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Encyclopedia > St. John Richardson Liddell
St. John R. Lidell
18201870

St. John Richardson Liddell
Place of birth Mississippi
Place of death New Orleans, Louisiana
Allegiance Confederate States of America
Rank Brigadier General
Battles/wars American Civil War

St. John Richardson Liddell (September 6, 1815February 14, 1870) was a prominent Louisiana planter who served as a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He was an outspoken proponent of Southern emancipation of slavery. 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Liddell. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: The Crescent City, The Big Easy, The City That Care Forgot, NOLA (acronym for New Orleans, LA) Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718  - Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area    - City  350. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city Baton Rouge [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven Southern states seceded from the United States (four more states soon followed). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Look up emancipation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ...

Contents

Early life and career

Liddell was born to a wealthy plantation family near Woodville, Mississippi. He was a schoolmate of future Confederate President Jefferson Davis, whom he would interact with several times during the early years of the Civil War on behalf of fellow general Albert Sidney Johnston. // This article is about crop plantations. ... Woodville is a town located in Wilkinson County, Mississippi. ... The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America which seceded from the United States. ... Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 - December 6, 1889) was an American statesman who was President of the Confederate States of America, as well as a Congress man for Kentucky, for its entire history from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ...


He attended the United States Military Academy in 1837, but resigned prior to graduating. Liddell then moved to Louisiana and established his own prosperous plantation, "Llanada." His famous feud with Charles Jones, which eventually led to his death, began in the 1850s. USMA redirects here. ...


Civil War

Western Theater: 1861–63

With the outbreak of the Civil War and Louisiana's secession, Liddell enlisted in the Confederate army and received a commission. He initially served as a staff officer to his close friend William J. Hardee and Albert Sidney Johnston during the early part of the conflict. He then commanded the famous Arkansas Brigade in Patrick Cleburne's division of the Army of Tennessee from 1862–63, including the battles of Perryville and Murfreesboro. For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... William J. Hardee (1817-1873) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Patrick Cleburne Patrick Ronayne Cleburne (March 16 or 17, 1828 – November 30, 1864) was a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, killed at the Battle of Franklin. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... The Army of Tennessee can refer to either of two American Civil War armies: Army of Tennessee, the Confederate army named after the state of Tennessee. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Don Carlos Buell Braxton Bragg Strength Army of the Ohio Army of Mississippi Casualties 4,211 3,196 The Battle of Perryville, also known as Battle at Perryville and Battle of Chaplin Hills, was an important but largely neglected encounter... Battle of Stones River / Battle of Murfreesboro II Conflict American Civil War Date December 31, 1862 - January 2, 1863 Place Murfreesboro, Tennessee Result Both sides claim victory, but the Confederate Army withdraws The Battle of Stones River or Murfreesboro II, was a battle fought in the American Civil War. ...


Liddell commanded a division at Chickamauga in 1863, but repetidly refused promotion to Major General in order to secure an assignment closer to his plantation, which was in jepordy from Jayhawkers. Liddell was approached by General Braxton Bragg, a Westpoint classmate, to become his Chief-of-Staff and replace General W.W. Mackall, but Liddell refused. Although he was publicly critical of Bragg, Liddell seemed to enjoy his favor, which may have earned him the enmity of several of the officers in the Army of the Tennessee. He remained very close with his classmate Hardee. Despite his personal clashes with fellow officers, Liddell had provided invaluable service to the Army of Tennessee. His brigade was pivotal at Perryville and Stones' River, and suffered the highest percentage of casualties at Chickamauga, where his sixteen-year-old son Willie Liddell was mortally wounded. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (66,000) Casualties 16,170 (1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing) 18,454 (2,312 killed... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... A jayhawker was a radical guerrilla fighter during the American Civil War. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. ...


