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Encyclopedia > St. Vitus Cathedral
St. Vitus Cathedral. Entire cathedral is situated inside the Prague Castle complex
St. Vitus Cathedral. Entire cathedral is situated inside the Prague Castle complex
A view from south: the main tower and the Golden Gate. The uncompleted gothic main tower was finished as baroque by Nikolaus Pacassi.
A view from south: the main tower and the Golden Gate. The uncompleted gothic main tower was finished as baroque by Nikolaus Pacassi.
The view of the cathedral and The castle above the river Vltava.
The view of the cathedral and The castle above the river Vltava.
The front view of the Cathedral with its rose window.
The front view of the Cathedral with its rose window.
The zigzag pattern of net vaults from crossing down towards choir
Intricate stained glass inside the Cathedral
Intricate stained glass inside the Cathedral
Flying buttresses with pinnacles suporting the choir. (View from the main tower)
Flying buttresses with pinnacles suporting the choir. (View from the main tower)

Saint Vitus's Cathedral (Czech: Katedrála svatého Víta) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Prague, Czech Republic, and the seat of the Archbishop of Prague. The full name of the cathedral is St. Vitus, St. Wenceslas and St. Adalbert Cathedral. Located within Prague Castle and containing the tombs of many Bohemian kings, this cathedral is an excellent example of Gothic architecture and is the biggest and most important church in the country. Image File history File linksMetadata Hradschin-fullview. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hradschin-fullview. ... Entrance to the Prague Castle at night The Prague Castle (Czech: Pražský hrad) is the castle in Prague where the Czech kings, Holy Roman Emperors and presidents of Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic have had their offices. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 511 KB) Prague, Hradčany, St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 511 KB) Prague, Hradčany, St. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Pacassis reconstructed Kärntnertortheater as it looked ca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Moldau-vitus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Moldau-vitus. ... The Vltava   (Moldau in German and many other Germanic languages, Moldva in Hungarian, unrelated to the Moldova river of Romania) is the longest river in the Czech Republic, draining into the north from its source in Å umava through ÄŒeský Krumlov, ÄŒeské BudÄ›jovice, and Prague (Praha), merging with the Elbe... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1803 KB) St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1803 KB) St. ... The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 73 KB) Summary Photo taken by myself, contributed for St Vitus cathedral article. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 73 KB) Summary Photo taken by myself, contributed for St Vitus cathedral article. ... Cathedral floor plan (crossing is shaded) A crossing, in ecclesiastical architecture, refers to the junction of the four arms of a cruciform (cross-shaped) church. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1463x974, 633 KB) Beautiful stained glass adorns the interior of St Vitus Cathedral. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1463x974, 633 KB) Beautiful stained glass adorns the interior of St Vitus Cathedral. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1004x946, 248 KB) photo by Radomil 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1004x946, 248 KB) photo by Radomil 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: St. ... Flying buttresses at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. ... pinnacle Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk, Ostend, Belgium A pinnacle (from Latin pinnaculum, a little feather, pinna) is an architectural ornament originally forming the cap or crown of a buttress or small turret, but afterwards used on parapets at the corners of towers and in many other situations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... The following is a list of bishops and archbishops of Prague: Bishops of Prague 1. ... Vitus is a Latin given name meaning lively. ... Wenceslas (or Wenceslaus; Czech: Václav; German: Wenzel), styled Wenceslas I, Duke of Bohemia (b. ... Silver coffin of St. ... Entrance to the Prague Castle at night The Prague Castle (Czech: Pražský hrad) is the castle in Prague where the Czech kings, Holy Roman Emperors and presidents of Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic have had their offices. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The Lands of the Czech /Bohemian/ Crown (Czech zemÄ› Koruny české, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ...

Contents

Beginnings

The first church — also consecrated to St. Vitus — that stood at the location of the present-day cathedral was an early romanesque rotunda founded by Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia in 925. This patron saint was chosen because Wenceslaus had acquired a holy relic — the arm of St. Vitus — from Emperor Henry I. It is also possible that Wenceslaus, wanting to convert his subjects to Christianity more easily, chose a saint whose name sounds very much like the name of Slavic solar deity Svantevit. Two religious populations, the increasing Christian and decreasing pagan community, lived simultaneously in Prague castle at least until the 11th century. South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The famous Rotunda church in Thessaloniki, Greece. ... Statue of Saint Wenceslaus in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Svetovid statue in Kraków, Poland Sventevith, Svetovid, Suvid, Svantevit, Svantovit, Sventovit, Zvantevith, ÅšwiÄ™towit, Sutvid, Vid. ...


