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Encyclopedia > Stable isotope

Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. Stable isotopes of the same element have the same chemical characteristics and therefore behave almost identically. The mass differences, due to a difference in the number of neutrons, result in partial separation of the light from heavy isotopes during chemical reactions (isotope fractionation). For example, the difference in mass between the two stable isotopes of hydrogen, 1H (1 proton, no neutron, also known as protium) and 2H (1 proton, 1 neutron, also known as deuterium) is almost 100%. Therefore, a significant fractionation will occur. For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... There are three types of isotope fractionation: equilibrium fractionation kinetic fractionation mass-independent fractionation ... A hydrogen atom is an atom of the element hydrogen. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ...


Commonly analysed stable isotopes include oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur. These isotope systems have been under investigation for many years as they are relatively simple to measure. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (ie. multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) now enable the measurement of heavier stable isotopes, such as iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, etc. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ...


Stable isotopes have been used in botanical and plant biological investigations for many years, and more and more ecological and biological studies are finding stable isotopes (mostly carbon, nitrogen and oxygen) to be extremely useful. Other workers have used oxygen isotopes to reconstruct historical atmospheric temperatures, making them important tools for climate research.

Contents

Stable isotope fractionation

There are three types of isotope fractionation:

Equilibrium isotope fractionation is the partial separation of isotopes between two or more substances in chemical equilibrium. ... Kinetic fractionation is a process that separates stable isotopes from each other by their mass. ... A kinetic system involving at least three isotopes of a given element is needed to identify a so-called mass independent isotope effect. ...

List of stable isotopes

There are 243 stable isotopes. Tin is the only element which has 10 stable isotopes. Xenon is the only element which has 8 stable isotopes. Every element from hydrogen to lead has at least one stable isotope with the exceptions of technetium and promethium; elements with more protons (i.e. an atomic number greater than 82) only have radioactive isotopes, although, like any radioactive isotope, they can still occur naturally if either their half-life are of an order of magnitude not much less than that of the time since the death of a nearby star or because they occur in a decay chain of another radioactive isotope with such a half-life; these isotopes have been excluded from this list. It wasn't until 2003 that bismuth-209 was shown to be radioactive.[1] General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Nearly all the decay products of radioactive decay are themselves radioactive. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ...

