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Encyclopedia > Stage lighting

This is a current Stagecraft collaboration!
Please help improve it to good article standard. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 428 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

"Runaways" used conventional stage lighting and theatrical fog
"Runaways" used conventional stage lighting and theatrical fog
Classical Spectacular used ordinary stage lighting plus special laser effects
Classical Spectacular used ordinary stage lighting plus special laser effects
Source Fours in use at the United States Marine Corps museum
Source Fours in use at the United States Marine Corps museum
A lighting truss in a theater with several elipsoidals and a moving light
A lighting truss in a theater with several elipsoidals and a moving light

Modern stage lighting is a flexible tool in the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts. Several different types of stage lighting instruments are used in the pursuit of the various principles or goals of lighting. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 561 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,834 × 1,959 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 561 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,834 × 1,959 pixels, file size: 2. ... Runaways used conventional stage lighting and theatrical fog Theatrical smoke and fog, also known as special effect smoke or haze, is used in the entertainment industry in motion picture and television productions, live theatre, concerts, at nightclubs, raves and even in some video arcades. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 412 KB) Classical Specatular 2005 in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne Photo taken at ISO 1600 with no tripod File links The following pages link to this file: Stage lighting Lighting designer Classical music ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 412 KB) Classical Specatular 2005 in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne Photo taken at ISO 1600 with no tripod File links The following pages link to this file: Stage lighting Lighting designer Classical music ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Source Four ERS Electronic Theatre Controls (ETC) Source Four is an ellipsoidal reflector spotlight, a type of spotlight used in stage lighting. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 440 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)A Lekolite. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 440 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)A Lekolite. ... A type of ERS (Elipsoidal Reflector Spot) designed by Strand Lighting, and widely used in theatre and entertainment venue environments during the 80s and 90s. ... A Lekolite ERS. The name Leko can refer to any ERS An Elipsoidal Reflector from a Leko Source Four ERS Ellipsoidal reflector spotlight (abbreviated to ERS, or colloquially ellipsoidal) is the name for a type of theatrical light, getting the name from the ellipsoidal reflector used to intensify the light... A Source 4 ERS with major parts labeled Stage Lighting instruments are used in stage lighting to illuminate theatrical productions, rock concerts and other performances taking place in live performance venues. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1152 × 864 pixel, file size: 469 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stage lighting Intelligent lighting Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1152 × 864 pixel, file size: 469 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stage lighting Intelligent lighting Metadata This... A Lekolite ERS. The name Leko can refer to any ERS An Elipsoidal Reflector from a Leko Source Four ERS Ellipsoidal reflector spotlight (abbreviated to ERS, or colloquially ellipsoidal) is the name for a type of theatrical light, getting the name from the ellipsoidal reflector used to intensify the light... Moving lights or automated luminaires (sometimes erroneously called intelligent fixtures, see Intelligent lighting) are stage lighting fixtures. ... For other uses, see Tool (disambiguation). ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... A Source 4 ERS with major parts labeled Stage Lighting instruments are used in stage lighting to illuminate theatrical productions, rock concerts and other performances taking place in live performance venues. ...

Contents

Functions of lighting

Stage lighting has several functions, although to allow for artistic effect, no hard and fast rules can ever be applied. The functions of lighting include:

  • Illumination: The simple ability to see what is occurring on stage. Any lighting design will be ineffective if the audience has to strain to see the characters; unless this is the explicit intent.
  • Revelation of form: Altering the perception of shapes onstage, particularly three-dimensional stage elements.
  • Focus: Directing the audience's attention to an area of the stage or distracting them from another.
  • Mood: Setting the tone of a scene. Harsh red light has a totally different effect than soft lavender light.
  • Location and time of day: Establishing or altering position in time and space. Blues can suggest night time while orange and red can suggest a sunrise or sunset. Use of gobos to project sky scene, moon etc
  • Projection/stage elements: Lighting may be used to project scenery or to act as scenery onstage.
  • Plot: A lighting event may trigger or advance the action onstage.
  • Composition: Lighting may be used to show only the areas of the stage which the designer wants the audience to see, and to "paint a picture".