In the year 1060, as the bishopric of Prague was founded, prince Spythinev II embarked on building a more spacious church, as it became clear the existing rotunda was too small to accommodate the faithful. A much larger and more representative romanesque basilica was built in its spot. Though still not completely reconstructed, most experts agree it was a triple-aisled basilica with two choirs and a pair of towers connected to the western transept. The design of the cathedral nods to Romanesque architecture of the Holy Roman Empire, most notably to the abbey church in Hildesheim and the Speyer Cathedral. The southern apse of the rotunda was incorporated into the eastern transept of the new church because it housed the tomb of St. Wenceslaus, who had by now become the patron saint of the Czech princes. A bishop's mansion was also built south of the new church, and was considerably enlarged and extended in the mid 12th-century. Events May - The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... St. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Michaeliskirche: View from southeast. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


The Gothic Cathedral

The present day Gothic Cathedral was founded on 21st of November, 1344, when the Prague bishopric was raised to an archbishopric. Its patrons were the chapter of cathedral (led by a Dean), the Archbishop Arnost of Pardubice, and, above all, Charles IV, King of Bohemia and a soon-to-be Holy Roman Emperor, who intended the new cathedral to be a coronation church, family crypt, treasury for the most precious relics of the kingdom, and the last resting place cum pilgrimage site of patron saint Wenceslaus. The first master builder was a Frenchman Matthias of Arras, summoned from the papal palace in Avignon. Matthias designed the overall layout of the building as, basically, an import of French Gothic: a triple-naved basilica with flying buttresses, short transept, five-bayed choir and decagon apse with ambulatory and radiating chapels. However, he lived to build only the easternmost parts of the choir: the arcades and the ambulatory. The slender verticality of Late French Gothic and clear, almost rigid respect of proportions distinguish his work today. Events English king Edward III introduces three new gold coins, the florin. ... Arnost of Pardubice (Czech: Arnošt z Pardubic, German: Ernst Parduebitz or Ernst von Pardubice) (March 25, 1297 - June 30, 1364) was the first Archbishop of Prague. ... Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Matthias of Arras (1290? Arras - 1352 Prague), sometimes spelled as Matthew of Arras, was a French architect, famed for his work on Saint Vitus Cathedral in Prague. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Flying buttresses at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. ... Cathedral ground plan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... The ambulatory (Med. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... For other uses, see Arcade. ...


After Matthias' death in 1352, a new master builder took over the cathedral workshop. This was Peter Parler, at that time only 23-years old and son of the architect of the Heiligenkreutzkirche in Schwäbische Gmünd. Parler at first only worked according to the plans left by his predecessor, building the sacristy on the north side of the choir and the chapel on the south. Once he finished all that Matthias left unfinished, he continued according to his own ideas. Parler's bold and innovative design brought in a unique new synthesis of Gothic elements in architecture. This is best exemplified in the vaults he designed for the choir. The so-called Parler's vaults or net-vaults have double (not single, as in classic High Gothic groin vaults) diagonal ribs that span the width of the choir-bay. The crossing pairs of ribs create a net-like construction (hence the name), which considerably strengthens the vault. They also give a lively ornamentation to the ceiling, as the interlocking vaulted bays create a dynamic zigzag pattern down the length of the cathedral. Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. ... Peter Parler (1330 Schwäbisch Gmünd - 1399 Prague) was a German architect, known for building Saint Vitus Cathedral and Charles Bridge in Prague. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ... GÃ¥rdslösa Church, Öland, Sweden A groin vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault or cross vault) is a vault produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. ...


While Matthias of Arras was schooled as a geometer, thus putting an emphasis on rigid systems of proportions and clear, mathematical compositions in his design, Parler was trained as sculptor and woodcarver. He treated architecture as a sculpture, almost as if playing with structural forms in stone. Aside from his rather bold vaults, the peculiarities of his work can also be seen in the design of pillars (with classic, bell-shaped columns which were almost forgotten by High Gothic), the ingenious dome vault of new St Wenceslaus chapel, the undulating clerestory walls, the original window tracery (no two of his windows are the same, the ornamentation is always different) and the blind tracery pannels of the buttresses. Architectural sculpture was given a considerable role while Parler was in charge of construction, as can be seen in the corbels, the passageway lintels, and, particularly, in the busts on the triforium, which depict faces of the royal family, saints, Prague bishops, and the two master builders, including Parler himself. Deconstructing a Roman pillar. ... High Gothic is the term used within the Warhammer 40,000 universe relating to a language used by the Imperium of Man. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Tracery is implementation of net-like decorations in a building used especially in Gothic architecture. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... Triforium is an architectural term. ...


