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Encyclopedia > St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano

The interior of St. Peter's Basilica by Giovanni Paolo Pannini
Saint Peters Basilica by Giovanni Paolo Panini (1691-1765) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The interior of the Pantheon, Rome Giovanni Paolo Pannini or Panini (Piacenza, June 17, 1691 – Rome, October 21, 1765) was an Italian painter and architect. ...

Basic information
Location Vatican City
Geographic coordinates 41°54′8″N 12°27′12″E / 41.90222, 12.45333Coordinates: 41°54′8″N 12°27′12″E / 41.90222, 12.45333
Religious affiliation Roman Catholic
Year consecrated 1626
Ecclesiastical status Major basilica
Architectural description
Architect(s) Donato Bramante

Antonio da Sangallo the Younger
Michelangelo
Vignola
Giacomo della Porta
Carlo Maderno
Gianlorenzo Bernini Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... The following is a list of religions and spiritual traditions. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or Christian denomination. ... The Basilica of St. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Donato Bramante Donato Bramante (1444 – March 11, 1514) was an Italian architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his most famous design was St. ... Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (or Antonio Cordiani) (April 12, 1484 - August 3, 1546) was a Florentine architect active during the Italian Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... The Rocca of Vignola. ... Giacomo della Porta (c. ... Façade of St. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ...

Architectural type Church
Architectural style Renaissance and Baroque
Direction of facade East
Year completed 1626
Specifications
Capacity 60,000 +
Materials Stone and marble

The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: Basilica Sancti Petri), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. Peter's Basilica, is located within the Vatican City in Rome. It occupies a "unique position" as one of the holiest sites and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom".[1][2][3] In Catholic tradition, it is the burial site of its namesake Saint Peter, who was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to tradition, was the first Bishop of Antioch, and later first Bishop of Rome. While St. Peter's is the most famous of Rome's many churches, it is not the first in rank, an honour held by the Pope's cathedral church, the Basilica of St. John Lateran. (See: Status) For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... A compass rose For other uses, see East (disambiguation). ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Concrete and metal rebar used to build a floor Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... St Peter redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Patriarch of Antioch, is one of the original patriarchs of early Christianity, who were bishops with influence over other sees. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica of St. ...


Catholic tradition holds that Saint Peter's tomb is below the altar of the basilica. For this reason, many Popes, starting with the first ones, have been buried there. There has been a church on this site since the 4th century. Construction on the present basilica, over the old Constantinian basilica, began on April 18, 1506 and was completed in 1626.[4] // On December 23, 1950, in his pre-Christmas radio broadcast to the world, Pope Pius XII announced the discovery of Saint Peters tomb. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Look up Constantine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


St. Peter's is famous as a place of pilgrimage, for its liturgical functions and for its historical associations. It is associated with the papacy, with the Counter-reformation and with numerous artists, most significantly Michelangelo. As a work of architecture, it is regarded as the greatest building of its age.[5] Contrary to popular misconception, Saint Peter's is not a cathedral, as it is not the seat of a bishop. It is properly termed a basilica. Like all the earliest churches in Rome,[6] it has the entrance to the east and the apse at the west end of the building. This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Status

St. Peter's Basilica from the River Tiber. The iconic dome dominates the skyline of Rome.
St. Peter's Basilica from the River Tiber. The iconic dome dominates the skyline of Rome.

The Basilica of St. Peter is one of four major basilicas of Rome, the others being the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Maria Maggiore and St. Paul outside the Walls). It is the most prominent building inside the Vatican City. Its dome is a dominant feature of the skyline of Rome. Probably the largest church in Christianity,[7] it covers an area of 2.3 ha (5.7 acres) and has a capacity of over 60,000 people. One of the holiest sites of Christendom in the Catholic tradition, it is traditionally the burial site of its namesake Saint Peter, who was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to Roman Catholic tradition, also the first Bishop of Antioch, and later first Bishop of Rome. Although the New Testament does not mention Peter's presence or martyrdom in Rome, Catholic tradition holds that his tomb is below the baldachin and altar; for this reason, many Popes, starting with the first ones, have been buried there. Construction on the current basilica, over the old Constantinian basilica, began on April 18, 1506 and was completed in 1626.[8] Tiber River in Rome The River Tiber (Italian Tevere), the third longest river in Italy (disputed — see talk page) at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through the Campagna and Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Basilica of St. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica of St. ... Saint Mary Major, in Italian, Santa Maria Maggiore, is one of the five great ancient basilicas of Rome, Italy. ... St. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... St Peter redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Patriarch of Antioch, is one of the original patriarchs of early Christianity, who were bishops with influence over other sees. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... The Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes under a canopy of estate, on a dais: there is a cushion under his feet Margaret Beaufort, Queen Mother, at prayer, by an anonymous artist, about 1500 Engraving of the Gnadenaltar in the Vierzehnheiligen Basilica, Bad Staffelstein, Bavaria. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although the Vatican basilica is neither the Pope's official seat or first in rank among the great basilicas,(St. John Lateran) it is most certainly his principal church, as most Papal ceremonies take place at St. Peter's due to its size, proximity to the Papal residence, and location within the Vatican City walls. In the apse of the basilica is Bernini's monument enclosing the "Chair of St. Peter" or cathedra, sometimes presumed to have been used by Saint Peter himself, but which was a gift from Charles the Bald and used by various popes.[9] Late Baroque façade of the Basilica, completed, after a competition for the design, by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 St. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... Cathedra Petri The chair of a bishop is a cathedra. ... The cathedra of the Pope in the apse of St. ... Charles the Bald[1] (numbered Charles II of France and the Holy Roman Emperor) (French: , German: ) (13 June 823 – 6 October 877), Holy Roman Emperor (875–877) and king of West Francia (840–877), was the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious, by his second wife Judith. ...


History

Burial site of St. Peter

Main article: Saint Peter's tomb

After the crucifixion of Jesus in the second quarter of the 1st century AD, it is recorded in the Biblical book of the Acts of the Apostles that one of his twelve disciples, Simon known as Peter, a fisherman from Galilee, took a leadership position among Jesus' followers and was of great importance in the founding of the Christian Church. Among those who were converted was Paul of Tarsus, known as the Apostle Paul, whose travels are recorded and from whose hand many letters exist, exhorting and encouraging a number of the local churches founded as Christianity spread across the Roman Empire. It is recorded that St. Paul travelled to Rome. It is believed by a long tradition that St. Peter also travelled to Rome and, like Paul, met his martyrdom there. // On December 23, 1950, in his pre-Christmas radio broadcast to the world, Pope Pius XII announced the discovery of Saint Peters tomb. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ...

The statue of Saint Peter in the basilica
The statue of Saint Peter in the basilica

According to Catholic tradition, Peter was the recognised head of the Christian church in Rome, and therefore its first bishop. It was to Peter, that Jesus said the words, recorded in the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 16, verse 18: "And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it" (King James Version). The name Peter is "Petrus" in Latin and "Petros" in Greek, deriving from "petra" which means "stone" or "rock" in Greek. The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


While it is accepted by the Protestant churches and the Orthodox churches that Jesus' statement refers to Peter's confession of faith: "Thou art the Christ and the Son of the Living God" (Matthew 16:16), the Roman Catholic Church adheres to the belief in the Primacy of Simon Peter and hence the continued primacy of his successors as bishops of Rome. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Bible, English, King James, Matthew A number of Christian denominations hold that Simon Peter was the most prominent of the apostles, favoured by Jesus of Nazareth with the first place of honour and authority. ...


Traditionally, it is believed that St. Peter was crucified head downwards. His remains were buried near a road leading out of the city, the Via Cornelia, on the hill Vaticanus. The location is known to have been the site of a pagan and Christian cemetery. Peter's grave was initially marked, not by a monument, but simply by a red rock, symbolic of his name, but insignificant to non-Christians. For the film starring Mario Lanza, see Seven Hills of Rome (film). ...