Trans-Missippi Theater: 1863–65

General Bragg refused to spare Liddell, but when Bragg was relieved by Jefferson Davis after the Chattanooga disaster, Liddell appealed personally to the President for a transfer and command of District of Northeastern Lousiana, which he received and held during the Red River Campaign in 1864. He was later assigned to overall command of the infantry at Mobile, Alabama until to its surrender in 1865. During the last campaign, Liddell and Union Maj. Gen. E.R.S. Canby engaged in the Battle of Spanish Fort, one of the last engagements of the war, where he was captured. Canby would later prove influential in Liddell's life by securing amnesty for him from the Federal Government. This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. ... The Red River Campaign or Red River Expedition consisted of a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864. ... The Battle of Fort Blakely took place from April 2-9, 1865 in Baldwin County, Alabama, as part of the Mobile Campaign of the Main Western Theater. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Major General E.R.S Canby Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (November 9, 1817 – April 11, 1873) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War and Indian Wars. ... Battle of Spanish Fort Conflict American Civil War Date March 27-April 8, 1865 Place Baldwin County, Alabama Result Union victory The Battle of Spanish Fort took place from March 27-April 8, 1865 in Baldwin County, Alabama, as part of the Mobile Campaign of the Main Western Theater. ...


During his Trans-Mississippi service, Liddell found himself in conflict with his immediate superior, Richard Taylor, the brother-in-law of President Davis, and regretted leaving the Army of the Tennessee. In contrast to many modern historians, Liddell lays the blame for the Confederate failure to recapture the Mississippi or unite some 60,000 troops of their far Western Commands under Generals Magruder, Taylor, and Price with the Army of Tennessee on Taylor himself, rather then Edmund Kirby Smith. Unknown to Liddell, by late 1864 Generals Bragg, Hardee, and E.K. Smith made several petitions for Liddell's promotion to positions including James Mouton's Texas Division, and Hardee's Chief of Staff, but these were not acted on before the war drew to a close. Richard Taylor Richard Taylor (January 27, 1826 – April 12, 1879) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... John B. Magruder John Bankhead Magruder (May 1, 1807 – February 19, 1871) was a U.S. Army officer in the Mexican War, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... General Price Sterling Old Pap Price (September 20, 1809 – September 29, 1867) was an antebellum politician from the U.S. state of Missouri and a Confederate major general during the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career U.S. Army officer, an educator, and a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the... James Raleigh Mouton was born on December 19, 1968 in Denver, Colorado. ...


Liddell on slavery

Liddell held a reputation for being outspoken, and was well connected. In December 1864, he wrote a letter to Edward Sparrow, a Confederate Senator from Louisiana and chairman of the military Committee, expressing his conviction that the war was going against the Confederacy. He expressed the need for full emanicipation of the slaves in order to secure foreign assistance. Although he admitted it may have been too late to act, he felt that emancipation may have also been a solution to the South's growing manpower crisis. Senator Sparrow showed the letter to General Robert E. Lee, who agreed with Liddell on all points, stating that "he could make soldiers out of any human being that had arms and legs". Edward Sparrow (December 29, 1810 – July 4, 1882) was a prominent Confederate States of America politician. ... Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career U.S. Army officer and the most celebrated general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ...


Postbellum career

In 1866, Liddell wrote his memoirs, in which he was highly critical of the Confederate leadership and his fellow officers, including Davis and Bragg. The memoirs themselves are actually a collection of several separate manuscripts, letters, and battlefield records, which he was unable to combine before he was murdered.


In them, his criticisms arise mainly from the failure of Bragg's subordinates, including Cleburne, Bishop Polk, John C. Breckenridge, Simon Bolivar Buckner, Joseph Wheeler, D.H. Hill, and James Longstreet, to support Bragg, which in the end leaves Liddell as one of the few writers of the period who was generous to Bragg. His writing reveals his minority opinion of praise for officers like General John Floyd and Gideon Pillow, whom nearly all modern historians consider inept. He expresses disgust for Judah P. Benjamin, whom most historians consider one of the most able Confederate Cabinet officials. Leonidas Polk, The Fighting Bishop Leonidas Polk (April 10, 1806 – June 14, 1864) was a Confederate general who was once a planter in Maury County, Tennessee, and a third cousin of President James K. Polk. ... John Cabell Breckinridge (January 16, 1821–May 17, 1875) was a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Kentucky and the fourteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Simon Bolivar Buckner may refer to several articles in Wikipedia: Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. ... Joseph Wheeler Joseph Wheeler (September 10, 1836 – January 25, 1906) was an American military commander and politician. ... General Daniel Harvey Hill Daniel Harvey Hill (July 12th, 1821 - September 24th, 1889) was a Confederate general and Southern scholar. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... John Floyd (1572 - September 15, 1649), English Jesuit, was born in Cambridgeshire . ... Gideon Johnson Pillow (June 8, 1806-October 8, 1878) was an American general. ... Judah P. Benjamin Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811–May 6, 1884) was a British-American politician and lawyer, who served as a representative in the Louisiana State Legislature, as U.S. Senator for Louisiana, in three successive cabinet posts in the government of the Confederate States of America...