Work on the cathedral, however, proceeded rather slowly, due to the fact that in the meantime the Emperor commissioned Parler with many other projects, such as the construction of the new Charles bridge in Prague and many churches throughout the Czech realm. By 1397, when Peter Parler died, only the choir and parts of the transept were finished. Charles Bridge and Prague Old Town Charles Bridge as viewed from Petřínská rozhledna - lookout tower Charles Bridge (Czech:  ) is a famous historical bridge that crosses the Vltava river in Prague, Czech Republic. ... Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. ...


After Peter Parler's death in 1406 his sons, Wenzel Parler and particularly Johannes Parler, continued his work; they in turn were succeeded by a certain Master Petrilk, who by all accounts was also a member of Parler's workshop. Under these three masters, the transept and the great tower on its south side were finished. So was the gable which connects the tower with the south transept. Nicknamed 'Golden Gate' (likely because of the golden mosaic of Last Judgment depicted on it), it is through this portal that the kings entered the cathedral for coronation ceremonies. Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... St. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Last Judgment. ...


The entire building process came to a halt with the beginning of Hussite War in the first half of 15th century. The war brought an end to the workshop that operated steadily over for almost a century, and the furnishings of cathedral, dozens of pictures and sculptures, suffered heavily from the ravages of Hussite iconoclasm. As if this was not enough, a great fire in 1541 considerably damaged the cathedral. The Hussite Wars involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1420 to circa 1434. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ...


St. Wenceslas Chapel

Perhaps the most outstanding place in the cathedral is the Chapel of St. Wenceslas, where the relics of the saint are kept. The room was built by Peter Parler between 1344 and 1364 and has a ribbed vault. The lower part of the walls are wonderfully decorated with over 1300 semi-precious stones and paintings about the Passion of Christ dating from the original decoration of the chapel in 1372-1373. The upper part of the walls have paintings about the life of St Wenceslas from 1506-1509. In the middle of the wall there is a gothic statue of St Wenceslas executed by Jindrich Parler (Peter's nephew) in 1373. Unfortunately the Chapel is not accessible by members of the public, but can be viewed from its doorways instead.
A small door with seven locks, in the south-western corner of the chapel, leads to the Crown Chamber containing the Bohemian Coronation Jewels. Wenceslas (or Wenceslaus; Czech: Václav; German: Wenzel), styled Wenceslas I, Duke of Bohemia (b. ... In architecture, a vault is an arched structure of masonry, forming a ceiling or canopy. ...


Renaissance and Baroque

Through most of the following centuries, the cathedral stood only half-finished. It was built up to the great tower and a transept, which was closed by a provisional wall. In the place of a three-aisled nave-to-be-built, a timber-roofed construction stood, and services were held separately there from the interior of the choir. Several attempts to continue the work on cathedral were mostly unsuccessful. In the latter half of 15th century, king Vladislav Jagiellon commissioned the great Renaissance-Gothic architect Benedict Ried to continue the work on the cathedral, but almost as soon as the work began, it was cut short because of lack of funds. Later attempts to finish the cathedral only brought some Renaissance and Baroque elements into the Gothic building, most notably the obviously different Baroque spire of the south tower and the great organ in the northern wing of transept. Ladislaus Jagellion (in Czech Vladislav Jagellonský, in Hungarian II. Ulászló) was the King of Bohemia from 1471 and the King of Hungary from 1490 until his death in 1516. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...


Completion in 19th and 20th century

The Mucha window
The Mucha window
The 20th century architects shown around Neo-Gothic elements
The 20th century architects shown around Neo-Gothic elements

In 1844 Vaclav Pesina, an energetic canon St Vitus, together with Neo-Gothic architect Josef Kranner presented a program for renovation and completion of the great cathedral at the gathering of German architects in Prague. The same year a society under the full name "Union for Completion of the Cathedral of St Vitus in Prague" was formed, whose aim was to repair, complete and get rid of "everything mutilated and stylistically inimical". Josef Kranner was heading what was mostly repair work from 1861 to 1866, getting rid of Baroque decorations deemed unnecessary and restoring the interior. In 1870 the foundations of the new nave were finally laid, and in 1873, after Kramer's death, architect Josef Mocker took over the reconstruction. It was he who designed the west facade in a typical classic Gothic manner with two towers, and the same design was adopted, after his death, by the third and final architect of restoration, Kamil Hilbert. The famous Czech secession painter Alfons Mucha decorated the new windows in the north part of nave. The Rose Window was designed by Frantisek Kysela in 1925-7. This Rose Window above the portal depicts scenes from the biblical story of creation. By the time of St Wenceslas jubilee in 1929, the St Vitus cathedral was finally finished; it took almost 600 years to built it. Despite the fact that entire western half of Cathedral is a Neo-Gothic addition, much of the design and elements developed by Peter Parler were used in the restoration, giving the Cathedral as a whole a harmonious, unified look. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 510 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (828 × 974 pixel, file size: 590 KB, MIME type: image/png) St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 510 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (828 × 974 pixel, file size: 590 KB, MIME type: image/png) St. ... Jan. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Josef Mocker (1835-1899) - Bohemian architect and restaurator, that worked in a purist gothic style. ... Gresham Palace, Budapest Secessionism (German: ; Hungarian: ) is a term coined by Hans-Ulrich Simon to describe and summarise the movements in art and literature in late 19th and early 20th century Europe. ... Alfons Maria Mucha (or Alphonse Maria Mucha)   (July 24, 1860–July 14, 1939) was a Czech painter and decorative artist. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Influence

