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Encyclopedia > St. Johns River
St. Johns River
Origin St. Johns Marsh
west of Fellsmere, Florida
Mouth Atlantic Ocean
at Mayport, Florida
Basin countries United States
Length 310 mi (500 km)
Source elevation 24 ft

The St. Johns River (officially Saint Johns River, and commonly misspelled as the St. John's River) is the longest river in the U.S. state of Florida, stretching 310 miles (500 km) from Indian River County to the Atlantic Ocean in Duval County. The St. Johns River is one of the longest rivers in the United States that flows in a generally northwards direction. It was designated as one of the American Heritage Rivers in 1997. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... [[ == Headline text == This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Fellsmere is a city located in Indian River County, Florida. ... The USS departing NS Mayport, Florida Naval Station Mayport is a major U. S. Navy base near Jacksonville, Florida. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... [[ == Headline text == This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Indian River County Courthouse in Vero Beach Indian River County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... Duval County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... American Heritage Rivers are designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to receive special attention (coordinating efforts of multiple governmental entities) to further three objectives: natural resource and environmental protection, economic revitalization, and historic and cultural preservation. ...

St. Johns River, near Blue Spring State Park
St. Johns River, near Blue Spring State Park
Entrance to Blue Spring State Park from the St. Johns River
Entrance to Blue Spring State Park from the St. Johns River

The elevation change from headwaters to mouth is only about 30 feet, making the St. Johns one of the world's "laziest" rivers[1]. Its extremely low velocity, combined with the generally level elevation, causes the St. Johns to spread out to a great width for much of its course. During periods of low flow, the river can be influenced by tides as far south as Lake Monroe - 161 miles inland[1]. For a distance of over twenty miles before arriving at downtown Jacksonville, the river's average width exceeds two miles, and in some places, exceeds three miles in width. The slow flow of the St. Johns makes it difficult for pollutants to be flushed from the waters, which has become a serious problem for the river ecosystem[1]. Still, the river is home to numerous species of plants and animals. It is not uncommon to see dolphins in the river east of Jacksonville and manatees in the springtime when the water warms up. Alligators, bald eagles, ospreys, stingrays, and many species of fish—both salt and fresh water—are found living in the river and on its banks. The entire basin is managed by the St. Johns Water Management District. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 520 KB) Summary St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 520 KB) Summary St. ... Manatee in Blue Spring Blue Spring State Park is a state park near Orange City, Florida in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1109x715, 250 KB) Summary Entrance to Blue Spring from the St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1109x715, 250 KB) Summary Entrance to Blue Spring from the St. ... Manatee in Blue Spring Blue Spring State Park is a state park near Orange City, Florida in the United States. ... Lake Monroe in c. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Genera See article below. ... “Jacksonville” redirects here. ... Species Trichechus inunguis Trichechus manatus Trichechus senegalensis For the record label, see Manatee Records. ... Species Alligator mississippiensis Alligator sinensis An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Bald Eagle range Subspecies (Linnaeus, 1766) Southern Bald Eagle Audubon, 1827) Northern Bald Eagle or Washingtons Eagle Synonyms Falco leucocephalus Linnaeus, 1766 The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), also known in the United States as the American Eagle, is a bird of prey found in North... Binomial name Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Osprey, Pandion haliaetus is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution. ... Genera Dasyatis Himantura Pastinachus Pteroplatytrygon Taeniura Urogymnus See text for species. ... St. ...

Contents

History and names

Map of the St. Johns River in 1876
Map of the St. Johns River in 1876
Turpentine Still in 1907
St. John's River lowlands
St. John's River lowlands

More than 100,000 years ago, the area of land that now comprises the river was connected to the Atlantic Ocean for most, if not all, of its length, making the river nothing more than an extended system of lagoons and tributaries. As the ocean levels dropped, barrier islands and reef formations effectively walled off the system of lagoons from the ocean, forming the river. This unusual geologic past explains why a river of this size arose with such little drop in elevation from source to mouth (30 feet over 310 miles). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (630x1020, 766 KB) Summary 1876 pamphlet Whitneys Florida Pathfinder issued from Pathfinder Office, 66 John St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (630x1020, 766 KB) Summary 1876 pamphlet Whitneys Florida Pathfinder issued from Pathfinder Office, 66 John St. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Turpentine_Still_on_St. ... Image File history File links Turpentine_Still_on_St. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The river basin was the home to the native Timucua tribes, who called it Welaka, or "river of lakes". Pre-contact distribution of Timucua One of the sketches by Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues showing a Timucua village The Timucua were an American Indian people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia. ...


In the early 1500s, Spanish explorers called the river Río de Corrientes, or "river of currents". The decade of years from 1500 to 1509, inclusive. ...


An expedition of French Huguenots landed at the mouth of the river on May 1, 1562, and thus called it Rivière du Mai, or "river of May". In 1564, a bluff overlooking this site (St. Johns Bluff) became the location of Fort Caroline, the first French colony in North America. This fort was captured by the Spanish from St. Augustine a little over a year after it was founded. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Fort Caroline was the first permanent French colony in North America, located in present-day Jacksonville, Florida. ... In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... St. ...


