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Encyclopedia > St. Peter's
Interior view, with the nave of the Basilica in the back

St. Peter's Basilica (Italian San Pietro in Vaticano) is a Catholic major basilica in Vatican City, an enclave of Rome. This building is often described as the largest church ever built (it covers an area of 23,000 m² and has a capacity of over 60,000) and one of the holiest sites in Christendom. Construction on St. Peter's was begun in 1506 and finished in 1626. Photograph available under GFDL license. ... Photograph available under GFDL license. ... The Basilica of St. ... Location within Italy The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin: Roma) is the capital city of Italy and of its Latium region. ... A church building is a building used in Christian worship. ... Events Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci , chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ...


Tradition says it was built at the place where St. Peter, one of the apostles of Jesus and considered the first pope, was crucified and buried. The church hosts the tomb of St. Peter under the main altar. Other popes are also buried in the basilica, as well as below it. According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Alternate meanings: See Apostle (Mormonism), The Apostle (1997 movie) The Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the world. ... The neutrality and accuracy of this article are disputed. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Religious depictions of the crucifixion of Jesus typically show him supported by nails through the palms. ... Picture of an altar from the Meyer Encyclopaedia An altar, (Hebrew mizbeah, from a word meaning to slay) is any structure on which sacrifices known as the korbanot as well as incense offerings are offered for religious purposes. ...

Contents

History

Front of Basilica.

The current location is likely the site of the Circus of Nero in the first century AD. After Emperor Constantine officially recognized Christianity he started construction in 324 of a great basilica in this exact spot, which had previously been a cemetery for pagans as well as Christians. Download high resolution version (1750x1032, 453 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1750x1032, 453 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Circus of Nero in ancient Rome is often confused with the older and larger Circus Maximus. ... Constantine. ... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ...


In the mid-15th century it was decided that the old basilica should be rebuilt. Pope Nicholas V asked architect Bernardo Rossellino to start adding to the old church. This was abandoned after a short while. In the late 15th century Pope Sixtus IV had the Sistine Chapel started nearby. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397–March 24, 1455) was pope from March 6, 1447, to March 24, 1455. ... Bernardo Gamberelli, better known as Bernardo Rossellino, (c. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 - August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484, essentially a Renaissance prince, the Sixtus of the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance to Rome with a masterpiece. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Palace of the Vatican, the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope in the Vatican City. ...


The basilica in itself is an artwork composed of many valuable artistic elements. Construction started under Pope Julius II in 1506 and was completed in 1615 under Pope Paul V. Donato Bramante was to be the first chief architect. Many famous artists worked on the "Fabbrica di San Pietro" (as the complex of building operations were officially called). Michelangelo, who served as main architect for a while, designed the dome. After the death of Julius II building was halted until Pope Paul III asked Michelangelo to design the rest of the church. After Michelangelo's death his student Giacomo della Porta continued with the unfinished portions of the church. Carlo Maderno became the chief architect later on, and designed the entrance. Pope Julius II Julius II, né Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), was pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... Painting of Pope Paul V by Caravaggio Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1550 - January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ... Donato Bramante Donato Bramante (1444 - March 11, 1514), Italian architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his most famous design was St. ... Michelangelo Buonarroti, by Marcello Venusti Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564*) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... Pope Paul III, (1543) portrait by Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples Paul III, né Alessandro Farnese (February 29, 1468 - November 10, 1549) was pope from 1534 to 1549. ...