December 23, 1950, in his pre-Christmas radio broadcast to the world, Pope Pius XII announced the discovery of Saint Peter's tomb.[10] This was the culmination of 10 years of archaeological research under the crypt of the basilica, an area inaccessible since the 9th century. The burial place appears to have been an underground vault, with a structure above it believed to have been built by Pope Anacletus in the 1st century. Human remains were discovered, but it could not be ascertained with any certainty if they were indeed the bones of the apostle Peter. is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pius XIIs signature Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ... St Peter redirects here. ... Anacletus, or Anencletus, was the third pope (after St Peter and St Linus). ...

A conjectural view of the Old Saint Peter's Basilica by H. W. Brewer, 1891
A conjectural view of the Old Saint Peter's Basilica by H. W. Brewer, 1891

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (831x551, 501 KB) (Vaticano) como se encontrava ainda em 1450 – Basílica da época de Constantino. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (831x551, 501 KB) (Vaticano) como se encontrava ainda em 1450 – Basílica da época de Constantino. ... Drawing of Old Saint Peters Basilica at about 1450. ...

Old St. Peter's

Old St. Peter's Basilica was the fourth century church begun by the Emperor Constantine between 326 and 333 AD. It was of typical basilical Latin Cross form with an apsidal end at the chancel, a wide nave and two aisles on either side. It was over 103.6 metres (350 ft) long and the entrance was preceded by a large colonnaded atrium. This church had been built over the small shrine believed to mark the burial place of St. Peter. It contained a very large number of burials and memorials, including those of most of the popes from St. Peter to the 15th century. Since the construction of the current basilica, the name Old St. Peter's Basilica has been used for its predecesor to distinguish the two buildings.[11] Drawing of Old Saint Peters Basilica at about 1450. ... Constantine. ... The traditional form of the Christian cross, known as the Latin cross The Christian cross is a familiar religious symbol of most Christianity. ... In Anatomy, atrium refers to a structure of the heart. ...


The plan to rebuild

By the end of the 15th century, having been neglected during the period of the Avignon Papacy, the old basilica was in bad repair. It appears that the first pope to consider rebuilding, or at least making radical changes was Pope Nicholas V(1447 – 55). He commissioned work on the old building from Leone Battista Alberti and Bernardo Rossellino and also got Rossellino to design a plan for an entirely new basilica, or an extreme modification of the old. His reign was frustrated by political problems and when he died, little had been achieved. [12] He had, however, had 2,522 cartloads of stone transported from the Roman Colosseum.[13] The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397 – March 24, 1455) was Pope from March 6, 1447, to his death. ... Late statue of Leon Battista Alberti. ... Bernardo Gamberelli, better known as Bernardo Rossellino, (c. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ...


In 1505, Pope Julius II, failing to heed warnings that the death of Nicholas V was an omen to those who might interfere with St Peter's, in order to glorify Rome and also undoubtedly for his own self agrandizement,[5] made a decision to demolish the ancient building and replace with something grander. A competition was held, and a number of the designs have survived at the Uffizi Gallery. A succession of popes and architects followed in the next 120 years, their combined efforts resulting in the present building. The scheme begun by Julius II continued through the reigns of Leo X (1513 1521), Hadrian VI (1522 – 1523). Clement VII (1523 – 1534), Paul III (1534 – 1549), Julius III (1550 – 1555), Marcellus II (1555), Paul IV (1555 – 1559), Pius IV (1559 – 1565), Pius V (saint) (1565 – 1572), Gregory XIII (1572 – 1585), Sixtus V (1585 – 1590), Urban VII (1590), Gregory XIV (1590 – 1591), Innocent IX (1591), Clement VIII(1592 – 1605), Leo XI (1605), Paul V (1605 – 1621), Gregory XV (1621 – 1623), Urban VIII (1623 – 1644) and Innocent X (1644 – 1655) Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... The house where Adrian VI was born Adrian VI (also known as Hadrian VI or Adriano VI), born Adrian dEdel (March 2, 1459 - September 14, 1523), pope from 1522 to 1523, was born in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and studied under the Brethren of the Common Life either at Zwolle... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. ... Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. ... Pope Julius III (September 10, 1487 – March 23, 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was Pope from February 22, 1550 to 1555. ... Marcellus II, né Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi (May 6, 1501 – May 1, 1555), cardinal of Santa Croce, a native of the area of Ancona, Italy, was elected pope to succeed Julius III on April 9, 1555. ... Pope Paul IV (June 28, 1476 – August 18, 1559), né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from May 23, 1555 until his death. ... Pius IV, né Giovanni Angelo Medici (March 31, 1499 – December 9, 1565), pope from 1559 to 1565, was born of humble parentage in Milan, unrelated with the Medicis of Florence. ... Pope St. ... Pope Gregory XIII (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585. ... Pope Sixtus V (December 13, 1521 – August 27, 1590), born Felice Peretti, was Pope from 1585 to 1590. ... Pope Urban VII (August 4, 1521 – September 27, 1590), born Giovanni Battista Castagna, was Pope for thirteen days in September 1590. ... Pope Gregory XIV (February 11, 1535 â€“ October 16, 1591), born Niccolò Sfondrati, was Pope from December 5, 1590 â€“ October 16, 1591. ... Pope Innocent IX (July 20, 1519 – December 30, 1591), born Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti, who was born to a modest working family in the mountainous comune of Cravegna, in the diocese of Novara, northern Italy, was a Canon Lawyer, diplomat, and chief administrator during the reign of Pope Gregory XIV (1590... Pope Clement VIII (Fano, Italy, February 24, 1536 – March 3, 1605 in Rome), born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was Pope from January 30, 1592 to March 3, 1605. ... Leo XI, né Alessandro Ottaviano de Medici (June 2, 1535, Florence – April 27, 1605, Rome), was Pope from April 1, 1605 to April 27 of the same year. ... Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1552 – January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ... Pope Gregory XV with his Cardinal Nephew of unprecedented income and authority, Ludovico Ludovisi, known as il cardinale padrone. ... Pope Urban VIII (April 1568 – July 29, 1644), born Maffeo Barberini, was Pope from 1623 to 1644. ... Pope Innocent X (May 6, 1574 – January 7, 1655), born Giovanni Battista Pamphilj (or Pamphili), was Pope from 1644 to 1655[1]. Born in Rome of a family from Gubbio in Umbria who had come to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Innocent IX, he graduated from the Collegio Romano...


Architecture

Successive plans

Bramante's plan
Bramante's plan
Raphael's plan
Raphael's plan
Michelangelo's plan, extended with Maderna's nave and facade
Michelangelo's plan, extended with Maderna's nave and facade

Pope Julius' scheme for the grandest building in Christendom[5] was the subject of a competition for which a number of entries remain intact in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. It was the design of Bramante that was selected, and for which the foundation stone was laid in 1506. This plan was in the form of an enormous Greek Cross with a dome inspired by that of the huge circular Roman temple, the Pantheon.[5] The main difference between Bramante's design and that of the Pantheon is that where the dome of the Pantheon is supported by a continuous wall, that of the new basilica was to be supported only on four large piers. This feature was maintained in the ultimate design. Bramante's dome was to be surmounted by a lantern with its own small dome but otherwise very similar in form to the Early Renaissance lantern of Florence Cathedral designed for Brunelleschi's dome by Michelozzo.[14] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 341 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (497 × 874 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Proyecto de Rafael. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 341 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (497 × 874 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Proyecto de Rafael. ... Donato Bramante Donato Bramante (1444 - March 11, 1514), Italian architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his most famous design was St. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up Pantheon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... View of the façade with Giottos Bell Tower. ... Palazzo Medici in Florence. ...


Bramante had envisioned that the central dome be surrounded by five lower domes at the diagonal axes. The equal chancel, nave and transept arms were each to be of two bays ending in an apse. At each corner of the building was to stand a tower, so that the overall plan was square, with the apses projecting at the cardinal points. Each apse had two large radial buttresses, which squared off its semi-circular shape.[15]


When Pope Julius died in 1513, Bramante was replaced with Giuliano da Sangallo, Fra Giocondo and Raphael. Sangallo and Fr Giocondo both died in 1515. The main change in Raphael's plan is the nave of five bays, with a row of complex apsidal chapels off the aisles on either side. Raphael's plan for the chancel and transepts made the squareness of the exterior walls more definite by reducing the size of the towers, and the semi-circular apses more clearly defined by encircling each with an ambulatory.[16] Portrait by Piero di Cosimo, c. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ...