The Cathedral of St. Vitus had tremendous influence on the development of Late Gothic style characteristic for Central Europe. Members of Parler workshop, and indeed, the Parler clan (both of which were established at the building site of St. Vitus) designed numerous churches and buildings across Central Europe. More notable examples include Stephansdom cathedral in Vienna, Strasbourg Cathedral, Church of St. Marko in Zagreb and the Church of St. Barbara in Kutna Hora, also in Czech Republic. Regional Gothic styles of Slovenia, northern Croatia, Austria, Czech Republic, Poland and southern Germany were all heavily influenced by Parler design. Gothic art refers to the art of the Gothic cultural movement in northern Europe. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... // The Stephansdom (Cathedral of Saint Stephen), in Vienna, Austria, is the seat of a Roman Catholic Archbishop, a beloved symbol of Vienna, and the site of many important events in Austrias national life. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... West façade of the cathedral The Cathédrale Notre-Dame (English Our Ladys Cathedral) in Strasbourg, France belongs to the grand history of European cathedrals architectural design. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - City 641. ... St. ... Kutná Hora (German: Kuttenberg) is a city of the Czech Republic in Bohemia, Central Bohemian Region. ...


Of particular interest are Parler's net vaults. The Late Gothic of Central Europe is characterised by ornate and extraordinary vaulting, a practice which was started by Parler's development of his own vaulting system for the choir of St. Vitus cathedral. Another regional Gothic style also displays amazing ingenuity and ornamentation in the design of vaults, the Perpendicular Style of English Gothic. A question remains of what was influenced by what. Some British art and architecture historians suspected that Peter Parler might have travelled to England at some point in his life, studying the great English Gothic cathedrals, which then inspired his work on St Vitus. However, taking into account that the Perpendicular style and the use of truly extravagant vaults in English Gothic began at the very end of 14th century, it is also quite possible that it was St Vitus Cathedral of Prague that influenced the development of English Gothic. A rib vault or ribbed vault is any vault reinforced by masonry ribs. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Winchester Cathedral Sherborne Abbey The Perpendicular Gothic period (or simply Perpendicular) is the third historical division of English Gothic architecture, and is so-called because it is characterised by an emphasis on vertical lines; it is also known as the Rectilinear style, or Late Gothic. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ...


Trivia

Japanese visual-kei band Malice Mizer featured St. Vitus Cathedral on the cover of their gothic-themed album Bara no Seidou ("Rose Cathedral" in English). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 薔薇の聖堂 (Bara no Seidou or The Church of Roses, in English) is Malice Mizers fourth and final album, released on their indie label, Midi:Nette. ...

St. Vitus on the cover of Bara no Seidou.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

References

  • K. Benesovska, P. Chotebor, T. Durdik, M. Placek, D. Prix, V. Razim, "Architecture of the Gothic", vol. 2 of "Ten centuries of architecture" series, Prague Castle Administration & DaDa, a.s., Prague 2001, ISBN 80-86161-41-2 (English version)
  • P. Zatloukal, "Architecture of the 19th Century", vol. 5 of "Ten centuries of architecture" series, Prague Castle Administration & DaDa, a.s., Prague 2001, ISBN 80-86161-41-2 (English version)

External links

  • Website of the cathedral (en, cz)
  • Information from the Prague Castle administration site
  • Photo of the exterior of the Cathedral

Gallery

Coordinates: 50°05′27″N, 14°24′03″E Download high resolution version (576x768, 99 KB)Hradcany from Petrin Tower File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1439 KB) Author: MilesTeg Date: 12/03/2004 Source: Prague File links The following pages link to this file: St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Veitsdom-sideview. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1787x1182, 323 KB) photo by Radomil 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1803 KB) St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x2448, 749 KB) Author: Patrick-Emil Zörner Paddy File links The following pages link to this file: St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 511 KB) Prague, Hradčany, St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x2448, 740 KB) Author: Patrick-Emil Zörner Paddy File links The following pages link to this file: St. ... St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2580x1720, 1239 KB) Taken by myself, Hellinterface, 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 2383 KB) Saint Vitus Catherdral Inside - xidis - 5-3-2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


 
 

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