  1. Hydrogen-1
  2. Hydrogen-2
  3. Helium-3
  4. Helium-4
  5. Lithium-6
  6. Lithium-7
  7. Beryllium-9
  8. Boron-10
  9. Boron-11
  10. Carbon-12
  11. Carbon-13
  12. Nitrogen-14
  13. Nitrogen-15
  14. Oxygen-16
  15. Oxygen-17
  16. Oxygen-18
  17. Fluorine-19
  18. Neon-20
  19. Neon-21
  20. Neon-22
  21. Sodium-23
  22. Magnesium-24
  23. Magnesium-25
  24. Magnesium-26
  25. Aluminium-27
  26. Silicon-28
  27. Silicon-29
  28. Silicon-30
  29. Phosphorus-31
  30. Sulfur-32
  31. Sulfur-33
  32. Sulfur-34
  33. Sulfur-36
  34. Chlorine-35
  35. Chlorine-37
  36. Argon-36
  37. Argon-38
  38. Argon-40
  39. Potassium-39
  40. Potassium-41
  41. Calcium-40
  42. Calcium-42
  43. Calcium-43
  44. Calcium-44
  45. Calcium-46
  46. Scandium-45
  47. Titanium-46
  48. Titanium-47
  49. Titanium-48
  50. Titanium-49
  51. Titanium-50
  52. Vanadium-51
  53. Chromium-52
  54. Chromium-53
  55. Chromium-54
  56. Manganese-55
  57. Iron-54
  58. Iron-56
  59. Iron-57
  60. Iron-58
  61. Cobalt-59
  62. Nickel-58
  63. Nickel-60
  64. Nickel-61
  65. Nickel-62
  66. Nickel-64
  67. Copper-63
  68. Copper-65
  69. Zinc-64
  70. Zinc-66
  71. Zinc-67
  72. Zinc-68
  73. Zinc-70
  74. Gallium-69
  75. Gallium-71
  76. Germanium-70
  77. Germanium-72
  78. Germanium-73
  79. Germanium-74
  80. Arsenic-75
  81. Selenium-74
  82. Selenium-76
  83. Selenium-77
  84. Selenium-78
  85. Selenium-80
  86. Bromine-79
  87. Bromine-81
  88. Krypton-80
  89. Krypton-82
  90. Krypton-83
  91. Krypton-84
  92. Krypton-86
  93. Rubidium-85
  94. Strontium-84
  95. Strontium-86
  96. Strontium-87
  97. Strontium-88
  98. Yttrium-89
  99. Zirconium-90
  100. Zirconium-91
  101. Zirconium-92
  102. Zirconium-94
  103. Niobium-93
  104. Molybdenum-92
  105. Molybdenum-94
  106. Molybdenum-95
  107. Molybdenum-96
  108. Molybdenum-97
  109. Molybdenum-98
    Technetium - No stable isotopes
  110. Ruthenium-96
  111. Ruthenium-98
  112. Ruthenium-99
  113. Ruthenium-100
  114. Ruthenium-101
  115. Ruthenium-102
  116. Ruthenium-104
  117. Rhodium-103
  118. Palladium-102
  119. Palladium-104
  120. Palladium-105
  121. Palladium-106
  122. Palladium-108
  123. Palladium-110
  124. Silver-107
  125. Silver-109
  126. Cadmium-106
  127. Cadmium-108
  128. Cadmium-110
  129. Cadmium-111
  130. Cadmium-112
  131. Cadmium-114
  132. Indium-113
  133. Tin-112
  134. Tin-114
  135. Tin-115
  136. Tin-116
  137. Tin-117
  138. Tin-118
  139. Tin-119
  140. Tin-120
  141. Tin-122
  142. Tin-124
  143. Antimony-121
  144. Antimony-123
  145. Tellurium-122
  146. Tellurium-123
  147. Tellurium-124
  148. Tellurium-126
  149. Iodine-127
  150. Xenon-126
  151. Xenon-128
  152. Xenon-129
  153. Xenon-130
  154. Xenon-131
  155. Xenon-132
  156. Xenon-134
  157. Xenon-136
  158. Caesium-133
  159. Barium-132
  160. Barium-134
  161. Barium-135
  162. Barium-136
  163. Barium-137
  164. Barium-138
  165. Lanthanum-139
  166. Cerium-138
  167. Cerium-140
  168. Praseodymium-141
  169. Neodymium-142
  170. Neodymium-143
  171. Neodymium-145
  172. Neodymium-146
  173. Neodymium-148
    Promethium - No stable isotopes
  174. Samarium-144
  175. Samarium-150
  176. Samarium-152
  177. Samarium-154
  178. Europium-153
  179. Gadolinium-154
  180. Gadolinium-155
  181. Gadolinium-156
  182. Gadolinium-157
  183. Gadolinium-158
  184. Gadolinium-160
  185. Terbium-159
  186. Dysprosium-156
  187. Dysprosium-158
  188. Dysprosium-160
  189. Dysprosium-161
  190. Dysprosium-162
  191. Dysprosium-163
  192. Dysprosium-164
  193. Holmium-165
  194. Erbium-162
  195. Erbium-164
  196. Erbium-166
  197. Erbium-167
  198. Erbium-168
  199. Erbium-170
  200. Thulium-169
  201. Ytterbium-168
  202. Ytterbium-170
  203. Ytterbium-171
  204. Ytterbium-172
  205. Ytterbium-173
  206. Ytterbium-174
  207. Ytterbium-176
  208. Lutetium-175
  209. Hafnium-176
  210. Hafnium-177
  211. Hafnium-178
  212. Hafnium-179
  213. Hafnium-180
  214. Tantalum-181
  215. Tungsten-182
  216. Tungsten-183
  217. Tungsten-184
  218. Tungsten-186
  219. Rhenium-185
  220. Osmium-187
  221. Osmium-188
  222. Osmium-189
  223. Osmium-190
  224. Osmium-192
  225. Iridium-191
  226. Iridium-193
  227. Platinum-192
  228. Platinum-194
  229. Platinum-195
  230. Platinum-196
  231. Platinum-198
  232. Gold-197
  233. Mercury-198
  234. Mercury-199
  235. Mercury-200
  236. Mercury-201
  237. Mercury-202
  238. Mercury-204
  239. Thallium-203
  240. Thallium-205
  241. Lead-206
  242. Lead-207
  243. Lead-208