Details

Directly to the east of the church is the elliptical St. Peter's Square (Piazza San Pietro), built between 1656 and 1667, in the center of which is a 25.5 meter tall obelisk. The obelisk was moved to its present location in 1585 by order of Pope Sixtus V. The obelisk dates back to the 13th century BC in Egypt, and was moved to Rome in the 1st century to stand in Nero's Circus some 275 yards away. Including the cross on top and the base the obelisk reaches 40m. On top of the obelisk there used to be a large bronze globe allegedly containing the ashes of Julius Caesar, this was removed as the obelisk was erected in St. Peter's Square. There are also two fountains in the square, the south one by Maderno (1613) and the northern one by Bernini (1675). Berninis piazza was extended by Mussolinis grand avenue of approach. ... Events Masuria is devastated during the Deluge when it was raided by Tartars and Poles End of the war started in 1648 between Poland, Ducal Prussia, Russia and Transylvania. ... Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... For the obelisk punctuation mark, see dagger (typography). ... Events January 12 - The Netherlands adopts the Gregorian calendar Beginning of the Eighth War of Religion in France (also known as the War of the Three Henrys) August 8 - John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in quest for the North West Passage. ... Sixtus V, né Felice Peretti (December 13, 1521 - August 27, 1590) was pope from 1585 to 1590. ... (14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC - other centuries) (1300s BC - 1290s BC - 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC - 1250s BC - 1240s BC - 1230s BC - 1220s BC - 1210s BC - 1200s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1295 BC - End of the... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... Map of downtown Rome during the Roman Empire, with Circus Maximus at the lower right corner The Circus Maximus in an ancient arena and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy. ... Painting of Gaius Julius Caesar Bust of Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: C·IVLIVS·C·F·C·N·CAESAR¹) (July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader whose conquest of Gallia Comata extended the Roman world all the way... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 – November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim August 10 - Building of the Royal Greenwich Observatory began November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ...

Michelangelo's dome, the landmark of Rome, completed by Giacomo della Porta, 1590

The dome or cupola was designed by Michelangelo, who became chief architect in 1546. At the time of his death (1564), the dome was finished as far as the drum, the base on which domes sit. The dome was vaulted between 1585 and 1590 by the architect Giacomo della Porta with the assistance of Domenico Fontana, who was probably the best engineer of the day. Fontana built the lantern the following year, and the ball was placed in 1593. Download high resolution version (667x950, 142 KB)Dome of St Paters Basilica, Michelangelo, completed 1564 Source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (667x950, 142 KB)Dome of St Paters Basilica, Michelangelo, completed 1564 Source: http://www. ... For other uses, see cupola (disambiguation) Cupola of St Peters Basilica, Rome In architecture, a cupola consists of a dome-shaped ornamental structure located on top of a larger roof or dome, often used as a lookout or to admit light and remove stale air. ...


As built, the double dome is brick, 42.3 metres in interior diameter (almost as large as the Pantheon), rising to 120 metres above the floor. In the early 18th century cracks appeared in the dome, so four iron chains were installed between the two shells to bind it, like the rings that keep a barrel from bursting. (Visitors who climb the spiral stairs between the dome shells can glimpse them.) The four piers of the crossing that support it are each 60 feet (18 meters) across. It is not simply its vast scale (136.57 meters from from the floor of the church to the top of the added cross) that makes it extraordinary. Michelangelo's dome is not a hemisphere, but a parabola: it has a vertical thrust, which is made more emphatic by the bold ribbing that springs from the paired Corinthian columns, which appear to be part of the drum, but which stand away from it like buttresses, to absorb the outward thrust of the dome's weight. The grand arched openings just visible in the illustration but normally invisible to viewers below, enable access (not to the public) all around the base of the drum; they are dwarfed by the monumental scale of their surroundings. Above, the vaulted dome rises to Fontana's two-stage lantern, capped with a spire. The Pantheon, Rome The Pantheon is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to all the gods of the Roman state religion, but has been a Christian church since the 7th century AD. It is the only building from the Greco-Roman world which is completely... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ...

Enlarge
Inside the cupola

The egg-shaped dome exerts less outward thrust than a lower hemispheric one (like Mansart's at Les Invalides) would have done. The dome conceived by Donato Bramante at the outset in 1503, was planned to be carried out with a single masonry shell, a plan that was discovered not to be feasible. San Gallo came up with the double shell, and Michelangelo improved on it. The piers at the crossing which were the first masonry to be laid, which were intended to support the original dome, were a constant concern, too slender in Bramante's plan, they were redesigned several times as the dome plans evolved. Cupola of St Peters Basilica, Rome from the inside By T F Letocha, from http://www. ... Cupola of St Peters Basilica, Rome from the inside By T F Letocha, from http://www. ... Jules Hardouin-Mansart, marble bust by Jean-Louis Lemoyne: a full-dress Baroque portrait bust demonstrates that the Kings architect is no mere craftsman Jules Hardouin-Mansart (Paris, April 16, 1646 – Marly, France, May 11, 1708) was a French architect whose work is generally considered to be the apex... The church at the Invalides, with its dome Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement, now containing museums and monuments, all relating to Frances military history, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings...