The conquering Spanish renamed the river (and the fort) San Mateo, after Saint Matthew, whose feast day fell the day after their victory over the French. Matthew the Evangelist (מתי Gift of the LORD, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew Mattay; Septuagint Greek Ματθαιος, Matthaios) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Matthew. ...


A Catholic mission named San Juan del Puerto was founded on Fort George Island near the river's mouth around 1578, and in time the river came to be known as Río de San Juan. This was translated St. Johns River in English, and this name has remained intact through colonization, war, and the creation of the United States. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... San Juan del Puerto was a Roman Catholic mission founded around 1578 on Fort George Island, near the mouth of the St. ... Fort George Island State Cultural Site is a Florida State Park located on Fort George Island, about three miles south of Little Talbot Island State Park on SR A1A, and near the 46,000 acre Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve. ...


During the American Civil War, control of the river was decided at the Battle of Saint John's Bluff, enabling the Union Army to firmly establish control over Jacksonsville. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders John M. Brannan Charles F. Hopkins Strength 2 infantry regiments, 1 artillery battery, and 1 cavalry company (1,500) 1 artillery battery, and 1 cavalry company Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Saint Johns Bluff (also called St. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ...


The three basins

The upper (southern) basin of the river has indistinct banks, with numerous sloughs and lagoons, often pooling into ponds and lakes. Some of the larger lakes are known today as Blue Cypress Lake, Lake Hellen Blazes, Sawgrass Lake, Lake Washington, Lake Winder, Lake Poinsett, Ruth Lake, Puzzle Lake, Lake Harney, Lake Jesup and Lake Monroe. The term slough (in the UK, pronounced to rhyme with cow; In the US, pronounced slew) has several meanings related to wetland or aquatic features that seem to derive from local experience. ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... Blue Cypress Lake is a lake in Indian River County of the Treasure Coast in Florida. ... It has been suggested that Sawgrass Lake be merged into this article or section. ... Lake Washington is the largest lake in Brevard County Florida. ... Lake Winder is a lake in Brevard County and a small portion lies in Osceola County. ... Lake Poinsett is a lake in Brevard County, Florida near Rockledge and Cocoa, with small portions in Orange County, and Osceola County. ... Puzzle Lake is a lake near Geneva in Seminole County, Florida. ... Lake Jesup is one of the many lakes that make up the St. ... Lake Monroe in c. ...


Below Lake Harney, the river is joined by the Econlockhatchee River, and runs between higher bluffs on either side, forming the middle basin. This part of the river runs through what is now the Ocala National Forest. After the English acquisition of Florida from Spain in 1762, English explorer William Bartram was sent by King George III to explore the territory. In his subsequent book Travels, Bartram called the middle basin a "...blessed land where the gods have amassed into one heap all the flowering plants, birds, fish and other wildlife of two continents in order to turn the rushing streams, the silent lake shores and the awe-abiding woodlands of this mysterious land into a true garden of Eden." Here the river forms the broad and shallow Lake George, where marine sharks have been seen in drought years in which the normally rain-fed freshwaters of the river cannot fight back the inflowing Atlantic salt water. Econlockhatchee River (Econ River for short) is a north-flowing blackwater tributary of the St. ... The Ocala National Forest is the second largest National Forest in Florida and is the closest to a major city. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... William Bartram (April 20, 1739 -July 22, 1823) was an American naturalist, the son of John Bartram. ... George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... For other bodies of water with the same name, see Lake George. ...


The lower (northern) basin begins where the largest tributary of the St. Johns, the Ocklawaha River, joins the flow. (Both rivers are part of the modern Caravelle Ranch Wildlife Management Area.) It passes through the historic city of Palatka, Florida, then through unspoiled riverine bottomland hardwoods, pine flatwoods and sandhill communities, on its way to Jacksonville. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The 110 mile long Ocklawaha River flows north from Central Florida until it joins the St. ... Location in the State of Florida Coordinates: , County Incorporated January 8, 1853 Government  - Mayor-Commissioner Karl N. Flagg Area  - City 19. ...


Past Green Cove Springs, the river becomes an estuary, where fresh and salt water meet, and a wide diversity of living species inhabit the islands, inlets, sounds, streams and marshes of the area. Green Cove Springs is a city located in Clay County, Florida. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Rio de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ...


Fishing

The St. Johns is known for excellent fishing, especially largemouth bass. Its estuarial nature provides both freshwater and saltwater or brackish-water species. Saltwater species include redfish, flouder, tarpon, and the brackish water sea trout, known locally as the "gator trout". A recent report states that saltwater species have been venturing farther up the river (southwards) in recent years. Binomial name Micropterus salmoides The Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is a species of fish. ... Trinomial name Salmo trutta fario Salmo trutta trutta The Brown Trout (Salmo trutta fario) and the Sea Trout (Salmo trutta trutta) are subspecies distinguished chiefly by the fact that the Brown Trout is largely a freshwater fish, while the Sea Trout shows anadromous reproduction, spawning in fresh water but migrating...