In 1520 Raphael also died, in his early 30s, and his successor Peruzzi maintained changes that Raphael had proposed to the internal arrangement of the three main apses, but otherwise reverted to the Greek Cross plan and other features of Bramante.[17] This plan did not go ahead because of various difficulties of both church and state. In 1527 Rome was sacked and plundered by Emperor Charles V. Peruzzi died in 1536 without his plan being realised.[5] Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516-1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ...


At this point Antonio da Sangallo (known as "Sangallo the Younger") submitted a plan which combines features of Peruzzi, Raphael and Bramante in its design and extends the building into a short nave with a wide facade and portico of dynamic projection. His proposal for the dome was much more eleborate of both structure and decoration than that of Bramante and included ribs on the exterior. Like Bramante, Sangallo proposed that the dome be surmounted by a lantern which he redesigned to a larger and much more elaborate form.[18] Sangallo's main practical contribution was to strengthen Bramante's piers which had begun to crack.[19] There were two Florentine architects active during the Italian Renaissance named Antonio da Sangallo. ...


On January 1st, 1547 in the reign of Pope Paul III, Michelangelo, then in his 70s, succeeded Sangallo the Younger as "Capomaestro", the superintendent of the building program at St Peter's.[20] It is he that is to be regarded as the principal designer of a large part of the building as it stands today, and as bringing the construction to a point where it could be carried through. He did not take on the job with pleasure; it was forced upon him by Pope Paul, frustrated at the death of his chosen candidate, Giulio Romano and the refusal of Sansovino to leave Venice. Michelangelo wrote "I undertake this only for the love of God and in honour of the Apostle." He insisted that he should be given a free hand to achieve the ultimate aim by whatever means he saw fit.[19] Fire in the Borgo, Vatican fresco Giulio Romano (ca 1499? – November 1, 1546) was an Italian painter, architect, and decorator. ... Sansovino may be Andrea Sansovino, artist Francesco Sansovino, scholar Jacopo Sansovino, sculptor and architect See also: A.C. Sansovino football club. ...


Michelangelo's contribution

Michelangelo took over a building site at which four piers, enormous beyond any constructed since the days of Ancient Rome, were rising behind the remaining nave of the old basilica. He also inherited the numerous schemes designed and redesigned by some of the greatest architectural and engineering brains of the 16th century. There were certain common elements in these schemes. They all called for a dome to equal that engineered by Brunelleschi a century earlier and which has since dominated the skyline of Renaissance Florence, and they all called for a strongly symmetrical plan of either Greek Cross form, like the iconic St. Mark's Basilica in Venice, or of a Latin Cross with the transepts of identical form to the chancel as at Florence Cathedral. Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377 - 1446, was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. ... San Marco di Venezia, as seen from the Piazza San Marco St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco in Venezia) is the most famous of the churches of Venice and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ... View of the façade with Giottos Bell Tower. ...


Even though the work had progressed only a little in 40 years, Michelangelo did not simply dismiss the ideas of the previous architects. He drew on them in developing a grand vision. Above all, Michelangelo recognized the essential quality of Bramante's original design. He reverted to the Greek Cross and, as Helen Gardner expresses it: "Without destroying the centralising features of Bramante's plan, Michelangelo, with a few strokes of the pen converted its snowflake complexity into massive, cohesive unity."[21]


As it stands today, St. Peter's has been extended with a nave by Carlo Maderno. It is the chancel end (the ecclesiastical "Eastern end") with its huge centrally placed dome that is the work of Michelangelo. Because of its location within the Vatican State and because the projection of the nave screens the dome from sight when the building is approached from the square in front of it, the work of Michelangelo is best appreciated from a distance. What becomes apparent is that the architect has greatly reduced the clearly defined geometric forms of Bramante's plan of a square with square projections, and also of Raphael's plan of a square with semi-circular projections.[22] Michelangelo has blurred the definition of the geometry by making the external masonry of massive proportions and filling in every corner with a small vestry or stairwell. The effect created is of a continuous wall-surface that is folded or fractured at different angles, but lacks the right-angles which usually define change of direction at the corners of a building. This exterior is surrounded by a giant order of Corinthian pilasters all set at slightly different angles to each other, in keeping with the everchanging angles of the wall's surface. Above them the huge cornice ripples in a continous band, giving the appearance of keeping the whole building in a state of compression.[23] Façade of St. ... Motto: None Anthem: Inno e Marcia Pontificale Capital Vatican City1 41°54′ N 12°27′ E Largest city Vatican City1 Official languages Latin2 Government Head of State Secretary of State Governor Elective monarchy Pope Benedict XVI Angelo Cardinal Sodano Edmund Cardinal Szoka Independence -Treaty signed Lateran Treaties 11 February 1929...


Dome- successive designs and final solution

The dome of St. Peter's rises to a total height of 136.57 m (448.06 ft) from the floor of the basilica to the top of the external cross. It is the tallest dome in the world.[24] Its internal diameter is 41.47 metres (136.06 ft), being just slightly smaller than the two other huge domes that preceded it, those of the Pantheon of Ancient Rome and the Florence Cathedral of the Early Renaissance. It was to these two domes that the architects of St. Peter's looked for solutions as to how to go about building what was conceived, from the outset, as the greatest dome of Christendom. Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ...


Bramante and Sangallo

View down from the dome showing Bramante's huge piers and Michelangelo's apsidal termination.
View down from the dome showing Bramante's huge piers and Michelangelo's apsidal termination.

The dome of the Pantheon, 43.3 metres (142 ft), (the widest dome in the world until the building of the Sports Pavilion in Rome in ...date), stands on a circular wall with no entrances or windows except a single door. The whole building is as high as it is wide. Its dome is constructed in a single shell of concrete, made light by the inclusion of a large amount of the volcanic stones tufa and pumice. The inner surface of the dome is deeply coffered which has the effect of creating both vertical and horizontal ribs, while lightening the overall load. At the summit is an ocular opening ...metres (27 ft) across which provides light to the interior.[5] Photograph available under GFDL license. ... Photograph available under GFDL license. ... This article is about the construction material. ... Perspectival effect created when looking up at a painting. ...


Bramante's plan for the dome of St. Peter's follows that of the Pantheon very closely, and like that of the Pantheon, was designed to be constructed in tufa concrete for which he had rediscovered a formula. With the exception of the lantern that surmounts it, the profile is very similar, except that in this case the supporting wall becomes a drum raised high above ground level on four massive piers. The solid wall, as used at the Pantheon, is lightened at St. Peter's by Bramante piercing it with windows and encircling it with a peristyle. In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ...


In the case of Florence Cathedral, the desired visual appearance of the pointed dome existed for many years before Brunelleschi made its construction feasible.[25] Its double-shell construction of bricks locked together in herringbone pattern (re-introduced from Byzantine architecture), and the gentle upward slope of its eight stone ribs made it possible for the construction to take place without the massive wooden formwork necessary to construct hemispherical arches. While its appearance, with the exception of the details of the lantern, is entirely Gothic, its engineering was highly innovative, and the product of a mind that had studied the huge vaults and remaining dome of Ancient Rome.[14] Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377 - 1446, was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. ...


Sangallo's dome looks to both these predecessors. He realised the value of both the coffering at the Pantheon and the outer stone ribs at Florence Cathedral. He simplified, strengthened and extended the peristyle of Bramante into a series of arched and ordered openings around the base, with a second such arcade set back in a tier above the first. In his hands, the rather delicate form of the lantern, based closely on that in Florence, became a massive structure, surrounded by a projecting base, a peristyle and surmounted by a spire of conic form.[26] The whole design achieves the vertical massing and complexity of a three-tiered wedding cake, complete with icing-sugar lace.


