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Encyclopedia > Stadium

A modern stadium (plural stadiums or stadia in English) is a place, or venue, for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts or other events, consisting of a field or stage partly or completely surrounded by a structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Stadium (Latin) or stadion (Greek) has the plural stadia in both Latin and Greek. ... For the album by The Cure, see Concert (album). ...

Contents

History of the stadium

An interior of the Colosseum. The partial floor is a modern reconstruction; below are the underground vaults and tunnels originally used to house animals and slaves.
An interior of the Colosseum. The partial floor is a modern reconstruction; below are the underground vaults and tunnels originally used to house animals and slaves.

The word originates from the Greek word "stadion" (στάδιον), literally a "Stand", (a place where people stand.) The oldest known stadium is the one in Olympia, in western Peloponnese, Greece, where the Olympic Games of antiquity were held since 776 BC. Initially 'the Games' consisted of a single event, a sprint along the length of the stadium. Therefore the length of the Olympia stadium was more or less standardized as a measure of distance (approximately 190 meters or 210 yd). The practice of standardizing footrace tracks to a length of 180-200 meters (200-220 yd) was followed by the Romans as well. Greek and Roman stadia have been found in numerous ancient cities, perhaps the most famous being the Colosseum or the Stadium of Domitian, both in Rome.
Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 499 KB) en:: Description: Roman Colosseum, interior Author: Fubar Obfusco, Foto taken himself, upload to English wikipedia 13. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 499 KB) en:: Description: Roman Colosseum, interior Author: Fubar Obfusco, Foto taken himself, upload to English wikipedia 13. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC Events and Trends 778 BC - Agamestor, King of Athens dies after a reign of 17 years and... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


The modern stadium

Types

A Rugby match in the Stade de France
A Rugby match in the Stade de France

Dome stadiums are distinguished from conventional stadiums by their enclosing roofs. They are called stadiums because they are large enough for, and designed for, what are generally considered to be outdoor sports. Those designed for what are usually indoor sports are called arenas. Some stadiums have partial roofs, and a few have even been designed to have moveable fields. From French Wikipedia. ... From French Wikipedia. ... The Stade de France is a stadium in Saint-Denis, France in the inner suburbs of Paris. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arena (disambiguation). ...


The term "stadium" tends to be used mostly in connection with games like football, American football, Baseball, Gaelic football, Hurling, Rugby, and other large field games. An exception is the basketball arena at Duke University, which is called Cameron Indoor Stadium and the now-demolished Chicago Stadium, former home of the Chicago Blackhawks of the NHL and Chicago Bulls of the NBA.
Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... This article is about the sport. ... Gaelic Football (Irish: Peil, Peil Gaelach or Caid ), commonly referred to as football, or Gaelic , is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. ... For the Cornish sport, see Cornish Hurling. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Arena (disambiguation). ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. ... Summer 06 Cameron Indoor Stadium is a basketball arena located at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. ... For other uses, see Demolition (disambiguation). ... The Chicago Stadium was a famed and historic indoor sports arena in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional mens ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois. ... NHL can also be an abbreviation for National Historic Landmark or Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... The Chicago Bulls are a professional basketball team based in Chicago, Illinois. ... NBA redirects here. ...


Design issues

Morumbi Stadium in São Paulo, Brazil.
Morumbi Stadium in São Paulo, Brazil.