Other domes around the world built since, are always compared to this one: Saint Joseph's Oratory in Montreal, Quebec, St Paul's Cathedral in London, Les Invalides in Paris, United States Capitol in Washington, DC, Harrisburg, PA (http://www.pbase.com/yardbird/image/26416677) , and the more literal reproduction at the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire. St. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Concordia Salus (Salvation through harmony) Ville de Montréal, Québec, Canada Location. ... This article describes the Canadian province. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ... Greater London and the Regions of England. ... The church at the Invalides, with its dome Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement, now containing museums and monuments, all relating to Frances military history, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... United States Capitol The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... There is a similarly-named Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu. ...

View of St. Peter's Basilica from Ponte Sant'Angelo

Above the main entrance is the inscription IN HONOREM PRINCIPIS APOST PAVLVS V BVRGHESIVS ROMANVS PONT MAX AN MDCXII PONT VII (In honor of the prince of apostles; Paul V Borghese, pope, in the year 1612 and the seventh year of his pontificate). The façade is 114,69 metres wide and 45,55 m high. On top are statues of Christ, John the Baptist, and eleven of the apostles; St. Peter's statue is inside. Two clocks are on either side of the top, the one on the left is electrically operated since 1931, with its oldest bell dating to 1288. A view across the Tiber River This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A view across the Tiber River This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Painting of Pope Paul V by Caravaggio Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1550 - January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Events February 22 - Nicholas IV becomes Pope. ...

The approach to St. Peter's Basilica: Mussolini demolished the spina of medieval housing to create this heroic avenue.

Between the façade and the interior is the portico. Mainly designed by Maderno, it contains an 18th century statue of Charlemagne by Cornacchini to the south, and an equestrian sculpture of Emperor Constantine by Bernini (1670) to the north. Entering The southernmost door, designed by Giacomo Manzù, is called the "Door of the Dead". The door in the center is by Antonio Averulino (1455), and preserved from the previous basilica. The approach to St Peters Basilica. ... The approach to St Peters Basilica. ... Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A Frankish king, like Charlemagne, (center) depicted in the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald (about 870) Charlemagne (c. ... Apotheosis of Saint Louis by Charles H. Niehaus In sculpture, an equestrian (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue consisting of a horse with mounted rider. ... Constantine. ... Events January 21 – Highwayman Claude Duval is executed in Tyburn, Middlesex April - Pope Clement X is elected. ... Events February 9 - Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector February 23 - Johannes Gutenberg prints the first Bible on a printing press May 22 - Wars of the Roses: First Battle of St Albans - Richard, Duke of York and his ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick defeat...


The northernmost door is the "Holy Door" in bronze by Vico Consorti (1950), which is by tradition only opened for great celebrations such as Jubilee years. Above it are inscriptions. The top reads PAVLVS V PONT MAX ANNO XIII, the one just above the door reads GREGORIVS XIII PONT MAX. In between are white slabs commemorating the most recent openings:
Vico Consorti (1902-1997) is a sculptor who built the bronze Holy Door in St. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. ...

IOANNES PAVLVS II P.M.
PORTAM SANCTAM
ANNO IVBILAEI MCMLXXV
A PAVLO PP VI
RESERVATAM ET CLAVSAM
APERVIT ET CLAVSIT
ANNO IVB HVMANE REDEMP
MCMLXXXIII – MCMLXXIV