Michelangelo and Giacomo della Porta

St. Peter's Basilica from Castel Sant'Angelo showing the dome rising behind Maderna's facade
St. Peter's Basilica from Castel Sant'Angelo showing the dome rising behind Maderna's facade

Michelangelo redesigned the dome, taking into account all that had gone before. His dome, like that of Florence, is constructed of two shells of brick, the outer one having 16 stone ribs, twice the number at Florence but far fewer than in Sangallo's design. As with the designs of Bramante and Sangallo, the dome is raised from the piers on a drum. The encircling peristyle of Bramante and the arcade of Sangallo are reduced to 16 pairs of Corinthian columns, each of ...metres (50 ft) high which stand proud of the building, connected by an arch. Visually they appear to buttress each of the ribs, but structurally they are probably quite redundant. The reason for this is that the dome is ovoid in shape, rising steeply as does the dome of Florence Cathedral, and therefore exerting less outward thrust than does a hemispherical dome, such as that of the Pantheon, which, although it it not butttressed, is countered by the downward thrust of heavy masonry which extends above the circling wall.[5][19] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 578 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 578 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... For the town with the same name, see Castel SantAngelo (RI) Castel SantAngelo from the bridge. ...


The ovoid profile of the dome has been the subject of much speculation and scholarship over the past century. Michelangelo died in 1564, leaving the drum of the dome complete, and Bramante's piers much bulkier than originally designed, each 18 metres (59 ft) across. On his death the work continued under his assistant Vignola with Giorgio Vasari appointed by Pope Pius V as a watchdog to make sure that Michelangelo's plans were carried out exactly. Despite Vignola's knowledge of Michelangelo's intentions, little happened in this period. In 1585 the energetic Pope Sixtus appointed Giacomo della Porta who was to be assisted by Domenico Fontana. The five year reign of Sixtus was to see the building advance at a great rate.[19] The Rocca of Vignola. ... Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, who is today famous for his biographies of Italian artists, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. ... Giacomo della Porta (c. ... Domenico Fontana (1543 – 1607) was an Italian architect of the late Renaissance. ...

The engraving by Stefan du Pérac was published in 1569, five years before the death of Michelangelo.
The engraving by Stefan du Pérac was published in 1569, five years before the death of Michelangelo.

Michelangelo left a few drawings, including an early drawing of the dome, and some drawings of details. There were also detailed engravings published in 1569 by Stefan du Pérac who claimed that they were the master's final solution. Michelangelo, like Sangallo before him, also left a large wooden model. Giacomo della Porta subsequently altered this model in several ways, in keeping with changes that he made to the design. Most of these changes were of a cosmetic nature, such as the adding of lion's masks over the swags on the drum in honour of Pope Sixtus and adding a circlet of finials around the spire at the top of the lantern, as proposed by Sangallo. The major change that was made to the model, either by della Porta, or Michelangelo himself before his death, was to raise the outer dome higher above the inner one.[19] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


A drawing by Michelangelo indicates that his early intentions were towards an ovoid dome, rather than a hemispherical one.[21] The engraving shows a hemispherical dome, but this was perhaps an inaccuracy of the engraver. The profile of the wooden model is more ovoid than that of the engraving, but less so than the finished product. It has been suggested that Michelangelo on his death bed reverted to the more pointed shape. However Lees-Milne cites Giacomo della Porta as taking full responsibility for the change and as indicating to Pope Sixtus that Michelangelo was lacking in the scientific understanding of which he himself was capable.[19]


Helen Gardner suggests that Michelangelo made the change to the hemispherical dome of lower profile in order to establish a balance between the dynamic vertical elements of the encircling giant order of pilasters and a more static and reposeful dome. Gardner also comments "The sculpturing of architecture [by Michelangelo]... here extends itself up from the ground through the attic stories and moves on into the drum and dome, the whole building being pulled together into a unity from base to summit."[21]


It is this sense of the building being sculptured, unified and "pulled together" by the encircling band of the deep cornice that led Mignacca to conclude that the ovoid profile, seen now in the end product, was an essential part Michelangelo's first (and last) concept. The sculptor/architect has, figuratively speaking, taken all the previous designs in hand and compressed their contours as if the building were a lump of clay. The dome must appear to thrust upwards because of the apparent pressure created by flattening the building's angles and restraining its projections.[23] If this explanation is the correct one, then the profile of the dome is not merely a structural solution, as perceived by Giacomo della Porta; it is part of the integrated design solution that is about visual tension and compression. In once sense, Michelangelo's dome may appear to look backward to the Gothic profile of Florence Cathedral and ignore the Classicism of the Renaissance, but on the other hand, perhaps more than any other building of the 1500s, it prefigures the architecture of the Baroque. Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...


Completion

The dome was brought to completion by Giacomo della Porta and Fontana.
The dome was brought to completion by Giacomo della Porta and Fontana.

Giacomo della Porta and Fontana brought the dome to a completion in 1590, the last year of the reign of Sixtus V. His successor, Gregory XIV, saw Fontana complete the lantern and had an inscription to the honour of Sixtus V placed around its inner opening. The next pope, Clement III, had the cross raised into place, an event which took all day, and was accompanied by the ringing of the bells of all the city's churches. In the arms of the cross are set two lead caskets, one containing a fragment of the True Cross and a relic of St. Andrew and the other containing medallions of the Holy Lamb.[19] According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Andreas, manly), the Christian Apostle, brother of Saint Peter, was born at Bethsaida on the Lake of Galilee. ...


In the mid-18th century, cracks appeared in the dome, so four iron chains were installed between the two shells to bind it, like the rings that keep a barrel from bursting. As many as ten chains have been installed at various times, the earliest possibly planned by Michelangelo himself as a precaution, as Brunelleschi did at Florence Cathedral.


Around the inside of the dome is written, in letters 2 metres (6.5 ft) high:

TV ES PETRVS ET SVPER HANC PETRAM AEDIFICABO ECCLESIAM MEAM. TIBI DABO CLAVES REGNI CAELORVM
("...you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church. ... I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven...." Vulgate, Matthew 16:18-19.)

Beneath the lantern is the inscription: The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ...

S. PETRI GLORIAE SIXTVS PP. V. A. M. D. XC. PONTIF. V.
(To the glory of St Peter; Sixtus V, pope, in the year 1590 and the fifth year of his pontificate.)

Discovery of Michelangelo draft

On December 7, 2007, a fragment of a red chalk drawing of a section of the dome of Saint Peter's, almost certainly by the hand of Michelangelo was discovered in the Vatican archives.[27] The drawing shows a small precisely drafted section of the plan of the entabulature above two of the radial columns of the cupola drum. Michelangelo is known to have destroyed thousands of his drawings before his death.[28] The rare survival of this example is probably due to its fragmentary state and the fact that detailed mathematical calculations had been made over the top of the drawing. [27] is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ...


The change of plan

On the first day of Lent, February 18, 1606, under Pope Paul V, the demolition of the remaining parts of the Constantinian basilica began. The marble cross set at the top of the pediment by Pope Sylvester and the Emperor Constantine was lowered to the ground. The timbers were salvaged for the roof of the Borghese Palace and two rare black marble columns, the largest of their kind, were carefully stored and later used in the narthex. The tombs of various popes were opened, treasures removed and plans made for reinterment in the new basilica.[19] For other uses, see Lent (disambiguation). ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near...


The Pope had appointed Carlo Maderno in 1602. He was a nephew of Domenico Fontana and had demonstrated himself as a dynamic architect. Maderno's idea was to ring Michelangelo's building with chapels, but the Pope was hesitant about deviating from the master's plan, even though he had been dead for forty years. The Fabbrica or building committee, a group drawn from various nationalities and generallly despised by the Curia who viewed the basilica as belonging to Rome rather than Christendom, were in a quandary as to how the building should proceed. One of the matters that influenced their thinking was the Counter-Reformation which increasingly associated a Greek Cross plan with paganism and saw the Latin Cross as truly symbolic of Christianity.[19] Façade of St. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ...


Another influence on the thinking of both the Fabbrica and the Curia was a certain guilt at the demolition of the ancient building. The ground on which it and its various associated chapels, vestries and sacristies had stood for so long was hallowed. The only solution was to build a nave that encompassed the whole space. In 1607 a committee of ten architects was called together, and a decision was made to extend Michelangelo's building into a nave. Maderno's plans for both the nave and the facade were accepted. The building began on May 7 1607 and proceeded at a great rate, with an army of 700 labourers being employed. The following year, the facade was begun, in December 1614 the final touches were added to the stucco decoration of the vault and early in 1615 the partition wall between the two sections was pulled down. All the rubble was carted away, and the nave was ready for use by Palm Sunday.[19] For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ...


