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Encyclopedia > St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Painting by François Dubois (born about 1529, Amiens, Picardy)
Painting by François Dubois (born about 1529, Amiens, Picardy)

The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy in French) was a wave of Catholic mob violence against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants), traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX. The massacre took place six days after the wedding of the king's sister to the Protestant Henry of Navarre, an occasion for which many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots were in Paris, and two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, a Huguenot leader. Starting on 24 August 1572 (the feast of Bartholomew the Apostle) with the murder of Coligny, the massacres spread throughout Paris, and later to other cities and the countryside, lasting for several months. The exact number of fatalities is not known, but it is estimated that anywhere from ten thousand to possibly one-hundred thousand Huguenots died in the violence throughout France. Though by no means unique, "it was the worst of the century's religious massacres." [1] The massacres marked a turning-point in the French Wars of Religion. The Huguenot political movement was crippled by the loss of many of its prominent aristocratic leaders, and those who remained were increasingly radicalized. Image File history File links Massacre_saint_barthelemy. ... Image File history File links Massacre_saint_barthelemy. ... Riots in Newark, New Jersey Riots occur when crowds of people have gathered and are committing crimes or acts of violence. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Catherine de Medici (April 13, 1519 – January 5, 1589) was born in Florence, Italy, as Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici. ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Gaspard de Coligny Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon held the office of Admiral of France and is best remembered as a Huguenot leader. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... “Bartholomew” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ...

Contents

Background

The Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day was the culmination of a series of events:

The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed August 5, 1570 at the royal Château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, ending the third of the French Wars of Religion. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Marguerite de Valois (1553 - 1615), Queen Margot, Queen of France and Navarre. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ...

An unacceptable peace and an unacceptable marriage

The Peace of Saint-Germain put an end to three years of terrible civil war between Catholics and Protestants. This peace was precarious, however, since the more intransigent Catholics refused to accept it. With the Guise family, who led this faction, out of favour at the French court, the Huguenot leader, Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, was readmitted into the king's council in September 1571. Staunch Catholics were shocked by the return of the Protestants to the court, but the Queen Dowager, Catherine de' Medici, and her son, King Charles IX, were determined not to let war break out again. They were also conscious of the kingdom's financial difficulties, which led them to uphold the peace and remain on friendly terms with Coligny. The Huguenots were in a strong defensive position as they controlled the fortified towns of La Rochelle, La Charité-sur-Loire, Cognac, and Montauban. To cement the peace between the two religious parties, Catherine de' Medici planned to marry her daughter Marguerite de Valois, to the Protestant prince, Henry of Navarre (the future King Henry IV). The royal marriage was arranged for the 18 August 1572. It was not accepted by diehard Catholics, or by the pope. Both the Pope and King Philip II of Spain strongly condemned the Queen Dowager's policy. The House of Guise was a French ducal family, primarily responsible for the French Wars of Religion. ... Gaspard de Coligny Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon held the office of Admiral of France and is best remembered as a Huguenot leader. ... La Rochelle is a city and commune of western France, and a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean (population 78,000 in 2004). ... La Charité-sur-Loire is a town and commune of the Nièvre département, in France. ... Cognac is a commune in the French département of Charente, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Montauban (Montalban in Occitan) is a town and commune of southwestern France, préfecture (capital) of the Tarn-et-Garonne département, 31 miles north of Toulouse. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen...


A tense city

The impending marriage led to the gathering of a large number of well-born Protestants in Paris, who had come to escort their prince. But Paris was a violently anti-Huguenot city, and Parisians, who tended to be extreme Catholics, found their presence unacceptable. Encouraged by Catholic preachers, particularly the Capuchins, they were horrified at the marriage of a princess of France with a Protestant. The Parlement of Paris itself decided to snub the marriage ceremony. Compounding this bad feeling was the fact that the harvests had been poor; the rise in prices and the luxury displayed on the occasion of the royal wedding intensified the hatred felt by the common people. The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap) is an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ...


The court itself was extremely divided. Catherine de' Medici had not obtained the pope's permission to celebrate this irregular marriage; consequently, the French prelates hesitated over which attitude to adopt. It took all the Queen Dowager's skill to convince the Cardinal de Bourbon to marry the couple. Besides this, the rivalries between the leading families re-emerged. The Guises were not prepared to make way for the Montmorencys. Francois, Duke of Montmorency and governor of Paris, was unable to control the disturbances in the city. Faced with a dangerous situation in Paris, he elected to leave town a few days before the wedding. Charles de Bourbon was born on 22nd September 1523. ... Montmorency is the name of several places: Montmorency, in the Val-dOise département of France Montmorency, Victoria, in Australia Montmorency County, Michigan, in the United States Montmorency Township, Michigan, in the United States Montmorency Township, Illinois, in the United States Montmorency Falls, in the province of Quebec, Canada...