A hydrogen atom is an atom of the element hydrogen. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Helium-3 is a non-radioactive and light isotope of helium. ... Helium-4 is a non-radioactive and light isotope of helium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/gray Atomic mass 6. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Lithium, Li, 3 Series Alkali metal Group, Period, Block 1(IA), 2, s Density, Hardness 535 kg/m3, 0. ... Although beryllium (Be) has multiple isotopes, only one of these isotopes is stable; as such, it is considered a monoisotopic element. ... Boron (B) Standard atomic mass: 10. ... Boron (B) Standard atomic mass: 10. ... Carbon 12 is a stable isotope of the element carbon. ... Carbon-13 is a stable isotope of carbon. ... Nitrogen-14 is a stable, non-radioactive isotope of the nitrogen element. ... Nitrogen-15 is a stable, non-radioactive isotope of nitrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance transparent (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... Oxygen (O) Standard atomic mass: 15. ... Oxygen-18 is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes. ... Although fluorine (F) has multiple isotopes, only one of these isotopes is stable; as such, it is considered a monoisotopic element. ... Neon (Ne) Standard atomic mass: 20. ... Neon (Ne) Standard atomic mass: 20. ... Neon (Ne) Standard atomic mass: 20. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Magnesium (Mg) Standard atomic mass: 24. ... Magnesium (Mg) Standard atomic mass: 24. ... Magnesium (Mg) Standard atomic mass: 24. ... Aluminium (Al) has multiple isotopes. ... Silicon (Si) Standard atomic mass: 28. ... Silicon (Si) Standard atomic mass: 28. ... Silicon (Si) Standard atomic mass: 28. ... Sulfur (S) Standard atomic mass: 32. ... Argon (Ar) Standard atomic mass: 39. ... Calcium (Ca) Standard atomic mass: 40. ... Iron (Fe) Standard atomic mass: 55. ... Iron-56 is the most common isotope of iron. ... Iron (Fe) Standard atomic mass: 55. ... Naturally occurring Iron (Fe) consists of four isotopes: 5. ... Naturally occurring cobalt (Co) is composed of 1 stable isotope, 59Co. ... Nickel (Ni) Standard atomic mass: 58. ... Nickel (Ni) Standard atomic mass: 58. ... Nickel-62 is an isotope of nickel with 28 protons and 34 neutrons. ... Selenium (Se) has six naturally-occurring isotopes, five of which are stable: 74Se, 76Se, 77Se, 78Se, and 80Se. ... There are 31 known isotopes of Krypton (Kr). ... Technetium (Tc) Has no stable isotopes. ... Naturally occurring rhodium (Rh) is composed of only one isotope, 103Rh. ... Naturally-occurring Palladium (Pd) is composed of six isotopes. ... Tellurium-124 or 124Te is a stable isotope of tellurium. ... Naturally occurring Xenon (Xe) is made of seven stable and two slightly radioactive isotopes. ... Naturally occurring Xenon (Xe) is made of seven stable and two slightly radioactive isotopes. ... Promethium (Pm) Has no stable isotopes. ... Naturally occurring Gadolinium (Gd) is composed of 5 stable isotopes, 154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd and 158Gd, and 2 radioisotopes, 152Gd and 160Gd, with 158Gd being the most abundant (24. ... Thallium (Tl) has 25 isotopes which have atomic masses that range from 184 to 210. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ...

See also

This isotope table shows all of the known isotopes of the chemical elements, arranged with increasing atomic numbers (proton numbers) from left to right and increasing neutron numbers from top to bottom. ... These isotope tables show all of the known isotopes of the chemical elements, arranged with increasing atomic number from left to right and increasing neutron number from top to bottom. ... Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of Geology based upon study of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes in the Earth. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created radiation particle within the nucleus, or else to an atomic electron (see internal conversion) . The radionuclide, in this process, undergoes radioactive decay...

References

  1. ^ WWW Table of Radioactive Isotopes.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stable isotope overview (2022 words)
Among stable isotopes the most useful as biological tracers are the heavy isotopes of carbon and nitrogen.
Isotopes of the same element take part in the same chemical reactions, but because the atoms of different isotopes are of different sizes and different atomic weights they react at different rates.
Stable isotope analysis gives an independent measure of fractionation such that if, for instance, a sample is 1.5% heavier in 13C than "modern standard carbon" through the effects of fractionation, then it will be 3% heavier in 14C than it would have been had fractionation not taken place.
Isotope - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (954 words)
Isotopes are forms of an element whose nuclei have the same atomic number–-the number of protons in the nucleus--but different atomic masses because they contain different numbers of neutrons.
The word isotope, meaning at the same place, comes from the fact that all isotopes of an element are located at the same place on the periodic table.
In scientific nomenclature, isotopes (nuclides) are specified by the name of the particular element by a hyphen and the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in the atomic nucleus (e.g., helium-3, carbon-12, carbon-14, iron-57, uranium-238).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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