Maderno's facade

The facade
The facade

The façade designed by Maderno, is 114.69 metres (376.28 ft) wide and 45.55 metres (149.44 ft) high and is built of travertine stone, with a giant order of Corinthian columns and a central pediment rising in front of a tall attic surmounted by statues of Christ, John the Baptist, and eleven of the apostles. The inscription on the facade reads: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 667 pixel, file size: 416 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 667 pixel, file size: 416 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Travertine Travertine terraces at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park A carving in travertine Travertine is a sedimentary rock. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ...

IN HONOREM PRINCIPIS APOST PAVLVS V BVRGHESIVS ROMANVS PONT MAX AN MDCXII PONT VII
(In honor of the prince of apostles by Paul V Borghese, a Roman, Supreme Pontiff, in the year 1612 and the seventh year of his pontificate)

The façade is often cited as the least satisfactory part of the design of St. Peter's. The reasons for this, according to James Lees-Milne, are that it was not given enough consideration by the Pope and committee because of the desire to get the building completed quickly, coupled with the fact that Maderno was hesitant to deviate from the pattern set by Michelangelo at the other end of the building. Lees-Milne describes the problems of the facade as being too broad for its height, too cramped in its details and too heavy in the attic storey. The breadth is caused by modifying the plan to have towers on either side. These towers were never executed above the line of the facade because it was discovered that the ground was not sufficiently stable to bear the weight. One effect of the facade and lengthened nave is to screen the view of the dome, so that the building, from the front, has no vertical feature, except from a distance.[19] Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1552 – January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ...

The narthex
The narthex

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1712x2288, 824 KB) San Pietro in Vaticano - doors Photographer: Vincent de Groot. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1712x2288, 824 KB) San Pietro in Vaticano - doors Photographer: Vincent de Groot. ...

Narthex and portals

Behind the facade of St. Peter's stretches a long portico or "narthex" such as was occasionally found in Italian Romanesque churches. This is the part of Maderno's design with which he was most satisfied. Its long barrel vault is decorated with ornate stucco and gilt, and succesfully illuminated by small windows between pendentives, while the ornate marble floor is beamed with light reflected in from the piazza. At each end of the narthex is a rather theatrical space framed by ionic columns in each of which is set and equestrian figure, Charlemagne by Cornacchini (18th century) to the south and Emperor Constantine by Bernini (1670) to the north. For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... Agostino Cornacchini (August 27, 1686-1754) was an Italian sculptor and painter of the Rococo period, active mainly in Rome. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ...


Five portals, of which three are framed by huge salvaged antique columns, lead into the basilica. The central portals has a bronze door created by Antonio Averulino in 1455 for the old basilica and somewhat enlarged to fit the new space. Antonio di Pietro Averlino (c. ...


Maderno's nave

Maderno's nave, looking towards the chancel
Maderno's nave, looking towards the chancel

To the single bay of Michelangelo's Greek Cross, Maderno added a further three bays. He made the dimensions slightly different to Michelangelo's bay, which makes it quite clear to the observer where the two architectural works meet. Maderno also tilted the axis of the nave slightly. This was not by accident, as suggested by his critics. An ancient Egyptian obelisk had been erected in the square outside, but had not been quite aligned with Michelangelo's building, so Maderno compensated, in order that it should, at least, align with the Basilica's facade. [19]


The nave has huge paired pilasters, in keeping with Michelangelo's work. The size of the interior is so "stupendously large" that it is hard to get a sense of scale within the building.[19][29] The four cherubs who flutter against the first piers of the nave, carrying between them two Holy Water basins, appear of quite normal cherubic size, until approached. Then it becomes apparent that each one is over 2 metres high and that real children cannot reach the basins unless they scramble up the marble draperies. The aisles each have two smaller chapels and a larger rectangular chapel, the Chapel of the Sacrament and the Choir Chapel. These are lavishly decorated with marble, stucco, gilt, sculpture and mosaic. Remarkably, there are very few paintings, although some, such as Raphael's "Sistine Madonna" have been reproduced in mosaic. The most precious painting is a small icon of the Madonna, removed from the old basilica.[19]


Maderno's last work at St. Peter's was to design a crypt-like space or "Confessio" under the dome, where the Cardinals and other privileged persons could descend in order to be nearer the burial place of the apostle. Its marble steps are remnants of the old basilica and around its balustrade are 95 bronze lamps.


Furnishing of St. Peters

Pope Urban VIII and Bernini

As a young boy Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) visited St. Peter's with the painter Annibale Carracci and stated his wish to build "a mighty throne for the apostle". His wish came true. As a young man, in 1626, he received the patronage of Pope Urban VIII and worked on the embellishment of the Basilica for 50 years. Appointed as Maderno's successor in 1629, he was to become regarded as the greatest architect and sculptor of the Baroque period. Bernini's works at St. Peter's include the baldacchino, the Chapel of the Sacrament, the plan four the niches and loggias in the piers of the dome and the chair of St. Peter.[19][21] A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... Self-portrait, (Uffizi) Annibale Carracci (November 3, 1560 - July 15, 1609) was an Italian Baroque painter. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...

The altar with Bernini's baldacchino
The altar with Bernini's baldacchino

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 793 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (795 × 601 pixel, file size: 377 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 793 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (795 × 601 pixel, file size: 377 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Baldacchino and niches

Bernini's first work at St. Peter's was to design the baldacchino, a pavilion-like structure 30 metres (98 ft) tall and claimed to be the largest piece of bronze in the world, which stands beneath the dome and above the altar. There are many baldachins in the churches of Rome, serving to create a sort of holy space above and around the table on which the Sacrament is laid for the Eucharist and emphasing the significance of this ritual. These baldachins are generally of white marble, with inlaid coloured stone. Bernini's concept was for something very different. He took his inspiration in part from eight ancient columns that had formed part of a screen in the old basilica. Their twisted barley-sugar shape had a special significance as the column to which Jesus was bound before his crucifixion was believed to be of that shape. Based on these columns, Bernini created four huge columns of bronze, twisted and decorated with olive leaves and bees, which were the emblem of Pope Urban. The baldacchino is surmounted not with an architectural pediment, like most baldacchino, but with curved Baroque brackets supporting a draped canopy, like the brocade canopies carried in processions above precious iconic images. In this case, the draped canopy is of bronze, and all the details, including the olive leaves, bees, and the portrait heads of Urban's niece in childbirth and her newborn son, are picked out in gold leaf. The baldacchino stands as a vast free-standing sculptural object, central to and framed by the largest space within the building. It is so large that the visual effect is to create a link between the enormous dome which appears to float above it, and the congregation at floor level of the basilica. It is penetrated visually from every direction, and is visually linked to the Cattedra Petri in the apse behind it and to the four piers containing large statues that are at each diagonal.[19][21] St. ... The Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes under a canopy of estate, on a dais: there is a cushion under his feet Margaret Beaufort, Queen Mother, at prayer, by an anonymous artist, about 1500 Engraving of the Gnadenaltar in the Vierzehnheiligen Basilica, Bad Staffelstein, Bavaria. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


As part of the scheme for the central space of the church, Bernini had the huge piers, begun by Bramante and completed by Michelangelo, hollowed out into niches, and had staircases made inside them, leading to four balconies. There was much dismay from those who thought that the dome might fall, but it did not. On the balconies Bernini created showcases, framed by the eight ancient twisted columns, to display the four most precious relics of the basilica, the spear of Longinus, said to have pierced the side of Christ, the veil of Veronica, with the miraculous image of the face of Christ, a fragment of the True Cross discovered in Jerusalem by Constantine's mother, Helena, and a relic of St. Andrew, the brother of St. Peter. In each of the niches that surround the central space of the basilica was placed a huge statue of the saint associated with the relic above. Only St. Longinus is the work of Bernini.[19] (See below) According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ...