IOANNES PAVLVS II P.M.
ITERVM PORTAM SANCTAM
APERVIT ET CLAVSIT
ANNO MAGNI IVBILAEI
AB INCARNATIONE DOMINI
MM-MMI

PAVLVS VI PONT MAX
HVIVS PATRIARCALIS
VATICANAE BASILICAE
PORTAM SANCTAM
APERVIT ET CLAVSIT
ANNO IVBILAEI MCMLXXV

In the jubilee year of human redemption 1983-4, John Paul II, the Pontifex Maximus, opened and closed again the holy door closed and set apart by Paul VI in 1976. John Paul II, the Pontifex Maximus, again opened and closed the holy door in the year of the great jubilee, the 2000th-2001st from the incarnation of the Lord. Paul VI, the Pontifex Maximus, opened and closed the holy door of this patriarchal Vatican basilica in the jubilee year of 1975

His Holiness Pope John Paul II, officially in Latin , born Karol Józef Wojtyla [1] (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death. ... In the Roman Republic, the Pontifex Maximus was the head of the Roman religion. ...

Interior

St. Peter's Basilica, from entrance, by Giovanni Paolo Pannini

Walking along the right aisle of the basilica, there are several noteworthy monuments and memorials. The first is Michelangelo's Pietà, located immediately to the right of the entrance. After an incident in 1972 when an individual damaged it with an axe, the sculpture was placed behind protective glass. Up the aisle is the monument of Queen Christina of Sweden, who abdicated in 1654 in order to convert to Catholicism. Further up are the monuments of popes Pius XI and Pius XII, as well as the altar of St Sebastian. Even further up is the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, which is open during religious services only. Inside it is a tabernacle on the altar resembling Bramante's Tempietto at San Pietro in Montorio. Bernini sculpted this gilded bronze tabernacle in 1674. The two kneeling angels were added later. Further still are the monuments of popes Gregory XIII (completed in 1723 by Carlo Rusconi) and Gregory XIV. Saint Peters Basilica by Giovanni Paolo Panini (1691-1765) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Saint Peters Basilica by Giovanni Paolo Panini (1691-1765) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Categories: Stub | 1691 births | 1765 deaths | Italian painters ... Pietà by Michelangelo The Pietà by Michelangelo is a marble sculpture in St. ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Ax music is a style of popular music which orginated in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. ... Christina (1626-1689) or Kristina, later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometime Count Dohna, was Queen of Sweden from 1632 to 1654, was the daughter of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Pius XI (born Achille Ratti May 31, 1857 - Rome, February 10, 1939) was Pope from February 6, 1922 until February 10, 1939. ... The Venerable Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958 in Rome, Italy), served as the Pope from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... This article is about St. ... Donato Bramante Donato Bramante (1444 - March 11, 1514), Italian architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his most famous design was St. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Pope Gregory XIII (1502-1585) Gregory XIII, né Ugo Buoncampagno (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585) was pope (1572 – 1585). ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general. ... Gregory XIV, born Niccolò Sfondrato (February 11, 1535 - October 16, 1591) was Pope from December 5, 1590 - October 16, 1591. ...


In the northwestern corner of the nave sits the statue of St. Peter Enthroned, attributed to late 13th century sculptor Arnolfo di Cambio (with some scholars dating it back to the 5th century). The foot of the statue is eroded due to centuries of pilgrims kissing it. Along the floor of the nave are markers with the comparative lengths of other churches, starting from the entrance (not an original detail). Along the pilasters are niches housing 39 statues of saints who founded religious orders. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Arnolfo di Lapo, also known as Arnolfo di Cambio, ( 1245 - 1310) was a Florentine architect and sculptor. ... ( 4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ...