While Lighting Design is an art form, so therefore no one singular way is the only way, there is a modern movement that simply states that the Lighting Design helps to create the environment in which the action take place while supporting the style of the piece. "Mood" is arguable while the environment is essential.


Qualities of lighting

In the pursuit of these principles, the four main qualities or properties of interest are:

  • Intensity: Measured in lux, lumens and foot-candles. For any given luminaire (lighting instrument or fixture), this depends upon the power of the lamp, the design of the instrument (and its corresponding efficiency), the presence or absence of color gels or gobos, distance from the area to be lit, the color and substance to be lit, and the neuro-optics of the total scene (that is, the relative contrasts to other regions of illumination).
  • Color: Color temperature is measured in Kelvin, and gel colors are organized by several different systems maintained by the color manufacturing companies. The apparent color of a light is determined largely by the gel color given it, but also in part by the power level the lamp is being run at and the color of material it is to light. As the percentage of full power a lamp is being run at drops, the tungsten filament in the bulb glows orange instead of more nearly white. This is known as amber drift or amber shift. Thus a 1000-watt instrument at 50% will appear far more orange than a 500-watt instrument at full.
  • Pattern: Pattern refers to the shape, quality and evenness of a lamp's output. The pattern of light an instrument makes is largely determined by three factors. The first are the specifics of the lamp, reflector and lens assembly. Different mounting positions for the lamp (axial, base up, base down), different sizes and shapes of reflector and the nature of the lens (or lenses) being used can all affect the pattern of light. Secondly, the specifics of how the lamp is focused affect its pattern. In Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlights (ERS) and their derivatives (see below), there are two beams of light emitted from the lamp. When the cones of both intersect at the throw distance (the distance to the stage), the lamp has a sharply defined 'hard' edge. When the two cones do not intersect at that distance, the edge is fuzzy and 'soft'. Depending on which beam (direct or reflected) is outside the other, the pattern may be 'thin and soft' or 'fat and soft.' Lastly, a gobo or break up pattern may be applied to ERSs and similar instruments. This is typically a thin sheet of metal with a shape cut into it. It is inserted into the instrument near its aperture. Gobos come in many shapes, but often include leaves, waves, stars and similar patterns.
  • Focus, position, and hanging: Focus is a term usually used to describe where an instrument is pointed. The final focus should place the "hot spot" of the beam at the actor's head level when standing the center of the instrument's assigned "focus area" on the stage. Position refers to the location of an instrument in the theater's fly system or on permanent pipes in front-of-house locations. Hanging is the act of placing the instrument in its assigned position.

In addition to these, certain modern instruments are automated, referring to motorized movement of either the entire fixture body or the movement of a mirror placed in front of its outermost lens. These fixtures and the more traditional follow spots add Direction and Motion to the relevant characteristics of light. Automated fixtures fall into either the moving head or moving mirror / scanner category. Scanners have a body which contains the lamp, PCBs, transformer, and effects (color, gobo, iris etc.) devices. A mirror is panned and tilted in the desired position by pan and tilt motors, thereby causing the light beam to move. Moving head fixtures have the effects and lamp assembly inside the head with transformers and other electronics in the base or external ballast. There are advantages and disadvantages to both. Scanners are typically faster and less costly than moving head units but have a narrower range of movement. Moving head fixtures have a much larger range of movement as well as a more natural inertial movement but are typically more expensive. The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI derived unit of illuminance or illumination. ... The lumen (symbol: lm) is the SI unit of luminous flux. ... A foot-candle (sometimes designated footcandle; abbreviated fc, lm/ft², or sometimes ft-c) is a non-SI unit of illuminance or light intensity. ... A color gel or color filter (US color gel or color filter), or a lighting gel or simply gel, is a transparent colored material that is used in theatre, event production, photography, videography and cinematography to colour light and for color correction. ... Projected light shines through a Gobo and onto a screen for decorative, informational or dramatic effect. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... A color gel or color filter (US color gel or color filter), or a lighting gel or simply gel, is a transparent colored material that is used in theatre, event production, photography, videography and cinematography to colour light and for color correction. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... For devices such as table lamps and reading lamps, see Light fixture. ... This article is about the optical device. ... Projected light shines through a Gobo and onto a screen for decorative, informational or dramatic effect. ... A fly tower is a part of a theatre above the stage where flat scenery in the form of gauzes, cloths and flats are stored and flown in when needed. ... High End Systems Studio Color, one of the more basic automated lights Intelligent lighting refers to stage lighting that has automated or mechanical abilities beyond those of traditional, stationary illumination. ...