The attempted assassination of Admiral de Coligny

After the wedding, Coligny and the leading Huguenots remained in Paris in order to discuss some outstanding grievances about the Peace of St. Germain with the King. On August 22, an attempt was made on Coligny's life. The would-be assassin, Maurevert, escaped in the ensuing confusion, and it is still difficult today to decide who was ultimately responsible for the attack. History records three possible candidates: is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • The Guises: the Cardinal of Lorraine, the Duke of Guise and the Duke of Aumale are the most likely suspects. The leaders of the Catholic party, they wanted to avenge the death of Francois of Guise, believed by them to have been murdered by Coligny ten years previously. The shot aimed at the admiral came from a house belonging to the Guises.
  • The Duke of Alba, who governed the Netherlands on behalf of Philip II: Coligny planned to lead a campaign in the Netherlands to liberate the region from Spanish control. During the summer, he had secretly dispatched a number of troops to help the Protestants in Mons, who were besieged by the Duke of Alba. So the admiral was a real threat to the latter.
  • Catherine de' Medici: according to tradition, the Queen Mother worried that the king was increasingly becoming dominated by Coligny. Amongst other things, Catherine feared that Coligny's influence would drag France into a war with Spain over the Netherlands. Nevertheless, it is difficult to believe in her culpability today, given the efforts the Queen Mother had made to ensure the peace and tranquility of the state. If she was not the author of the assassination attempt however, would she at least have been aware of what the Guises or the Spanish were planning?

Charles, cardinal de Lorraine (1550) by François Clouet Charles of Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine, (February 17, 1524, Joinville - December 26, 1574, Avignon), Duke of Chevreuse, Archbishop of Reims, Bishop of Metz and Cardinal of Lorraine, was a Cardinal and member of the powerful House of Guise. ... The Dukedom of Aumale was created in 1397 by Richard II of England (as King of France) for Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Rutland. ... Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, the third Duke of Alva (or Alba) (1508-January 12, 1583) was a Spanish general and governor of the Spanish Netherlands (1567 - 1573), nicknamed the Iron Duke because of his cruelty, giving the Protestants of the Low Countries a firsthand taste of the Black Legend. ...

The massacres

Millais' painting, A Hugenot on St. Bartholomew's day
Millais' painting, A Hugenot on St. Bartholomew's day

The attempted assassination of Coligny triggered the crisis that led to the massacre. Admiral de Coligny was the most respected Huguenot leader. Aware of the danger from the Protestants, the king and his court visited Coligny on his sickbed and promised him the culprits would be punished. While the Queen Mother was eating dinner, Protestants burst in to demand justice. Fears of Huguenot reprisals grew. Coligny's brother-in-law led a 4,000-strong army camped just outside Paris [2] and, though there is no evidence it was planning to attack, Catholics in the city feared it might take revenge on the Guises or the city populace itself. That very evening, Catherine held a meeting at the Tuileries Palace with her Italian advisers and Baron de Retz. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 390 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (481 × 739 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Huguenot by John Everett Millais The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 390 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (481 × 739 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Huguenot by John Everett Millais The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and... A Huguenot, on St. ... Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. ...


On the evening of August 23, Catherine went to see the king to discuss the crisis. Though no details of the meeting survive, it is obvious that Charles IX and his mother took the decision to eliminate the Protestant leaders. According to an unsubstantiated tradition, he angrily exclaimed: "Well then, so be it! Kill them! But kill them all! Don't leave a single one alive to reproach me!" is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Shortly after this decision, the municipal authorities of Paris were summoned. They were ordered to shut the city gates and to arm the citizenry in order to prevent any attempt at an uprising. The king's Swiss Guard was given the task of killing a list of leading Protestants. It is difficult today to determine the exact chronology of events and to know the moment the killing began. It seems a signal was given by ringing bells for matins (between midnight and dawn) at the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois, near the Louvre, which was the parish church of the kings of France. Before this, the Swiss guards had expelled the Protestant nobles from the Louvre palace and then slaughtered them in the streets. Admiral Coligny was dragged from his bed by the Duke of Guise himself, killed, and his body thrown out of the window. The tension that had been building since the Peace of St. Germain now exploded in a wave of popular violence. The common people began to hunt Protestants throughout the city. The ferocity of the slaughter was incredible. Chains were used to block streets so that Protestants could not escape from their houses. Women and children were butchered in cold blood. The massacre lasted several days, despite the king's attempts to stop it. Among the slain were the composer Claude Goudimel and the philosopher Petrus Ramus. Saint-Germain lAuxerrois Saint-Germain lAuxerrois The Church of Saint-Germain lAuxerrois is situated at 2, Place du Louvre, Paris 75001; the nearest Metro station is Louvre. ... This article is about the museum. ... Claude Goudimel was a French composer and music theorist of the Renaissance. ... Petrus Ramus. ...