Different sports require fields of different size and shape. Some stadiums are designed primarily for a single sport while others can accommodate different events, particularly ones with retractable seating. Stadiums built specifically for football (soccer) are quite common in Europe however Gaelic games Stadiums would be most common in Ireland, while ones built specifically for baseball or American Football are common in the United States. The most common multiple use design combines a football pitch with a running track, a combination which generally works fairly well, although certain compromises must be made. The major drawback is that the stands are necessarily set back a good distance from the pitch, especially at the ends of the pitch. The Stadio Delle Alpi in Turin is being remodelled to remove the running track after persistent complaints from fans of Juventus F.C.. In the case of some smaller stadiums, there aren't stands at the ends. When there are stands all the way around, the stadium takes on an oval shape. When one end is open, the stadium has a horseshoe shape. All three configurations (open, oval and horseshoe) are common, especially in the case of American college football stadiums. Rectangular stadiums are more common in Europe, especially for football (soccer) where many stadiums have four often distinct and very different stands on the four sides of the stadium. These are often all of different sizes and designs and have been erected at different periods in the stadium's history. The vast differing character of European football (soccer) stadiums has led to the growing hobby of ground hopping where spectators make a journey to visit the stadium for itself rather than for the event being held there. In recent years the trend of building completely new oval stadiums in Europe has led to traditionalists criticising the designs as bland and lacking in the character of the old stadia they replace. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Movable seating is a feature of some modern stadiums, often known as convertible stadiums, or moduable stadiums. ... Soccer redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Gaelic games are the native sports of Ireland: principally Hurling, Gaelic Football and Camogie. ... This article is about the sport. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... The Stadio Delle Alpi is a football and athletics stadium in the Italian city of Turin. ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... Juventus redirects here. ...


In North America, where baseball and American football are the two most popular outdoor spectator sports, a number of football/baseball multi-use stadiums were built, especially during the 1960s, and some of them were successful. This article is about the sport. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ...

Yankee Stadium is one of the most famous and easily recognizable stadiums in the United States
Yankee Stadium is one of the most famous and easily recognizable stadiums in the United States

However, since the requirements for baseball and football are significantly different, the trend beginning with Kansas City in 1972-1973, and accelerating in the 1990s, has been toward the construction of single-purpose stadiums. In several cases a football stadium has been constructed adjacent to a baseball park. In many cases, earlier baseball stadiums were constructed to fit into a particular land area or city block. This resulted in asymmetrical dimensions for many baseball fields. Yankee Stadium, for example, was built on a triangular city block in The Bronx, New York City. This resulted in a large left field dimension but a small right field dimension, which added to the stadium's character. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... This page is about the stadium the New York Yankees currently play in. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This page is about the stadium the New York Yankees currently play in. ... For other uses, see The Bronx (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Before more modern football stadiums were built in the United States, many baseball parks, including Fenway Park, the Polo Grounds, Wrigley Field, Comiskey Park, Tiger Stadium,Griffith Stadium, Milwaukee County Stadium, Shibe Park, Forbes Field, Yankee Stadium and Sportsman's Park were used by the National Football League or the American Football League. Along with today's single use stadiums is the trend for retro style ballparks closer to downtown areas. Oriole Park at Camden Yards was the first such ballpark for Major League Baseball to be built using early 20th century styling with 21st century amenities. However, the Camden Yards concept originated with the minor league Dunn Tire Park in Buffalo, New York, which predated Camden Yards by four years.
Fenway redirects here. ... The Polo Grounds was the name given to four different stadiums in Manhattan, New York City used by baseballs New York Giants from 1883 until 1957, New York Metropolitans from 1883 until 1885, the New York Yankees from 1912 until 1922, and by the New York Mets in their... For the former ballpark in Los Angeles, see Wrigley Field (Los Angeles). ... This article is about the original Comiskey Park. ... Tiger Stadium with football configuration. ... Griffith Stadium was a sports stadium that stood in Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1965, at the corner of Georgia Avenue and W Street, NW. An earlier wooden baseball park had stood on the site, built in 1891. ... Milwaukee County Stadium (locally known as just County Stadium) was a ballpark in Milwaukee, Wisconsin from 1953 to 2000. ... Connie Mack Stadium (Shibe Park) as it looked in 1909. ... For other uses, see Forbes Field (disambiguation). ... This page is about the stadium the New York Yankees currently play in. ... Sportsmans Park was the name of a former Major League Baseball ballpark in St. ... Oriole Park at Camden Yards is a baseball stadium located in Baltimore, Maryland, which was completed in 1992 to replace the aging Memorial Stadium. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... Baseball game at Dunn Tire Park Dunn Tire Park is a baseball-only facility in Buffalo, New York. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ...