Cattedra Petri and Chapel of the Sacrament

Bernini's "Cathedra Petri" and "Gloria"
Bernini's "Cathedra Petri" and "Gloria"

Bernini then turned his attention to another precious relic, the so-called Cathedra Petri or "throne of St. Peter" a chair which was often claimed to have been used by the apostle, but appears to date from the 12th century. As the chair itself was fast deteriorating and was no longer serviceable, Pope Alexander VII determined to enshrine it in suitable splendour as the object upon which the line of successors to Peter was based. Berinini created a large bronze throne in which it was house, raised high on four looping supports held effortlessly by massive bronze statues four Doctors of the Church, Saints Ambrose and Augustine representing the Latin Church and Athanasius and John Chrysostum the Greek Church. The four figures are dynamic with sweeping robes and expressions of adoration and ecstasy. Behind and above the Cattedra, a blaze of light comes in through a window of yellow alabaster, illuminating, at its centre, the Dove of the Holy Spirit. The elderly painter, Andrea Sacchi, had urged Bernini to make the figures large, so that they would well from the central portal of the nave. The chair was enshrined in its new home with great celebration of January 16, 1666.[19][21] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (818 × 612 pixel, file size: 509 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (818 × 612 pixel, file size: 509 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Chicago preaches from his cathedra, placed in front of the altar on special occasions. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church is a theologian from whose teachings the whole Christian church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of the Pope or of an ecumenical council. ... Andrea Sacchi (born around 1600 (maybe 1598) at Nettuno near Rome; died 1661 at Nettuno) was an Italian painter of the later Roman school. ...


Bernini's final work for St. Peter's, undertaken in 1676, was the decoration of the Chapel of the Sacrament. To hold the sacramental Host, he designed a miniature version in gilt bronze of Bramante's Tempietto, the little chapel that marks the place of the death of St. Peter. On either side is an angel, one gazing in rapt adoration and the other looking towards the viewer in welcome. Bernini died in 1680 in his 82nd year.[19] Donato Bramante Donato Bramante (1444 - March 11, 1514), Italian architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his most famous design was St. ...


St. Peter's Piazza

Main article: Saint Peter's Square

To the east of the basilica is the Piazza di San Pietro, (St. Peter's Square). The present arrangement, constructed between 1656 and 1667, is the Baroque inspiration of Bernini who inherited a location already occupied by an Egyptian obelisk of the 13th century BC, which was centrally placed, (with some contrivance) to Maderno's facade. The obelisk, at 25.5 metre (83.6 ft) and a total height, including base and the cross on top, of 40 metres (131 ft), is the second largest standing obelisk, and the only one to remain standing since it removal from Egypt and re-erection at the Circus of Nero, where it had stood since AD 37. Its removal to its present location by order of Pope Sixtus V and engineered by Domenico Fontana on September 28, 1586, was an operation fraught with difficulties and nearly ending in disaster when the ropes holding the obelisk began to smoke from the friction. Fortunately this problem was noticed by a sailor, and for his swift intervention, his village was granted the priviledge of providing the palms that are used at the basilica each Palm Sunday.[19] Saint Peters Square, or Saint Peters Piazza (Piazza San Pietro, in Italian), is located directly in front of St. ... Saint Peters Square, or Saint Peters Piazza (Piazza San Pietro, in Italian), is located directly in front of St. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris Obelisk outside Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Not to be confused with the older and larger Circus Maximus. ... AD redirects here. ... Pope Sixtus V (December 13, 1521 – August 27, 1590), born Felice Peretti, was Pope from 1585 to 1590. ... Domenico Fontana (1543 – 1607) was an Italian architect of the late Renaissance. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ...

Two fountains form the axis of the piazza.
Two fountains form the axis of the piazza.

The other object in the old square with which Bernini had to contend was a large fountain designed by Maderno in 1613 and set to one side of the obelisk, making a line parallel with the facade. Bernini's plan uses this horizontal axis as a major feature of his unique, spacially dynamic and highly symbolic design. The most obvious solutions were either a rectangular piazza of vast proportions so that the obelisk stood centrally and the fountain (and a matching companion) could be included, or a trapezoid piazza which fanned out from the facade of the basilica like that in front of the Palazzo Publicco in Siena. The problems of the square plan are that the necessary width to include the fountain would entail the demolition of numerous buildings, including some of the Vatican, and would minimise the effect of the facade. The trapezoid plan, on the other hand, would maximise the apparent width of the facade, which was already perceived as a fault of the design.[21]


Bernini's ingenius solution was to create a piazza in two sections. That part which is nearest the basilica is trapezoid, but rather than fanning out from the facade, it narrows. This gives the effect of countering the visual perspective. It means that from the second part of the piazza, the building looks nearer than it is, the breadth of the facade is minimised and its height appears greater in proportion to its width. The second section of the piazza is a huge elliptical circus which gently slopes downwards to the obelisk at its centre. The two distinct areas are framed by a colonnade formed by doubled pairs of columns supporting an entabulature of the simple Tuscan Order. The Tuscan order in Andrea Palladio, Quattro Libri di Architettura, 1570 Among the classical orders of architecture, the Tuscan order is the newcomer, a stocky simplified variant of the Doric order that was introduced into the canon of classical architecture by Italian architectural theorists of the 16th century. ...


The part of the colonnade that is around the elipse does not entirely encircle it, but reaches out in two arcs, symbolic of the arms of "the Roman Catholic Church reaching out to welcome its communicants".[21] The obelisk and Maderno's fountain make the widest axis of the elipse. Bernini balanced the scheme with another fountain in 1675. The approach to the square used to be through a jumble of old buildings, which added an element of surprise to the vista that opened up upon passing through the colonnade. Nowadays a long wide street, the Via della Conciliazione, built by Mussolini after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaties, leads from the River Tiber to the piazza and gives distant views of St. Peter's as the visitor approaches.[19] A photograph of Saint Peters Square and the area now occupied by the Via della Conciliazione, taken c. ... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then-Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ...


Bernini's transformation of the site is entirely Baroque in concept. Where Bramante and Michelangelo conceived a building that stood in "self-sufficient isolation", Bernini made the whole complex "expansively relate to its environment".[21] Banister Fletcher says "No other city has afforded such a wide-swept approach to its cathedral church, no other architect could have conceived a design of greater nobility...(it is) the greatest of all atriums before the greatest of all churches of Christendom."[5]

View of Rome from the Dome of St. Peter's Basilica

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4208x1416, 1555 KB) Summary Photograph taken by Paul Cheeseman, February 2006. ...

Treasures

Tombs and relics

There are over 100 tombs within St. Peter's Basilica, many located in the Vatican grotto, beneath the Basilica. These include 91 popes, St. Ignatius of Antioch, Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, and the composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Exiled Catholic British royalty James Francis Edward Stuart and his two sons, Charles Edward Stuart and Henry Benedict Stuart, are buried here, having been granted asylum by Pope Clement XI. Also buried here are Maria Clementina Sobieska, wife of Charles Edward Stuart, and Queen Christina of Sweden, who abdicated her throne in order to convert to Catholicism. The most recent interment was Pope John Paul II, on April 8, 2005. Beneath, near the crypt, is the recently-discovered vaulted fourth-century "Tomb of the Julii". (See below for some descriptions of tombs) Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... Otto II ( 955 – December 7, 983, Rome), was the third German ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526[1] - 2 February 1594) was an Italian composer of the Renaissance. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as... Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788), known in Scots Gaelic as Teàrlach Eideard Stiùbhairt, was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and is now commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. ... Henry Benedict Cardinal Stuart (March 11, 1725 – July 13, 1807) was the fourth and last Jacobite to publicly claim the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Clement XI, né Giovanni Francesco Albani (July 23, 1649 – March 19, 1721) was pope from 1700 to 1721. ... Noble Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Ludwik Sobieski Hedwig Elisabeth Amelia Consorts James Francis Edward Stuart Children with James Francis Edward Stuart Bonnie Prince Charlie Stuart Henry Benedict Stuart Date of Birth July 18, 1702 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death January 18, 1735 Place of Death... Christina (Kristina) (December 8, 1626 – April 19, 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Count Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Crypt is also a commonly used name of water trumpets, aquatic plants. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Artworks

The towers and narthex

The Holy Door is opened only for great celebrations.
The Holy Door is opened only for great celebrations.