The above characteristics are not always static, and it is frequently the variation in these characteristics that is used in achieving the goals of lighting.


Stanley McCandless was perhaps to first to define controllable qualities of light used in theater. In A Method for Lighting the Stage, McCandless discusses color, distribution, intensity and movement as the qualities that can be manipulated by a lighting designer to achieve the desired visual, emotional and thematic look on stage. As a note, his method outlined in that book is widely embraced today. Stanley McCandless (1897-1967) is considered to be the first theatrical lighting design educator. ...


The lighting designer

Main article: Lighting designer

The above elements of lighting are primarily the domain of the Lighting Designer (LD). The LD is responsible for using the principles above to achieve "the lighting look" — using lighting to affect the audience's senses and evoke their emotions. The lighting designer is familiar with the various types of lighting instruments and their uses. In consultation with the director and the scenic designer, and after watching sufficient rehearsals, the LD is responsible for providing an Instrument Schedule and a Light Plot. The Schedule is a list of all required materials, including color gel, gobos, color wheels, barndoors and other accessories. The light plot is typically a plan view of the theatre in which the performance will take place, with every luminaire marked. This typically includes approximate focus (the direction it should be pointing), a reference number, any accessories required, and the specifics (or channel number) of its connection to the dimmer system or lighting control console. This article is about lighting design in theater. ... A theatre director is a principal in the theatre field who oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a play by unifying various endeavors and aspects of production. ... Scenic design also known as Stage design is the creation of theatrical scenery. ... 82. ... A color gel or color filter (US color gel or color filter), or a lighting gel or simply gel, is a transparent colored material that is used in theatre, event production, photography, videography and cinematography to colour light and for color correction. ... Projected light shines through a Gobo and onto a screen for decorative, informational or dramatic effect. ... Archaeological plan In an archaeological excavation, a plan is a drawn record of features (and artefacts) in the horizontal plane. ... A common dual dimmer manufactured by Electronic Theatre Controls (ETC) Another dimmer by Colortran Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness of a light. ... Strand Lighting 300 Series Control Console An Express 48/96 memory console by Electronic Theatre Controls capable of controlling both normal stage lighting instruments as well as intelligent lighting. ...


An LD must be accustomed to working around the demands of the director or head planner. Practical experience is required to know the effective use of different lighting instruments and color in creating a design. Many designers start their careers as lighting technicians in theatres or amateur theatre groups. Often, this is followed by training in one of the many vocational colleges or universities around the world that offer theatre courses. Many jobs in larger venues and productions require a degree from a vocational school or college in theatrical lighting, or at least a bachelor’s degree. Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Vocational education prepares learners for certain careers or professions, which are traditionally non-academic and directly related to a trade, occupation or vocation in which the learner participates. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also as referred to as a trade school or career college, and school is operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ...

The Master Electrician (or ME) in a theatre is responsible for implementing the lighting design for a production drawn up by the Lighting designer. ... In the performing arts, the Light board Operator is the techie in change of operating all lighting equipment for a performance, with the possible exception of the spotlights, which are usually handled by one or more designated spotlight operators. ...