Spectator areas and seating

Spectator stands at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, one of the grandest Cricket stadia
Spectator stands at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, one of the grandest Cricket stadia

An "all-seater" stadium has seats for all spectators. Other stadiums are designed so that all or some spectators stand to view the event. The term "all-seater" is not common in the U.S., perhaps because very few American stadiums have sizeable standing-only sections. Poor stadium design has contributed to disasters such as the Hillsborough disaster and the Heysel Stadium disaster. Since these, both the FA Premier League and FIFA World Cup qualifying matches require all spectators to be seated (though not necessarily in an all-seater stadium, if terraces are left empty). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1795x1024, 1668 KB) Summary Photo by Paddy Briggs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1795x1024, 1668 KB) Summary Photo by Paddy Briggs. ... “MCG” redirects here. ... This article is about the sport. ... All-seater is a terminology applied to sports stadiums in which every spectator must be seated. ... The Memorial at Hillsborough. ... The Heysel Stadium disaster occurred due to football hooliganism in which a retaining wall of the Heysel Stadium in Brussels collapsed on May 29, 1985 during a football match between Liverpool F.C. from England and Juventus F.C. from Italy. ... For the Scottish equivalent see Scottish Premier League The FA Premier League (often referred to as the Barclays Premiership in England and the Barclays English Premier League or just simply The EPL internationally) is a league competition for football clubs located at the top of the English football league system... FIFA World Cup qualification is the process a national football (soccer) team goes through to qualify for the FIFA World Cup Finals, or, more commonly known as the FIFA World Cup. ...


The spectator areas of a stadium can be referred to as bleachers, especially in the U.S., or as terraces, especially in the United Kingdom but also in some American baseball parks, as an alternative to the term tier. Originally set out for standing room only, they are now usually equipped with seating. Either way, the term originates from the step-like rows which resemble agricultural terraces. Related, but not precisely the same, is the use of terrace to describe a sloping portion of the outfield in a baseball park, possibly but not necessarily for seating, but for practical or decorative purposes. The most famous of these was at Crosley Field in Cincinnati, Ohio. Bleachers is a term used to describe the raised, tiered stands found by sports fields or at other spectator events. ... A Tier is a term used commonly within fighting game circles and tournaments to describe a characters general success in tournaments and common battles of the fighting game they hail from. ... In agriculture, a terrace is a levelled section of a hilly cultivated area, designed to slow or prevent the rapid run-off of irrigation water. ... This article is about the sport. ... Image:Http://www. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ...


Many stadiums make luxury suites available to patrons for thousands of dollars per event. These suites can accommodate fewer than 10 spectators or upwards of 30 depending on the venue. Luxury suites at events such as the Super Bowl can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars.
The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ...


Corporate naming

In recent decades, to help take the burden of the massive expense of building and maintaining a stadium, many American sports teams have sold the rights to the name of the facility. This trend, which began in the 1970s but accelerated greatly in the 1990s, has led to sponsors' names being affixed to both established stadiums and new ones. In some cases, the corporate name replaces (with varying degrees of success) the name by which the venue has been known for many years — examples include Toronto's Rogers Centre, previously known as SkyDome. But many of the more recently-built ballparks, such as Milwaukee's Miller Park, have never been known by a non-corporate name. The sponsorship phenomenon has since spread worldwide. There remain a few municipally-owned stadiums, which are often known by a name that is significant to their area (for example, Minneapolis' Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome). In recent years, some government-owned stadiums have also been subject to naming-rights agreements, with some or all of the revenue often going to the team(s) that play there. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 748 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (827 × 663 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Jones AT&T Stadium, home of the Texas Tech Red Raiders, at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas, USA. I, the creator of this work, hereby... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 748 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (827 × 663 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Jones AT&T Stadium, home of the Texas Tech Red Raiders, at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas, USA. I, the creator of this work, hereby... Jones AT&T Stadium is a stadium in Lubbock, Texas. ... Texas Tech University redirects here. ... “Lubbock” redirects here. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Rogers Centre logo Rogers Centre, formerly known as SkyDome, is a multi-purpose stadium in Toronto, Ontario, situated next to the CN Tower near the shores of Lake Ontario. ... The Rogers Centre (until recently called SkyDome), which opened on June 1, 1989, is a huge ballpark in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, situated next to the CN Tower near the shores of Lake Ontario. ... Miller Park is a baseball stadium located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... The Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome is a domed sports stadium in downtown Minneapolis, Minnesota. ...