In the towers to either side of the facade are two clocks. The clock on the left has been operated electrically since 1931. Its oldest bell dates from 1288. One of the most important treasures of the cathedral is a mosaic set above the central external door. Called the "Navicella", it it based of a design by Giotto (early 13th century) and represents a ship symbolising the Christian Church. At each end of the narthex is an equestrian figure, to the north Emperor Constantine by Bernini (1670) and to the south Charlemagne by Cornacchini (18th century). Of the five portals, three contain notable doors. The central portals has the Renaissance bronze door by Antonio Averulino (1455), enlarged to fit the new space. The southern door, the "Door of the Dead", was designed by 20th century sculptor Giacomo Manzù and includes a portrait of Pope John XXIII kneeling before the crucified figure of St. Peter. There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... Agostino Cornacchini (August 27, 1686-1754) was an Italian sculptor and painter of the Rococo period, active mainly in Rome. ... Antonio di Pietro Averlino (c. ... Giacomo Manzu (1908-1991) was the best known Italian sculptor of the 20th Century. ...


The northernmost door is the "Holy Door" which, by tradition, is opened only for great celebrations such as Jubilee years. The present door is bronze and was designed by Vico Consorti in 1950. Above it are inscriptions commemorating the opening of the door: PAVLVS V PONT MAX ANNO XIII and GREGORIVS XIII PONT MAX. Recent commemorative plaques read: For other uses, see Jubilee (disambiguation) The concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. ... Vico Consorti (1902-1997) is a sculptor who built the bronze Holy Door in St. ...

IOANNES PAVLVS II P.M.
PORTAM SANCTAM
ANNO IVBILAEI MCMLXXVI
A PAVLO PP VI
RESERVATAM ET CLAVSAM
APERVIT ET CLAVSIT
ANNO IVB HVMANE REDEMP
MCMLXXXIII – MCMLXXXIV

IOANNES PAVLVS II P.M.
ITERVM PORTAM SANCTAM
APERVIT ET CLAVSIT
ANNO MAGNI IVBILAEI
AB INCARNATIONE DOMINI
MM-MMI

PAVLVS VI PONT MAX
HVIVS PATRIARCALIS
VATICANAE BASILICAE
PORTAM SANCTAM
APERVIT ET CLAVSIT
ANNO IVBILAEI MCMLXXV

In the jubilee year of human redemption 1983-4, John Paul II, Pontifex Maximus, opened and closed again the holy door closed and set apart by Paul VI in 1976. John Paul II, Pontifex Maximus, again opened and closed the holy door in the year of the great jubilee, from the incarnation of the Lord 2000-2001. Paul VI, Pontifex Maximus, opened and closed the holy door of this patriarchal Vatican basilica in the jubilee year of 1975.

Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ...

The nave

  • On the first piers of the nave are two Holy Water basins held by pairs of cherubs each 2 metres high, commissioned by Pope Benedict XIII from designer Cornacchini and sculptor Francesco Moderati, (1720s).
  • Along the floor of the nave are markers showing the comparative lengths of other churches, starting from the entrance.
  • On the decorative pilasters of the piers of the nave are medallions with relief depicting the first 38 popes.
  • In niches between the pilasters of the nave are statues depicting 39 founders of religious orders.
  • Set against the north east pier of the dome is a statue of St. Peter Enthroned, sometimes attributed to late 13th century sculptor Arnolfo di Cambio, with some scholars dating it to the 5th century. One foot of the statue is largely worn away due to centuries of pilgrims kissing it.
  • The sunken Confessio leading to the Vatican Grottoes (see above) contains a large kneeling statue by Canova of Pope Pius VI, who was captured and mistreated by the Napoleon's army.
  • The High Altar is surmountted by Bernini's baldachin. (See above)
  • Set in niches within the four piers supporting the dome are the statues associated with the basilica's holy relics: St. Helena holding the True Cross, by Andrea Bolgi); St. Longinus holding the spear that pierced the side of Jesus, by Bernini (1639); St. Andrew with the St. Andrew's Cross, by Francois Duquesnoy and St. Veronica holding her veil with the image of Jesus' face, by Francesco Mochi.

North aisle

The Pietà sculpted by Michelangelo
The Pietà sculpted by Michelangelo
Truth, by Bernini, tramples England beneath her foot.
Truth, by Bernini, tramples England beneath her foot.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1584x1660, 636 KB) Summary Michelangelos Pietà, St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1584x1660, 636 KB) Summary Michelangelos Pietà, St. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the most famous Pietà Florentine Pietà (or Deposition), the Rondanini Pietà and the Palestrina Pietà The Pietà (1498–99) by Michelangelo is a marble sculpture in St. ... Christina (1626-1689) or Kristina, later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometime Count Dohna, was Queen of Sweden from 1632 to 1654, was the daughter of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. ... SebastiAn (born Sebastian Akchoté) is a French electro artist who came to prominence with his first releases on Ed Banger Records in 2005 entitled Smoking Kills(?) & H.A.L.. A string of remixes followed including Annie, Daft Punk, Cut Copy, Revl9n & label-mate Uffie. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Pius XIIs signature Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ... Donato Bramante Donato Bramante (1444 – March 11, 1514) was an Italian architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his most famous design was St. ... 200pxTempietto, San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502: the High Renaissance began here. ... This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ... Pietro da Cortona, byname of Pietro Berettini (November 1, 1596- May 16, 1669) was a prolific artist and architect of High Baroque. ... Pope Gregory XIII (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585. ... Camillo Rusconi was a prominent Italian sculptor of the late Baroque in Rome (Milan, 14 July, 1658- Rome, 1728). ... Pope Gregory XIV (February 11, 1535 â€“ October 16, 1591), born Niccolò Sfondrati, was Pope from December 5, 1590 â€“ October 16, 1591. ... Saint Petronilla (name variants include Aurelia Petronilla; Pernelle; Peroline; Perrenotte; Perrette; Perrine; Perronelle; Petronella; Peyronne; Peyronnelle; Pierrette; Pérette; Périne; Pétronille) (d. ... The Italian painter Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (1591—1666) known as Guercino, was born at Cento, a village not far from Bologna. ...

South aisle

  • The first chapel in the south aisle is the baptistry, commissioned by Pope Innocent XII and designed by Carlo Fontana, (great nephew of Domenico Fontana). The font, which was previously located in the opposite chapel, is the red porphyry sarcophagus of Probus, the 4th century Prefect of Rome. The lid came from a different sarcophagus, which had once held the remains of the Emperor Hadrian and in removing it from the Vatican Grotto where it had been stored, the workmen broke it into ten pieces. Fontana restored it expertly and surmounted it with a gilt-bronze figure of the "Lamb of God".
  • Against the first pier of the aisle is the tomb of the Stuarts, James and his sons, Charles Edward, known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie" and Henry, Cardinal and Duke of York. The tomb is a Neo-Classical design by Canova unveiled in 1819. Opposite it is the memorial of Charles Edward Stuart's wife, Maria Clementina Sobieska.
  • The second chapel is that of the Presentation of the Virgin' and contains the tombs of Pope Benedict XV and Pope John XXIII.
  • Against the piers are the tombs of Pope Pius X and Pope Innocennt VIII.
  • The large chapel off the south aisle is the Choir Chapel which contains the altar of the Imacculate Virgin Mary.
  • At the entrance to the Sacristy is the tomb of Pope Pius VIII
  • The south transept contains the altars of St. Thomas, St. Joseph and the Cucifixion of St. Peter.
  • The tomb of Fabio Chigi, Pope Alexander VII, towards the end of the aisle, is the work of Bernini and called by Lees-Milne "one of the greatest tombs of the Baroque Age". It occupies an awkward position, being set in a niche above a doorway into a small vestry, but Bernini has utilised the doorway in a symbolic manner. Pope Alexander kneels upon his tomb, facing outward. The tomb is supported on a large draped shroud patterned red marble, and is supported by four female figures, of whom only the two at the front are fully visible. They represent Charity and Truth. The foot of Truth rests upon a globe of the world, her toe being pierced symbolically by the thorn of Protestant England. Coming forth, seemingly, from the doorway as if it was the entrance to a tomb, is the skeletal winged figure of Death, its head hidden beneath the shroud, but its right hand carrying a hour-glass stretched upward towards the kneeling figure of the pope. [19]

Carlo Fontana (Bruciato, Canton Ticino, 1634 or 1638 - Roma 1714) was an Italian architect, sculptor, engineer and author of important writings on the St. ... Porphyry (Greek Πορφύριος purple-clad) may refer to: Porphyry of Tyros (c. ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Canova may refer to: Antonio Canova Canova, South Dakota This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Noble Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Ludwik Sobieski Hedwig Elisabeth Amelia Consorts James Francis Edward Stuart Children with James Francis Edward Stuart Bonnie Prince Charlie Stuart Henry Benedict Stuart Date of Birth July 18, 1702 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death January 18, 1735 Place of Death... St. ... Saint Joseph, also referred to as Joseph the Betrothed and as Joseph of Nazareth, was the foster-father of Jesus, according to the New Testament (Matthew 1:16; Luke 3:23). ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Alexander VII, né Fabio Chigi (February 13, 1599 – May 22, 1667) was Pope from April 7, 1655 until his death in 1667. ...