Lighting instruments

A PAR can lighting instrument

In the context of lighting design, a lighting instrument (also called a luminaire) is a device that produces controlled lighting as part of the effects a lighting designer brings to a show. A lighting instrument is different from a “light” in much the same way that a musical instrument is different from a “music”. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 352 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 352 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A Parabolic Aluminized Reflector luminaire 25 Par cans A Parabolic Aluminized Reflector luminare, or PAR light, is a stage lighting fixture widely used in theatre, concerts and motion picture production when a substantial amount of flat lighting is required for a scene. ... A Source 4 ERS with major parts labeled Stage Lighting instruments are used in stage lighting to illuminate theatrical productions, rock concerts and other performances taking place in live performance venues. ... This article is about lighting design in theater. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ...


There are a variety of instruments frequently used in the theater. Although they vary in many ways they all have the following four basic components in one form or other:

  • Box/Housing - a metal or plastic container to house the whole instrument and prevent light from spilling in unwanted directions.
  • Light Source (lamp).
  • Lens or opening - the gap in the housing where the light is intended to come out.
  • Reflector - behind or around the light source in such a way as to direct more light towards the lens or opening.

Additional features will vary depend on the exact type of fixture.


Most theatrical light bulbs (or lamps, the term usually preferred) are Tungsten-Halogen (or Quartz-Halogen), an improvement on the original incandescent design that uses a halogen gas instead of an inert gas to increase lamp life and output. Fluorescent lights are rarely used other than as worklights because, although they are far more efficient, they cannot be dimmed (run at less than full power) without using specialised dimmer ballasts and they will not dim to very low levels. They also do not produce light from a single point or easily concentrated area, and have a warm-up period, during which they emit no light or do so intermittently. High-intensity discharge lamps (or HID lamps), however, are now common where a very bright light output is required, - for example in large follow spots, HMI (Hydrargyrum medium-arc iodide) floods, and modern automated fixtures. When dimming is required, it is done by mechanical dousers or shutters, as these types of lamps cannot be electrically dimmed. The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... Normal worklights Scoops can also be used for worklights In theater, a worklight is a high-intensity lamp which is used to illuminate the stage for the benefit of technicians. ... A common dual dimmer manufactured by Electronic Theatre Controls (ETC) Another dimmer by Colortran Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness of a light. ... An automotive (ignition system) ballast resistor An electrical ballast (sometimes called control gear) is a device intended to limit the amount of current flowing in an electric circuit. ... 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include these types of electrical lamps: mercury vapor, metal halide (also HQI), high-pressure sodium (Son), low-pressure sodium (Sox) and less common, xenon short-arc lamps. ... An HMI on a stand. ...


Most instruments are suspended or supported by a "U" shaped yoke, or 'trunnion arm' fixed to the sides of the instrument, normally near its center of gravity. On the end of such, a clamp (known as a C-clamp, or pipe clamp, pipe referring to battens) is normally fixed, made in a "C" configuration with a screw to lock the instrument onto the pipe or batten from which it is typically hung. Once secured, the fixture can be panned and tilted using tension adjustment knobs on the yoke and clamp. An adjustable c-wrench (US) or spanner (UK) is often used to assist the technician in adjusting the fixture. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... A simple Electric batten with two instruments (a fresnel and a scoop). ... It has been suggested that Stagehand be merged into this article or section. ...


All lights are loosely classified as either floodlights (wash lights) or spotlights. The distinction has to do with the degree to which one is able to control the shape and quality of the light produced by the instrument, with spotlights being controllable, sometimes to an extremely precise degree, and floodlights being completely uncontrollable. Instruments that fall somewhere in the middle of the spectrum can be classified as either a spot or a flood, depending on the type of instrument and how it is used. In general, spotlights have lenses while floodlights are lensless, although this is not always the case. Modern stage lighting is a flexible tool in the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts. ... A Source 4 ERS with major parts labeled Stage Lighting instruments are used in stage lighting to illuminate theatrical productions, rock concerts and other performances taking place in live performance venues. ...