He mentions at several times the growing sense of futility he and other officers felt in the unlucky Army of Tennessee. It was plainly clear to them after the fall of Forts Henry and Donelson that their cause was doomed unless they could concentrate their forces and wage an offensive campaign, however political intrigue always seemed to squander any gains made by the Army. Liddell comes off as a fair, impartial officer, even proposing that had the south recruited Generals like George H. Thomas, whom he considered the best Union Commander, things may have turned out differently. General George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 - March 28, 1870), Northern general during the American Civil War, was born in Southampton County, Virginia. ...


A gentleman and one of the few selfless officers of the peroid, Liddell refused promotion and endeavor to help any officer he was assigned to, regardless of wether they were liked or not. He was opinionated and outspoken, yet his opinion was valued, and he held the ear of the echelons of Confederate command, including Davis, A.S. Johnston, Bragg, and Hardee. Perhaps his military education, but lack of formal military background, led to this unique quality. He spent his vast personal fortune on equipping his own brigade, even though it was from a different state. The brigade itself was the only unit in the Army of Tennessee never to court-martial an enlisted soldier, and was known as the hardest fighting and best drilled brigade in the Army of the Tennessee. A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ...


Liddell was assassinated in 1870 by Col. Charles Jones, the culmination of a twenty-year real estate dispute that had seen Jones and his band of thugs murder several friends and family members of Liddell. He was buried on his sprawling plantation in Louisiana.


The St. John Richardson Liddell Chapter #271 of the Military Order of the Stars & Bars in Bay Minette, Alabama, was named for the former general. The Military Order of the Stars and Bars is a patriotic fraternal organization for descendants of men who served as commissioned officers in the armed forces of the Confederate States of America. ... Bay Minette is a city in Baldwin County, Alabama, United States. ...


External links

  • Obituary of General St. John Richardson Lidell

References

  • Andrews, C.C. History of the Campaign of Mobile. New York, 1867.
  • Anonymous. "The Jones-Liddell Feud." Unpublished Manuscript. Catahoula Parish Court House, Harrisonburg, La.
  • Booth, Andrew B. Records of Louisiana Confederate Soldiers and Louisiana Confederate Commands. 3 colvs. New Orleans, 1920.
  • Connelly, Thomas L. Autumn of Glory: The Army of Tennessee, 1862-185. Baton Rouge, 1971.
  • Hughes Jr., Nathaniel C., and Lidell, St. John R., Liddell's Record, Lousiana State University Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0-8071-2218-1.
  • Johnson, Ludwell H. Red River Campaign. Baltimore, 1958.
  • Kane, Harnett T. The Bayous of Louisiana. New York, 1943.
  • Lanza, Michael L. "The Jones-Liddell Feud." Red River Valley Historical Review II (Winter, 1975), 467ff.
  • Maury, Dabney H. Recollections of a Virginian. New York, 1894.
  • Richardson, Frank L. "The War as I Saw It, 1861-1865". Louisiana Historical Quarterly, VI (January, April, 1923), 86-106, 223ff.
  • Roland, Charles P. Albert Sidney Johnston: Soldier of Three Republics. Austin, 1964.
  • U.S. Government. War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Officiaal Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. 128 vols. Washington, D.C., 1880-1901.
  • Winters, John D. The Civil War in Louisiana. Baton Rouge, 1963.

 
 

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