One consequence of corporate naming has been an increase in stadium name changes, for example when the namesake corporation changes its name, or if the naming agreement simply expires. Phoenix's Chase Field, for example, was previously known as Bank One Ballpark but was re-named to reflect the takeover of the latter corporation. San Francisco's historic Candlestick Park was renamed as 3Com Park for several years, but the name was dropped when the sponsorship agreement expired, and it was another two years before a new name of Monster Park was applied. On the other hand, Los Angeles' Great Western Forum, one of the earliest examples of corporate re-naming, retained its name for many years, even after the namesake bank no longer existed, the corporate name being dropped only after the building later changed ownership. Perhaps the most interesting example is Houston's Minute Maid Park, which hurriedly dropped its original name of Enron Field when scandal engulfed the latter corporation — it became Astros Field for a year before finding a new corporate naming sponsor. This practice has typically been less common in countries outside the United States. A notable exception is the Nippon Professional Baseball league of Japan, in which many of the teams are themselves named after their parent corporations. Also, many new European football stadiums, such as the Reebok Stadium and Emirates Stadium in England and Allianz Arena in Germany have been corporately named. Chase Field is a baseball stadium located in downtown Phoenix, Arizona, and is the home of the Arizona Diamondbacks of the National League. ... Bank One, based in Chicago, Illinois, was the sixth-largest bank in the United States. ... Monster Park (colloquially, The Stick or Candlestick, after its original name of Candlestick Park) is an outdoor sports and entertainment stadium located in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. ... 3Com (NASDAQ: COMS) is a manufacturer best known for its computer network infrastructure products. ... Monster Park (colloquially Candlestick, after its original name of Candlestick Park, and sometimes just simply The Stick) is an outdoor sports and entertainment stadium located in San Francisco, California. ... The Great Western Forum, known in Los Angeles simply as The Forum, is an indoor arena in Inglewood, California. ... Minute Maid Park (formerly Enron Field and Astros Field) is a baseball stadium in Houston, Texas, that opened in 2000 to house the Houston Astros. ... Enron Creditors Recovery Corporation (formerly Enron Corporation) (former NYSE ticker symbol: ENE) was an American energy company based in Houston, Texas. ... Part of the History of baseball series. ... The Reebok Stadium is the home stadium of English Premier League football club Bolton Wanderers, and is located on the Middlebrook retail park in Horwich, near Bolton. ... The Emirates Stadium is a football stadium located on Ashburton Grove in Holloway, north London, and the home of Arsenal Football Club since it opened in July 2006. ... Allianz Arena The Allianz Arena is a football stadium located in the north-Munich district of Fröttmaning. ...

Stadium Australia (ANZ Stadium) in Sydney, Australia is capable of being converted from a rectangular rugby football field to an oval for cricket and Australian rules football games.
Stadium Australia (ANZ Stadium) in Sydney, Australia is capable of being converted from a rectangular rugby football field to an oval for cricket and Australian rules football games.

This new trend in corporate naming (or re-naming) is distinguishable from names of some older parks such as Crosley Field, Wrigley Field and the first and second Busch Stadiums, in that the parks were named by and for the club's owner, which also happened to be the names of companies owned by those clubowners. (The current Busch Stadium received its name via a modern naming rights agreement.) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2856x1112, 603 KB) Summary Panoramic image (composed of 6 smaller images) of Telstra Stadium (empty, during tour) in October 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2856x1112, 603 KB) Summary Panoramic image (composed of 6 smaller images) of Telstra Stadium (empty, during tour) in October 2005. ... Telstra Stadium, formerly Stadium Australia, is a multi-purpose stadium located in Homebush, Sydney, Australia which opened in March 1999. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... This article is about the sport. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... Image:Http://www. ... For the former ballpark in Los Angeles, see Wrigley Field (Los Angeles). ... Sportsmans Park was the name of a former Major League Baseball ballpark in St. ... Busch Memorial Stadium, or Busch Stadium was the home of the St. ... Busch Stadium (also referred to informally as New Busch Stadium or Busch Stadium III) is the new home for the St. ...