Please note: In the UK the nomenclature is slightly different from North America. This article primarily uses the North American terminology. Although there is some adoption of the former naming conventions it has been normal to categorise lanterns by their lens type, so that what in the US is known as a spotlight is known as a Profile or a Fresnel/PC (Pebble/Plano/Prism Convex) in the UK. A Spotlight in the UK often refers to a Followspot. The following definitions are from a North American point of view, and would be confusing when used, without further clarification, in the UK. UK naming conventions are considered to be correct in most of the world, in fact most North American theatres will also use the UK terms except when talking in a more general sense (ie get a spotlight to focus on that set piece, or 'flood this area') Look up profile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fresnel A Fresnel lantern (or merely Fresnel) is a spotlight used in theatre, which employs a Fresnel lens to wash light over an area of the stage. ... Followspot is a generic term used to describe any number of lighting instruments used to highlight performers on stage. ...


Also note: In Australia and many other places, the lamps inside a theatrical fixture are referred to as bubbles. In North American English, a bubble refers to the protrusion that occurs when one's body (or other oily substance) contacts the lamp. Oil will cause the portion of the lamp which has oil on it to expand when it is on (lamps generate a lot of heat), creating the bubble, and causing the lamp to explode. That is why one should never directly touch the glass portion of a lamp. Cleaning with rubbing alcohol will remove the oil. Light bulb redirects here. ... A bottle of isopropyl rubbing alcohol Rubbing alcohol, U.S.P. / B.P. (also known as Isopropyl alcohol) is a liquid prepared for topical application prepared from isopropyl alcohol (or denatured alcohol) and containing 68. ...


Lighting controls

Main article: Lighting console
Entertainment Technology's Marquee lighting console.
Entertainment Technology's Marquee lighting console.

Lighting control tools might best be described as anything that changes the quality of the light. Historically this has been done by the use of intensity control. Technological advancements have made intensity control relatively simple - solid state dimmers are controlled by one or more lighting controllers. Controllers are commonly lighting consoles designed for sophisticated control over very large numbers of dimmers or luminaires, but may be simpler devices which play back stored sequences of lighting states with minimal user interfaces. Consoles are also referred to as lighting desks or light-boards. Lighting control consoles (also called lighting boards or lighting desks) are electronic devices used in theatrical lighting design to control multiple lights at once. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1106 KB) Picture of Entertainment Technology Marquee Console. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1106 KB) Picture of Entertainment Technology Marquee Console. ...


For larger shows or installations, multiple consoles are often used together and in some cases lighting controllers are combined or coordinated with controllers for sound, automated scenery, pyrotechnics and other effects to provide total automation of the entire show. See show control. Show control is the use of technology to link together and operate multiple entertainment control systems in a coordinated manner. ...


The lighting controller is connected to the dimmers (or directly to automated luminaires) using a control cable (e.g. DMX512) or network, allowing the dimmers which are bulky, hot and sometimes noisy, to be positioned away from the stage and audience and allowing automated luminaires to be positioned wherever necessary. In addition to DMX512, newer control connections include RDM (Remote Device Management) which adds management and status feedback capabilities to devices which use it while maintaining compatibility with DMX512; and ACN (Architecture for Control Networks) which is a fully featured multiple controller networking protocol. These allow the possibility of feedback of position, state or fault conditions from units, whilst allowing much more detailed control of them. DMX512, often shortened to DMX (Digital MultipleX), is a communications protocol used mainly to control stage lighting. ... DMX512, often shortened to DMX (Digital MultipleX), is a communications protocol used mainly to control stage lighting. ... Remote Device Management or RDM is a draft protocol enhancement to USITT DMX512 that will allow bi-directional communication between a lighting or system controller and attached RDM compliant devices over a standard DMX line. ... DMX512, often shortened to DMX (Digital MultipleX), is a communications protocol used mainly to control stage lighting. ...