Some of the best known fishing occurs in January–March, when the American shad run up the river, and it becomes full of trolling boats. The shad, like the salmon, are anadromous and live most of their life at sea. They are caught primarily for the eggs, shad roe, for the flesh is below average and full of small bones. Binomial name Alosa sapidissima (Wilson, 1811) The American shad or Atlantic Shad (Alosa sapidissima) is a species of anadromous fish in family Clupeidae of order Clupeiformes. ... Many types of fish undertake migrations on a regular basis, on time scales ranging from daily to annual, and with distances ranging from a few meters to thousands of kilometers. ...




Port city of Jacksonville

Map of Downtown Jacksonville showing three of the five auto bridges that cross the St. Johns downtown; in total, seven bridges cross the St. Johns within the city of Jacksonville
Map of Downtown Jacksonville showing three of the five auto bridges that cross the St. Johns downtown; in total, seven bridges cross the St. Johns within the city of Jacksonville
Main article: Jacksonville, Florida

As the St. Johns River flows through the city of Jacksonville, Florida it is spanned by seven bridges (see below). The Jacksonville Port Authority (JAXPORT) facilities at the mouth of the St. Johns River make up Florida's second largest port. In fiscal year 2003, JAXPORT handled over 1,500 ships, delivering almost 700,000 containers and over 500,000 cars. Some of the major local commodities include gypsum and oil. Download high resolution version (660x608, 125 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (660x608, 125 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... “Jacksonville” redirects here. ... “Jacksonville” redirects here. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...


The U.S. Navy maintains the Naval Air Station Jacksonville and Naval Station Mayport near the river's mouth. The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Naval Air Station Jacksonville, located in Jacksonville, Florida, is the third-largest naval installation in the United States. ... The USS departing NS Mayport, Florida Naval Station Mayport is a major U. S. Navy base near Jacksonville, Florida. ...

St. Johns River crossings in the Jacksonville, Florida area
Upriver from Downtown Jax Shands Bridge (to be replaced or supplemented) - Buckman Bridge - Timuquana Bridge (never built)
Downtown Jax Fuller Warren Bridge - FEC Strauss Trunnion Bascule Bridge - Acosta Bridge - Main Street Bridge - Hart Bridge - Mathews Bridge - 20th Street Extension (never built)
Downriver from Downtown Jax Dames Point Bridge - Florida State Road 113A (never built) - Mayport Ferry

“Jacksonville” redirects here. ... Shands Bridge at dedication, October 30, 1963. ... Eastbound on the Buckman Bridge. ... The Timuquana Bridge was a proposed bridge over the St. ... Categories: Bridges in Florida | Jacksonville | Stub ... The FEC Strauss Trunnion Bascule Bridge is a double track railroad bridge spanning the St. ... The original Acosta Bridge with the adjacent railroad bridge. ... The Main Street Bridge seen from the Acosta Bridge. ... Looking at the Hart Bridge from SR 228, heading east from downtown. ... Categories: Bridges in Florida | Jacksonville | US geography stubs ... The Dames Point Bridge (officially the Napoleon Bonaparte Broward Bridge) is a cable-stayed bridge over the St. ... The Saint Johns River Ferry, also known as the Mayport Ferry, is an auto ferry between Mayport and Fort George Island, two areas within Jacksonville, Florida. ...

Tributaries

Deep Creek, one of the smaller tributaries of the St. Johns River.

Starting at the river's mouth and moving upstream, major tributaries of the St. Johns River include Pablo Creek, the Trout River, the Arlington River, the Ortega River, Doctors Lake, the Cross Florida Barge Canal, the Oklawaha River, the Wekiva River, Lake Jessup, and the Econlockhatchee River. Fort Drum Creek drains into the St. Johns Marsh, the source of the river.[2] Image File history File links Deep_Creek. ... Image File history File links Deep_Creek. ... The welcome sign at Flagler Estates Boulevard and St. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Trout River is a tributary of the St. ... Doctors Lake is a lake located off the St. ... One of the two completed sections of the Barge Canal, looking west from the SR 19 bridge south of Palatka. ... The 110 mile long Ocklawaha River flows north from Central Florida until it joins the St. ... The Wekiva River (sometimes spelled Wekiwa, Creek for spring of water[1]) is a 30 mile river starting in two separate fresh water springs in Central Florida and ending in the brackish St. ... Econlockhatchee River (Econ River for short) is a north-flowing blackwater tributary of the St. ...


See also

Main article: St. ... This is a list of bridges and other crossings of the St. ... This is a partial list of rivers in the U.S. state of Florida. ... The Saint John River is a river, approximately 418 mi (673 km) long, located in the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... St. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c St. Johns River Fast Facts. Retrieved on 2007-01-11.
  2. ^ DeLorme Florida Atlas & Gazetteer, 2003 edition
  • USGS GNIS: Saint Johns River, USGS GNIS

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


 
 

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