Walking down the left aisle there is the Altar of Transfiguration. Walking down towards the entrance are the monuments to Leo XI and Innocent XI followed by the Chapel of the Immaculate Virgin Mary. After that come the monuments to Pius X and Innocent VIII, then the monuments to John XXIII and Benedict XV, and the Chapel of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin. After that comes the Monument to the Royal Stuarts, directly opposite the one to Maria Clementina Sobieska. Symmetrically, the two monarchs who gave up their thrones for their Catholic faith in the 17th century, are honored side by side in the most important church in Catholicism. Finally, right before the end of the church, is the Baptistry. Leo XI, born Alessandro Ottaviano de Medici (2 June 1535—27 April 1605), was pope from April 1, 1605 to April 27 of the same year. ... Innocent XI, né Benedetto Odescalchi (May 16, 1611 - August 12, 1689) was pope from 1676 to 1689. ... Pope Saint Pius X, born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto (2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914), was Pope from 1903 to 1914, succeeding Pope Leo XIII. He was the first pope since the Counter-Reformation Pope St. ... Innocent VIII, né Giovanni Battista Cibo (1432 – July 25, 1492), pope from 1484 to 1492, was born at Genoa, and was the son of Aran Cibo who under Calixtus III had been a senator at Rome. ... The Blessed John XXIII wearing a Papal Tiara Angelo Roncalli was born in Sotto il Monte (province of Bergamo), Italy on November 25, 1881. ... Pope Benedict XV Benedict XV, né Giacomo della Chiesa (November 21, 1854-January 22, 1922), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1914 to 1922; he succeeded Pope Saint Pius X. He was born in Genoa, Italy, of a noble family. ... Monument to the royal Stuarts, Rome The Monument to the Royal Stuarts is a memorial in St. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


The right transept contains three altars, of St Wenceslas, St. Processo and St. Martiniano, and St. Erasmus. The left transept also contains three altars, that of St. Peter's Crucifixion, St. Joseph and St. Thomas. West of the left transept is the monument to Alexander VII by Bernini. A skeleton lifts a fold of red marble drapery and holds an hourglass symbolising the inevitability of death. He is flanked on the right by a statue representing religion, who holds her foot atop a globe, with a thorn piercing her toe from the British Isles, symbolizing the pope's problems with the Church of England. Wenceslas (or Wenceslaus; Czech: Václav; German: Wenzel), styled Wenceslas I, Duke of Bohemia (b. ... Saint Joseph, also referred to as Joseph the Betrothed and as Joseph of Nazareth, was the foster-father of Jesus, according to the New Testament (Matthew 1:16; Luke 3:23). ... Thomas was one of the 12 apostles of Jesus. ... Alexander VII, né Fabio Chigi (February 13, 1599 - May 22, 1667) was pope from April 7, 1655 until his death in 1667. ... British Isles is also an old name for the Great Britain, Great Britain Ireland The Isle of Man The Isle of Wight The Northern Isles, including Orkney, Shetland and Fair Isle The Hebrides, including the Inner Hebrides, Outer Hebrides and Small Isles Rockall The islands of the lower Firth of... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...

Enlarge
The tomb of Pope John Paul I, beneath St. Peter's

Over the main altar stands a 30 m (90 ft.) tall baldachin held by four immense pillars, all designed by Bernini between 1624 and 1632. The baldachin was built to fill the space beneath the cupola, and it is said that the bronze used to make it was taken from the Pantheon. Underneath the baldachin is the traditional tomb of St. Peter. In the four corners surrounding the baldachin are statues of St Helena (northwest, holding a large cross in her right hand), St Longinus (northeast, holding his spear in his right hand), St Andrew (southeast, spread upon the cross which bears his name) and St Veronica (southwest, holding her veil). The statue of Longinus is by Bernini (1639) and the others are by his followers. Each of these statues represents a relic associated with the person, respectively, a piece of The Cross, the Spear of Destiny, St Andrew's head (as well as part of his cross) and Veronica's Veil. In 1964, St Andrew's head was returned to the Greek Orthodox Church by the Pope. It should be noted that the Vatican makes no claims as to the authenticity of several of these relics, and in fact other Catholic churches also possess "the same" relics. Along the base of the inside of the dome is written, in letters 6 ft. (2 m) high, TV ES PETRVS ET SVPER HANC PETRAM AEDIFICABO ECCLESIAM MEAM. TIBI DABO CLAVES REGNI CAELORVM (Vulgate, from Matthew 16:18-19 (http://php.ug.cs.usyd.edu.au/~jnot4610/bibref.php?book=%20Matthew&verse=16:18-19&src=4); "...you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church. ... I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven...."). Near the top of the dome is another, smaller, circular inscription: S. PETRI GLORIAE SIXTVS PP. V. A. M. D. XC. PONTIF. V. (To the glory of St. Peter; Sixtus V, pope, in the year 1590 and the fifth year of his pontificate). image of Pope John Paul Is tomb - full permission of Dr. M.A Tierney to use his images File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... image of Pope John Paul Is tomb - full permission of Dr. M.A Tierney to use his images File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 – November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... Events The Netherlands establish a trading colony at Kaohsiung on Taiwan. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe. ... Longinus is the name given in Christian mythology to the Roman soldier who pierced the side of Jesus on the cross. ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Andreas, manly), the Christian Apostle, brother of Saint Peter, was born at Bethsaida on the Lake of Galilee. ... Abgar of Edessa in a 10th-century icon, displaying the miraculous image of Edessa, a veronica According to the Acta Sanctorum published by the Bollandists (under February 4), Saint Veronica or Berenice was a pious woman of Jerusalem who, moved with pity as Jesus carried his cross to Golgotha, gave... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... The Spear of Destiny, sometimes known as the Lance, Spear Luin or Spear of Longinus, is claimed to be the spear that pierced the side of Jesus when he was on the cross. ... Veronicas veil, painting by Domenico Fetti (circa 1620). ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century translation of the Bible into Latin made by St. ...


