instruments come in a variety of sizes with light sources ranging from low power incandescent light bulbs to very powerful xenon arc lamps. Carbon arc lamp spots were common until the 1990s, using the arc between carbon rods as their light source. These follow spots required special installations that include high volume ventilation due to the hazardous fumes produced by the carbon arc. An incandescent light bulb and its glowing filament. ... 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors Xenon arc lamps are an artificial light source. ... The 300,000-watt Plasma Arc Lamp in the Infrared Processing Center (IPC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory An arc lamp is a device that produces light by the sparking (or arcing, from voltaic arc or electric arc) of a high current between two carbon rod electrodes. ...


Characteristics of a typical follow spot include:

  • A strong light source, often a high-intensity discharge lamp with a high colour temperature
  • A lens train which can be manually focused
  • A manual device to change the intensity of the beam, especially when an HID source which can not be electronically dimmed is used
  • An "iris" to adjust the size of the spot/angle of the beam
  • A color magazine or "boomerang" consisting of several gel frames which can be swung in front of the beam
  • Some sort of physical sight to assist in aiming

High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include the types of electrical lights: mercury vapor, metal halide, high-pressure sodium and less common, xenon short-arc lamps. ... White light is commonly described by its color temperature. ... A lens. ... A Color Gel, Color Filter, or simply Gel is a translucent or transparent coloured material that is used in theatre to colour light. ... Sight of a Sig 550 rifle (muzzle) Sight of a Sig 550 rifle (stock) A sight is an optical device used to assist aim by guiding the eye and aligning it with the weapon or other item to be pointed. ...

Moving lights

Moving lights or intelligent fixtures (see intelligent lighting) began to gain widespread acceptance in the concert industry in the early 1980's. As the digital age progressed, the cost of these fixtures reduced, and they are currently used in almost all major theatrical productions. Moving lights or automated luminaires (sometimes erroneously called intelligent fixtures, see Intelligent lighting) are stage lighting fixtures. ... Intelligent lighting refers to theatrical lighting that has automated or mechanical abilities beyond those of traditional, stationary illumination. ... A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne. ...


Their principal feature is the ability to remotely control the movement and characteristics of the output beam of light. This is achieved by either moving a mirror which reflects the beam, or by moving the entire fixture, which can pan and tilt by means of a motorised yoke. They usually employ arc lamps as a light source, and generally use stepper motors connected to various internal optical devices, which manipulate the light before it escapes the fixture's front lens. A mirror is a surface with good specular reflection that is smooth enough to form an image. ... A motor is a device that converts energy into mechanical power, and is often synonymous with engine. ... The 300,000-watt Plasma Arc Lamp in the Infrared Processing Center (IPC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory An arc lamp is a device that produces light by the sparking (or arcing, from voltaic arc or electric arc) of a high current between two carbon rod electrodes. ... The top electromagnet (1) is charged, attracting the topmost four teeth of a sprocket. ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m