The two leading Protestants of the kingdom, Henry of Navarre and the Prince of Condé, were spared as they pledged to convert to Catholicism; both would renounce their conversion when they had escaped Paris. Condé is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Condé, in the Indre département Condé-sur-lEscaut, in the Nord département Condé-sur-Ifs, in the Calvados département Condé-sur-Marne, in the Ardennes département Condé-sur-Noireau, in the...


From August to October, similar apparently spontaneous massacres of Huguenots took place in other towns, such as Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lyon, Bourges, Rouen, and Orléans. The number of victims is unknown, with figures varying between 2,000 and 100,000. Some recent historians estimate the number of dead at 2,000 in Paris, and 5,000 to 10,000 in the rest of France. At any rate only a short time afterwards the reformers were preparing for a fourth civil war. New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... City logo (traditional tri-crescent) City coat of arms Motto: The fleur-de-lis alone rules over the moon, the waves, the castle, and the lion Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Aquitaine Department Gironde (33) Intercommunality Urban Community of Bordeaux Mayor Alain Juppé (UMP) (since... This article is about the French city. ... Bourges is a town and commune in central France that is located on the Yèvre river. ... Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... Orléans (Latin, meaning golden) is a city and commune in north-central France, about 130 km (80 miles) southwest of Paris. ...


Reactions to the massacre

Gregory XIII's medal
Gregory XIII's medal
The murder of Gaspard de Coligny, as depicted in a mural by Giorgio Vasari.
The murder of Gaspard de Coligny, as depicted in a mural by Giorgio Vasari.

Pope Gregory XIII ordered a Te Deum to be sung as a special thanksgiving (a practice continued for many years after) and had a medal struck with the motto Ugonottorum strages 1572 showing an angel bearing a cross and sword next to slaughtered Protestants.[3] He also commissioned the artist Giorgio Vasari to paint three murals in the Sala Regia depicting the wounding of Coligny, his death, and Charles IX before Parliament. "The massacre was interpreted as an act of divine retribution; Coligny was considered a threat to Christendom and thus the pope designated 11 September, 1572 as a joint commemoration of the Battle of Lepanto and the massacre of the Huguenots".[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 398 pixelsFull resolution (991 × 493 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 398 pixelsFull resolution (991 × 493 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Giorgio_Vasari_San_Bartolomeo. ... Image File history File links Giorgio_Vasari_San_Bartolomeo. ... Gaspard de Coligny Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon held the office of Admiral of France and is best remembered as a Huguenot leader. ... Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... Pope Gregory XIII (1502-1585) Gregory XIII, né Ugo Buoncampagno (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585) was pope (1572 – 1585). ... Te Deum is an early Christian hymn of praise. ... Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... Sala Regia is the the Italian translation of Regal Room or Hall. ... // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded...


In Paris, the poet Jean-Antoine de Baïf, founder of the Academie de Musique et de Poésie, wrote a sonnet extravagantly praising the killings. On the other hand, the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II, King Charles's father-in-law, was sickened, describing the massacre as "shameful". Moderate French Catholics also began to wonder whether religious uniformity was worth the price of such bloodshed and they began to form a movement, the Politiques, which placed national unity above sectarian interests. Jean Antoine de Baïf (1532 - 1589), French poet and member of the Pléiade, was born at Venice. ... Académie de Poésie et de Musique, later re-named Académie du Palais, was the first Academy in France. ... Maximilian II can refer to: Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor (1527-1576) Maximilian II von und zu Liechtenstein (1641-1709) Maximilian II Emanuel of Bavaria (1662-1726) Maximilian II of Bavaria (1811-1864) Maximilian Egon II von Fürstenberg (1863-1941) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Politique is an archaic term used in late 1500s and early 1600s to describe either a head of state who puts politics before their religion, or individuals who sought political accommodation between Protestants and Catholics in the interest of peace. ...


Protestant countries were horrified at the events, and only the concentrated efforts of Catherine's ambassadors prevented the collapse of her policy of remaining on good terms with them. England's ambassador to France, Sir Francis Walsingham, barely escaped with his life. Sir Francis Walsingham (c. ...