At the far end of the church is the Cathedra of St. Peter (1666) by Bernini. It is topped by a yellow window in which is a dove, portraying the Holy Spirit, surrounded by twelve rays, symbolising the apostles. Beneath it is the chair of St. Peter, given to the Vatican from Charles the Bald in 875. To the right of the chair are St Ambrose and St Augustine (fathers of the Latin church), and to the left are St Athanasius and St John Chrysostom (fathers of the Greek church). Further to the right is the monument to Urban VIII, by Bernini, and further to the left is the monument to Paul III. Events September 2 - Great Fire of London: A large fire breaks out in London in the house of Charles IIs baker on Pudding Lane near London Bridge. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... Charles the Bald (Charles II of France and Holy Roman Emperor Charles II) (823_877), Roman emperor and king of the West Franks, was the son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his second wife Judith. ... Events December 29 - Charles the Bald, king of west Danes capture Lindisfarne and arrive in Cambridge. ... Saint Ambrose, Latin Sanctus Ambrosius, Italian SantAmbrogio (circa 340 - April 4, 397), bishop of Milan, was one of the most eminent fathers of the Christian church in the 4th century. ... St. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) (298–May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Patriarch of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... Urban VIII, né Maffeo Barberini (April 1568 - July 29, 1644) was pope from 1623-1644. ... Pope Paul III, (1543) portrait by Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples Paul III, né Alessandro Farnese (February 29, 1468 - November 10, 1549) was pope from 1534 to 1549. ...


Miscellaneous

Few are aware that St. Peter's is not, in fact, a cathedral, i.e. the seat of a bishop. The pope is the bishop of Rome, but the diocese is traditionally based in the cathedral of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano. A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy (such as the Roman Catholic Church or the Anglican churches), which serves as the central church of a bishopric. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who holds a specific position of authority in any of a number of Christian churches. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano was completed by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 after winning a competition for the design. ...


Despite a frequent confusion due to the similar names, the church of San Pietro in Vincoli (famous for hosting the precious Michelangelo's "Moses") is a different church, situated on the other side of the Tiber river. The chains of St. ... Michelangelos Moses Michelangelos Moses is an 8 4 (254 cm) high marble sculpture executed by Michelangelo Buonarroti 1513-1515. ... Tiber River in Rome The River Tiber (Italian Tevere), the third longest river in Italy (disputed — see talk page) at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through the Campagna and Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in...


The Guinness Book of Records currently lists Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro - which was largely inspired by St. Peter's Basilica - as the largest church, surpassing St. Peter's when it was completed in 1989. The validity of this, however, continues to be debated. The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ... There is a similarly-named Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Emirates Palace hotel entrance hall dome in Dubai is said to surpass St. Peter's Basilica in height. The Emirates Palace is a luxury hotel located in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The hotel opened in 2005 and has cost an estimate of over US$3 billion. ... Dubai - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


See also

Johann Tetzel (1465-1519) was a Dominican priest who is perhaps best known for selling indulgences during the 16th century. ...

External links

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