Archpriests of Saint Peter’s Basilica since 1820

Cardinals at Mass in Saint Peter's Basilica two days before Papal conclave, April 16, 2005.
Cardinals at Mass in Saint Peter's Basilica two days before Papal conclave, April 16, 2005.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 337 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 337 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave since 1492. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pietro Francesco Galleffi (Galeffi) (1770-1837) was an Italian Cardinal. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mario Mattei (1792-1870) was an Italian Cardinal, of the Roman noble House of Mattei. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Edward Henry Howard (1829-1892) was an English Catholic priest and archbishop, who was made a Cardinal in 1877, and was then styled Edward Cardinal Howard. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Mariano Cardinal Rampolla del Tindaro (Polizzi Generosa, Sicily, August 17, 1843 – December 17, 1913, Rome) was a Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Servant of God Rafael Cardinal Merry del Val y Zulueta (October 10, 1865 – February 26, 1930) was a Roman Catholic Cardinal (Cardinal Priest of Santa Prassede) from 1903 until his death. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federico Cardinal Tedeschini (October 12, 1873—November 2, 1959) was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paolo Cardinal Marella (born January 25, 1895, Rome, Italy); died October 15, 1984, Rome), was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... His Eminence Aurelio Cardinal Sabattani JUD (18 October 1912—19 April 2003) was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... His Eminence Virgilio Cardinal Noè (30 March 1922 - ) is an Roman Catholic Cardinal born in Zelata of Bereguardo, Italy. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Cardinal Francesco Marchisano (born June 25, 1929) is an Italian Cardinal who has worked in the Roman Curia since 1956. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cardinal Angelo Comastri (born September 17, 1943 in Sorano, Italy) is the current President of the Fabric of Saint Peter. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ James Lees-Milne, St Peter's, p. 13, describes St Peter's Basilica as "a church with a unique position in the Christian world.
  2. ^ Banister Fletcher, the renowned architectural historian calls it "...The greatest of all churches of Christendom". p.719
  3. ^ "The greatest church in Christendom",Roma 2000
  4. ^ Columbia Magazine, April 2006, page 18.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Banister Fletcher, The History of Architecture on the Comparative Method
  6. ^ Helen Dietz, The Eschatological Dimension of Church Architecture (2005)
  7. ^ Claims made that the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro in Africa is larger appear to be spurious, as the measurements include a rectorate, a villa and probably the forecourt. Its capacity is 18,000 people against St. Peter's 60,000. Its dome, based on that of St. Peter's, is lower but carries a taller cross, and thus claims to be the tallest domed church.
  8. ^ Columbia Magazine, April 2006, page 18.
  9. ^ St. Peter's Basilica, monuments
  10. ^ University of Alberta Express News. In search of St. Peter's Tomb. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  11. ^ Boorsch, Suzanne (Winter 1982-1983). "The Building of the Vatican: The Papacy and Architecture". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 40 (3): 4-8. 
  12. ^ James Lees-Milne, Saint Peter's
  13. ^ Quarrying of stone for the Colosseum had, in turn, been paid for with treasure looted at the Fall of Jerusalem and destruction of the temple by the emperor Vespasian's general (and the future emperor) Titus in 70 AD.
  14. ^ a b Frederick Hartt, A History of Italian Renaissance Art'
  15. ^ Bramante's plan, Helen Gardner p.458
  16. ^ Raphael's plan, Banister Fletcher p.722
  17. ^ Peruzzi's plan, Banister Fletcher p.722
  18. ^ Sangallo's plan, Banister Fletcher p.772
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v <James Lees-Milne, Saint Peter's
  20. ^ Ludwig Goldscheider, Michelangelo
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i Helen Gardner, Art through the Ages
  22. ^ Michelangelo's plan, Helen Gardner p.478
  23. ^ a b Eneide Mignacca, Michelangelo and the architecture of St. Peter's Basilica, lecture, Sydney University, (1982)
  24. ^ This claim has recently been made for Yamoussoukro Basilica, the dome of which, modelled on St. Peter's, is lower but has a taller cross
  25. ^ The dome of Florence Cathedral is depicted in a fresco at Santa Maria Novella that predates its building by about 100 years.
  26. ^ Sangallo's plan, Banister Fletcher p.722
  27. ^ a b Michelangelo 'last sketch' found. BBC News (2007-12-07). Retrieved on 2007-12-08.
  28. ^ BBC, Rare Michelangelo sketch for sale, Friday, 14 October 2005, [1] accessed: 2008-02=09
  29. ^ The word "stupendous" is used by a number of writers trying to adequately describe the enormity of the interior. These include James Lees-Milne and Banister Fletcher.
  30. ^ The statue was damaged in 1972 by Lazlo Toft, an Hungarian-Australian, who considered that the veneration shown to the statue was idolatorous. The damage was repaired and the statue subsequently placed behind glass.

The Gillette Factory on the Great West Road, Brentford, Middlesex. ... The Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro, also known as Basilique de Notre Dame de la Paix de Yamoussoukro, is a Roman Catholic church in Yamoussoukro, the administrative capital of Côte dIvoire (Ivory Coast). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... The Romanesque-Gothic facade, completed by Leon Battista Alberti in 1470 Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bannister, Turpin. “The Constantian Basilica of Saint Peter at Rome.” The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (March 1968) 3-32.
  • Boorsch, Suzanne. “The Building of the Vatican: The Papacy and Architecture.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (Winter 1982) 1-2;4-64.
  • Hintzen-Bohlen, Brigitte and Sorges, Jurgen. Rome and the Vatican City, Konemann, ISBN 3829031092
  • Finch, Margaret. The Cantharus and Pigna at Old Saint Peter’s. Gesta (1991).
  • Fletcher, Banister. A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method, first published 1896, current edition 2001, Elsevier Science & Technology ISBN 0750622679
  • Frommel, Christoph. “Papal Policy: The Planning of Rome during the Renaissance.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History. (Summer 1986) 39-65.
  • Hartt, Frederick. A History of Italian Renaissance Art. Thames and Hudson (1970) ISBN 0500231362
  • McClendon, Charles. The History of the Site of St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome. Perspecta. (1989) 32-65.
  • Lees-Milne, James. Saint Peter's, Hamish Hamilton (1967). ISBN
  • Gardner, Helen. Art through the Ages, 5th edition, Harcourt, Brace and World, inc., ISBN 07679933
  • Goldscheider, Ludwig. Michelangelo, 1964, Phaidon, ISBN 100714832960
  • Kleiner, Fred and Christin Mamiya. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective. v2. 12th edition. (Thomas Wadsworth, 2006), 499-500, 571-575.
  • Pevsner, Nikolaus An Outline of European Architecture, Pelican, 1964, ISBN 9780140201093
  • Pinto, Pio V. The Pilgrim's Guide to Rome, Harper and Row, (1974), ISBN 0600133880
  • UNESCO website on the Holy See.
  • Lees-Milne, James. St. Peter's Little Brown and Co. (1967)
  • Inside the Vatican, a National Geographic Television Special

The Gillette Factory on the Great West Road, Brentford, Middlesex. ... Helen Gardner (1909-1986) was an English literary critic. ... Sir Nikolaus Pevsner CBE (January 30, 1902 – August 18, 1983) was a German-born British historian of art and, especially, architecture. ...

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St. Peter's beyond the River Tiber at dusk
St. Peter's beyond the River Tiber at dusk
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