There was a large controversy in Toronto, Canada, when the famous SkyDome was renamed the Rogers Centre. The Rogers Centre (until recently called SkyDome), which opened on June 1, 1989, is a huge ballpark in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, situated next to the CN Tower near the shores of Lake Ontario. ... Rogers Centre logo Rogers Centre, formerly known as SkyDome, is a multi-purpose stadium in Toronto, Ontario, situated next to the CN Tower near the shores of Lake Ontario. ...


Naming also became an issue on the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, where some stadiums named after a sponsor had to be renamed. The Allianz Arena in München, for example, was renamed to "FIFA World Cup Stadium Munich". Likewise, the same stadium will be known as the "München Arena" during the UEFA cup. 2006 World Cup redirects here. ... Allianz Arena The Allianz Arena is a football stadium located in the north-Munich district of Fröttmaning. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München (pronounced listen) is the state capital of the German Bundesland of Bavaria. ...


See also: Naming rights and List of sports venues with sole naming rights
Naming rights are the right to name a piece of property, either tangible property or an event, usually granted in exchange for financial considerations. ... The following is a list of sports venues with sole naming rights: // Acer Arena in Sydney, New South Wales Aurora Stadium in Launceston, Tasmania Aussie Stadium in Sydney, New South Wales Bluetongue Central Coast Stadium in Gosford, New South Wales Credit Union Australia Stadium Penrith in Penrith, New South Wales...


Music venues

A U2 concert at Croke Park, June 24, 2005
A U2 concert at Croke Park, June 24, 2005

Modern stadiums are often used by band as concert venues with some band such as The Rolling Stones and U2 doing stadium tours.
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 137 KB)U2 Croke Park, Ireland This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 137 KB)U2 Croke Park, Ireland This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ... Croke Park (Irish: Páirc an Chrócaigh) in Dublin, Ireland is the largest sports stadium in Ireland and the principal stadium and headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA), Irelands biggest sporting organisation. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rolling Stones redirects here. ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ...


Gallery

References

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... A tätort (Swedish for Densely populated area or Locality) is a stastistical unit defined by Statistics Sweden. ... A Kindred is the most prevalent form of Ásatrú group in the United States. ... A homestead is: A farm with the buildings around it, see homestead (buildings) Ones legal residence, see homestead (law) An area measure of 160 acres (650,000 m²), see homestead (area) and Homestead Act To homestead is to establish ownership of previously unowned property (usually but not exclusively land... Stad (Stadt, Statt or Stadlandet, not to be confused with the similar Deutsch Stadt, and Deitsch Stad ; the d is pronounced t) is a peninsula in the Norwegian municipality of Selje. ... The following is a list of stadiums throughout the world. ... This is a list of major football stadia, grouped by country and ordered by capacity. ... The following is a list of current and former Major League Baseball stadiums. ... This is a list of eponyms of stadiums. ... Rungnado May Day Stadium is among the largest capacity in the world. ... Stade des Martyrs has the joint largest capacity in Africa. ... Rungnado May Day Stadium has the largest capacity in Asia. ... Camp Nou has the largest capacity in Europe. ... The following is an incomplete list of sports stadiums in North America. ... Melbourne Cricket Ground has the highest capacity of any stadium in Oceania. ... Estádio do Maracanã has the largest capacity in South America. ... FedExField (left) is the largest NFL stadium, while Beaver Stadium (right) is the largest football stadium in the United States. ... Rungnado May Day Stadium is the worlds largest football stadium. ... The following is a list of indoor arenas. ...

Related

Busch Stadium, opened in 2006, is currently the newest ballpark in Major League Baseball. ... Montreals Olympic Stadium The Olympic Stadium is the name usually given to the big centrepiece stadium of the Summer Olympic Games. ... An aerial view of the Melbourne Cricket Ground during the 1992 Cricket World Cup final packed with 90,000 people. ...

External links

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

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