Dimming

A pair of modern 2.4k dimmers by Electronic Theatre Controls

A dimmer is a device used to vary the electrical power delivered to the instrument’s lamp. As power to the lamp decreases, the light fades or dims. It is important to note that some color change also occurs as a lamp is dimmed, allowing for a limited amount of color control through the dimmer. Fades can be either UP or DOWN, that is increasing or decreasing the intensity. Today, most dimmers are solid state, although many mechanical dimmers still exist. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 254 pixelsFull resolution (2373 × 752 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ETC Sensor+ Dimmer- 2400 watts x2 Source: Red River High School Theatre Department Image Archives, Grand Forks Public Schools, Grand Forks, ND Photographer: Jordan Green/JWGreen... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 254 pixelsFull resolution (2373 × 752 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ETC Sensor+ Dimmer- 2400 watts x2 Source: Red River High School Theatre Department Image Archives, Grand Forks Public Schools, Grand Forks, ND Photographer: Jordan Green/JWGreen... Electronic Theatre Controls (ETC) is a theatrical lighting, dimming, and control company based in Middleton, Wisconsin. ... A common dual dimmer manufactured by Electronic Theatre Controls (ETC) Another dimmer by Colortran Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness of a light. ...


Dimmers are often found in large racks that draw large amounts of three-phase electrical power. The dimmers themselves are often removable modules that range from a 20-amp, 2.4 Kilowatt unit to a 50-amp or even a 100-amp unit. They can often be replaced by a Constant Power Module which is basically a 20- or 50-amp breaker in a dimming module casing. Constant Power Modules are used to supply non-dimming current to other electrical devices (like smoke machines, chain winches, or scenic motors). When a Constant Power Module is installed, the corresponding circuit is energized as long as the dimming pack is on, independent of the lighting console. Three-phase power transformer which is the sole transferpoint for electricity to a suburban shopping mall in Canada. ... The kilowatt (symbol: kW) is a unit for measuring power, equal to one thousand watts. ...


Increasingly, with the growth of digital technology, modern lighting instruments are available which allow remote control, not just of intensity, but of direction, color, beam shape, projected image, beam angle and a wealth of other effects. The ability to move an instrument ever more quickly and quietly has become the industry goal. Such automated lights frequently have built-in dimming and so are connected directly to the control cable or network and are independent of external dimmers.


See also

High-key lighting is a style of lighting for film or television that aims to reduce the contrast ratio present in the scene. ... A Black and White low-key portrait. ... A Source 4 ERS with major parts labeled Stage Lighting instruments are used in stage lighting to illuminate theatrical productions, rock concerts and other performances taking place in live performance venues. ... Lighting control consoles (also called lighting boards or lighting desks) are electronic devices used in theatrical lighting design to control multiple lights at once. ...

External links

  • FAQ from the Stagecraft mailing list
  • Stage Lighting Primer
  • Stagelink Directory of Lighting Designers
  • UK Sound and Lighting Community
  • Blue-Room Technical Forums

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stage lighting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2127 words)
Several different types of stage lighting instruments are used in the pursuit of the various principles or goals of lighting.
In the context of lighting design, a lighting instrument is a device that produces controlled lighting as part of the effects a lighting designer brings to a show.
As voltage to the lamp decreases, the light fades or dims.
stage lighting (1931 words)
Several different types of lighting instrument are used in the pursuit of the various principles or goals of lighting.
The lighting plot is typically a plan view of the theatre in which the performance will take place, with every luminaire marked, including its 'rough' focus (the direction it should be pointing), its instrument number, any color/gobo/accessories required, and the specifics of its connection to the lighting control systems (channel number).
Theatrical lighting fixtures are controlled by lighting consoles (in the U.K., "desks") connected to dimmers and, in the case of luminaires and other remotely-controllable fixtures, directly using 5-pin cable through which the DMX protocol is often used.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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