Interpretation

Over the centuries, the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre has inevitably aroused a great deal of controversy. Modern historians are still divided over the responsibility of the royal family:

  • The traditional interpretation, maintained by Janine Garrisson, makes Catherine de Medici and her Catholic advisers the principal culprits in the execution of the principal military leaders. They forced the hand of a hesitant and weak-willed king in the decision of that particular execution.
  • According to Denis Crouzet, Charles IX feared a Protestant uprising, and chose to strangle it at birth in order to protect his own power. The execution decision was therefore his own, and not Catherine de' Medici's.
  • According to Jean-Louis Bourgeon, it was the violently anti-Huguenot city of Paris which was really responsible. He stresses that the city was on the verge of revolt. The Guises, who were highly popular, exploited this situation to put pressure on the king and the queen mother. Charles IX was thus forced to head off the potential riot, which was the work of the Guises, the city militia and the common people.
  • According to Thierry Wanegffelen, the member of the royal family with the most responsibility in this affair is the Duke of Anjou. Following the failed assassination attack against the admiral de Coligny, which Wanegffelen attributes to the Guise family and Spain, the Italian advisers of Catherine de Medici undoubtedly recommended in the royal Council the execution of about fifty Protestant leaders to benefit from the occasion by eliminating the Huguenot danger, but both the Queen Mother and the King were very firmly opposed. However Henri of Anjou, lieutenant general of the kingdom, present at this meeting of the Council, could see a good occasion to make a name for himself with the government. He contacted the Parisian authorities and another ambitious young man, running out of authority and power, the duke Henri de Guise (whose uncle, the clear-sighted Charles cardinal of Lorraine was then detained in Rome). The Parisian St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre results from this conjunction of interests, and this offers a much better explanation as to why the men of the duke of Anjou acted in the name of the lieutenant general of the kingdom, consistent with the thinking of the time, rather than in the name of the King. One can also understand why, the day after the start of the massacre, Catherine de Medici had condemned by royal declaration of Charles IX the crimes, and threatened the Guise family with royal justice. But when Charles IX and his mother learned of the involvement of the duke of Anjou, and being so dependent on his support, they issued a second royal declaration, which while asking for an end to the massacres, credited the initiative with the desire of Charles IX to prevent a Protestant plot. Initially the coup d'état of Henri of Anjou was a success, but Catherine de Medici went out of her way to deprive him from any power in France: she sent him with the royal army to remain in front of La Rochelle and she had him elected King of Poland.

Cultural references

Dumas' book was published in English as Marguerite de Valois.
Dumas' book was published in English as Marguerite de Valois.

The Elizabethan dramatist Christopher Marlowe knew well of this incident as French refugees sought refuge in his native Canterbury. He wrote an openly anti-Catholic and anti-French play based on the events entitled 'The Massacre at Paris'. Also, in his biography The World of Christopher Marlowe, David Riggs claims the incident remained with the playwright, and massacres are incorporated into the final acts of three of his early plays, 1 and 2 Tamburlaine and The Jew of Malta. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


The story was fictionalised by Prosper Mérimée in his Chronique du règne de Charles IX (1829), and by Alexandre Dumas, père in La Reine Margot, an 1845 novel that is accurate as far as the historical facts go but fills in with romance and adventure between them. That novel has been translated into English and was made into a commercially successful French film in 1994 under the same French title, La Reine Margot (1994 film), starring Isabelle Adjani. Prosper Mérimée Prosper Mérimée (September 28, 1803–September 23, 1870) was a French dramatist, historian, archaeologist, and short story writer. ... “Alexandre Dumas” redirects here. ... c. ... France has been influential in the development of film as a mass medium and as an art form. ... Queen Margot (Original French title La Reine Margot) is a 1994 French-German-Italian film, based on the 1845 historical novel Queen Margot by Alexandre Dumas. ... Queen Margot (Original French title La Reine Margot) is a 1994 French-German-Italian film, based on the 1845 historical novel Queen Margot by Alexandre Dumas. ... La Reine Margot Isabelle Yasmine Adjani (born June 27, 1955) is one of Frances best known actresses. ...


Giacomo Meyerbeer's opera Les Huguenots (1836), based on the events of the massacre, was one of the most popular and spectacular examples of French grand opera. Giacomo Meyerbeer Giacomo Meyerbeer (September 5, 1791 – May 2, 1864) was a noted German-born opera composer, and the first great exponent of Grand Opera. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Les Huguenots is a French opera by Giacomo Meyerbeer. ... Grand Opera is a style of opera mainly characterized by many features on a grandiose scale. ...


The pre-Raphaelite painter John Everett Millais captured the essence of the conflict in his painting A Huguenot on St. Bartholomew's Day (1852), which depicts a Catholic woman attempting to convince her Huguenot lover to wear the badge of the Catholics and protect himself. The man, true to his beliefs, gently refuses her.[5] Millais was inspired to create the painting after seeing Meyerbeer's Les Huguenots. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. ... Sir John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (June 8, 1829 – August 13, 1896) was a British painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. ... A Huguenot, on St. ...


The massacre was also portrayed in D.W. Griffith's epic silent film Intolerance (1916). David Lewelyn Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 - July 23, 1948) was an American film director (commonly known as D. W. Griffith) probably best known for his film The Birth of a Nation. ... Intolerance is a silent film directed by D.W. Griffith in 1916. ...


A serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who officially entitled The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve, but often referred to by fans simply as The Massacre, is set during the events leading up to the Paris massacre. Leonard Sachs appeared as Admiral Coligny and Joan Young played Catherine de Medici. This serial only survives in audio form. Doctor who episodes redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Doctor Who (disambiguation). ... The Massacre of St Bartholomews Eve is a serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in four weekly parts from February 5 to February 26, 1966. ... Leonard Sachs (born 26 September 1909 in Roodeport, Transvaal, died 15 June 1990) was a British actor. ...


The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre and the events surrounding it were incorporated into the D.W. Griffith film Intolerance (1916). The film follows Catherine de' Medici (Josephine Crowell) plotting the massacre, coercing her son King Charles IX (Frank Bennett) to sanction it. Incidental characters include Henri of Navarre, Marguerite de Valois (Constance Talmadge), Admiral Coligny (Joseph Henabery) and François, Duke of Anjou who is portrayed as homosexual. These historic scenes are depicted alongside a fictional plot in which a Huguenot family is caught among the events. David Lewelyn Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 - July 23, 1948) was an American film director (commonly known as D. W. Griffith) probably best known for his film The Birth of a Nation. ... Catherine de Medici (April 13, 1519 – January 5, 1589) was born in Florence, Italy, as Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici. ... Josephine Crowell (11 January 1849 – 27 July 1932), was a Canadian actress of the silent era. ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... For other persons named Marguerite de Valois, see Marguerite de Valois (disambiguation). ... Constance Talmadge in the 1910s Constance Talmadge (April 19, 1897-November 23, 1973) was a silent movie star born in Brooklyn, New York, USA, and was the sister of fellow actresses Norma Talmadge and Natalie Talmadge. ... Gaspard de Coligny Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon, Admiral of France and Protestant leader. ... Joseph Henabery (15 January 1888) Omaha, Nebraska, was a US film actor and director. ... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ...


See also

The Monarchomachs (French: Monarchomaques) were originally French Huguenots theorists who opposed absolute monarchy at the end of the 16th century, known in particular for having theorized tyrannicide. ...

Notes

  1. ^ H.G. Koenigsberger, George L.Mosse, G.Q. Bowler, "Europe in the Sixteenth Century", Second Edition, Longman, 1989
  2. ^ Mack P. Holt The French Wars of Religion 1562-1626, (Cambridge University Press, 1995 ed.)
  3. ^ Carter Lindberg: The European Reformations (Blackwell, 1996) p.295. See illustration of the medal here [1]
  4. ^ E. Howe: Architecture in Vasari's "Massacre of the Huguenots" (Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 39, 1976 (1976), pp. 258-261) [2]
  5. ^ A Huguenot on St Bartholomew's Day. Humanities Web. Retrieved on 2007-04-19.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Other references

  • Denis Crouzet : Les Guerriers de Dieu. La violence au temps des troubles de religion vers 1525-vers 1610, Champvallon, 1990 (ISBN 2-87673-094-4), La Nuit de la Saint-Barthélemy. Un rêve perdu de la Renaissance, Fayard, coll. « Chroniques », 1994 (ISBN 2-213-59216-0) ;
  • Jean-Louis Bourgeon : L'assassinat de Coligny, Genève, Droz, 1992. Charles IX devant la Saint-Barthélemy, Droz, coll. « Travaux d'histoire éthico-politique », 1995 (ISBN 2-600-00090-9) ;
  • Janine Garrisson, 1572 : la Saint-Barthélemy, Complexe, 2000 (ISBN 2-87027-721-0).
  • Note: this article incorporates material from the French Wikipedia.

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