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Encyclopedia > St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral from Millennium Bridge
St Paul's Cathedral from Millennium Bridge

St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglican cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, England and the seat of the Bishop of London. The present building dates from the 17th century, and is generally reckoned to be London's fifth St Paul's Cathedral, although the number is higher if every major mediæval reconstruction is counted as a new cathedral. The cathedral is one of London's most visited sites. Dome of the Cathedral of Saint Paul The Cathedral of Saint Paul is a Roman Catholic cathedral in United States, it sits on Summit Hill overlooking downtown St. ... Download high resolution version (500x679, 144 KB)St. ... Download high resolution version (500x679, 144 KB)St. ... Several bridges are known as the Millennium Bridge: in the United Kingdom: Millennium Bridge in London Lune Millennium Bridge, in Lancaster, England Gateshead Millennium Bridge York Millennium Bridge Millennium Bridge in Glasgow in the Republic of Ireland: Millennium Bridge (Dublin), a footbridge across the River Liffey in Dublin in Montenegro... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Ludgate Hill is a hill in the City of London, near the old Ludgate, a gate to the City that was taken down, with its attached jail, in 1780. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

Contents

Previous cathedrals

Pre-Norman

There had been a late-Roman See in London, but the first Saxon cathedral was built out of wood, probably by Mellitus or another of the Augustinian missionaries, on the see's re-foundation in AD 604 on Ludgate Hill in the western part of the old Roman city and the eastern part of Lundenwic. It was these missionaries' habit, as in mainland Europe, to build cathedrals within old Roman city-walls. This building is traditionally said to have been on the site of an ancient megalith, or stone circle, and a temple dedicated to the goddess Diana, in alignment with the Apollo Temple that once stood at Westminster, although Christopher Wren found no evidence of this (Kruger, 1943). This would have only been a modest chapel at first and may well have been destroyed after Mellitus was briefly expelled from the city by Saeberht's pagan successors. It burned down in 675. A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... Saint Mellitus (d. ... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... Events April 13 - Sabinianus becomes Pope, succeeding Gregory I. September 13 - Pope Sabinianus is consecrated. ... Ludgate Hill is a hill in the City of London, near the old Ludgate, a gate to the City that was taken down, with its attached jail, in 1780. ... Lundenwic was the name given to London during the 7th, 8th and 9th centuries AD when London was situated away from the fortified Roman City of London. ... Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland For the record label, see Megalith Records. ... Diana was the equivalent in Roman mythology of the Greek Artemis (see Roman/Greek equivalency in mythology for more details). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... Events The abbey of Abingdon, England is founded Aldhelm made abbot Aethelred succeeds his brother Wulfhere as king of Mercia Births Deaths Wulfhere, king of Japan - Temmu Emperor of Japan (672-686) Categories: 675 ...


The cathedral was rebuilt in stone, in 685. In it was buried King or Saint Sebbi of Essex. It was sacked by the Vikings in 961, as cited in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Events Umayyad caliph Marwan I (684-685) succeeded by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705) Justinian II succeeds Constantine IV as emperor of the Byzantine Empire Sussex attacks Kent, supporting Eadrics claim to the throne held by Hlothhere Pope Benedict II succeeded by Pope John V Cuthbert consecrated... Sebbi was the joint king of Essex from 664 to 683 along with his brother Sighere. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Events Byzantine Empire recaptures Crete from Muslim control Ani made the capital of Armenia by the Bagratid dynasty Haakon I of Norway squashed the rebelling forces of Eric Bloodaxes sons but was killed in the Battle of Fitje. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ...


The third cathedral was begun in 962, again in stone. In it was buried Ethelred the Unready. It burnt, with the whole city, in a fire in 1087 (Anglo-Saxon Chronicle). Ethelred II (c. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ...


'Old St Paul's'

Old St. Paul's prior to 1561, with intact spire.
Old St. Paul's prior to 1561, with intact spire.

The fourth St Paul's (known as Old St Paul's, a nineteenth century coinage, or the pre-Great Fire St Paul's), was begun by the Normans after the 1087 fire. Work took over 200 years, and a great deal was lost in a fire in 1136. The roof was once more built of wood, which was ultimately to doom the building. The church was consecrated in 1240, but a change of heart led to the commencement of an enlargement programme in 1256. This 'New Work' was completed in 1314 - the cathedral had been consecrated in 1300. It was the third-longest church in Europe. Excavations in 1878 by Francis Penrose showed it was 585 feet long and 100 feet wide (290 feet across the transepts and crossing), and had one of Europe's tallest spires, at some 489 feet (149 metres). Old St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x700, 139 KB)From a Copy, in the possession of Mr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x700, 139 KB)From a Copy, in the possession of Mr. ... Old St. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Cathedral ground plan. ... Cathedral floor plan (crossing is shaded) A crossing, in ecclesiastical architecture, refers to the junction of the four arms of a cruciform (cross-shaped) church. ...


By the 16th century the building was decaying. Under Henry VIII and Edward VI, the Dissolution of the Monasteries and Chantries Acts led to the destruction of interior ornamentation and the cloisters, charnels, crypts, chapels, shrines, chantries and other buildings in the churchyard. Many of these former religious sites in St Paul's Churchyard, having been seized by the crown, were sold as shops and rental properties, especially to printers and booksellers, who were often evangelical Protestants. Buildings that were razed often supplied ready-dressed building material for construction projects, such as the Lord Protector's city palace, Somerset House. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Edward I of Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... Chantry is a term for the English establishment of a shrine or chapel on private land where monks or priests would say (or chant) prayers on a fixed schedule, usually for someone who had died. ... Cloister of Saint Trophimus, in Arles, France A cloister (from latin claustrum) is a part of cathedral, monastic and abbey architecture. ... A charnel house (Med. ... Crypt is also a commonly used name of water trumpets, aquatic plants. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... Chantry is a term for the English establishment of a shrine or chapel on private land where monks or priests would say (or chant) prayers on a fixed schedule, usually for someone who had died. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The central courtyard of Somerset House in London. ...


Crowds were drawn to the northeast corner of the Churchyard, St Paul's Cross, where open air preaching took place. In 1561 the spire was destroyed by lightning and it was not replaced; this event was taken by both Protestants and Catholics as a sign of God's displeasure at the other faction's actions. // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ...


England's first classical architect, Sir Inigo Jones, added the cathedral's west front in the 1630s, but there was much defacement and mistreatment of the building by Parliamentarian forces during the English Civil War, when the old documents and charters were dispersed and destroyed (Kelly 2004). "Old St Paul's" was gutted in the Great Fire of London of 1666. While it might have been salvageable, albeit with almost complete reconstruction, a decision was taken to build a new cathedral in a modern style instead. Indeed this had been contemplated even before the fire. Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... Inigo Jones, by Sir Anthony van Dyck Inigo Jones (July 15, 1573–June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant English architect. ... Great Migration (Puritan) Thirty Years War in full swing in Europe 1632 - Just a couple of months before his death in battle, Swedish king Gustav II Adolf The Great ratifies the establishment of University of Tartu, the second university in the Swedish Empire September 8, 1636 - A vote of the... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ...


Wren's St Paul's

Design and construction

The task of designing a replacement structure was assigned to Christopher Wren in 1668, along with over 50 other City churches. His first design, to build a replacement on the foundations of the old cathedral, was rejected in 1669. The second design, in the shape of a Greek cross (circa 1670-1672) was rejected as too radical, as was a revised design that resulted in the 1:24 scale "Great Model", on display in the crypt of the cathedral[1]. The 'warrant' design was accepted in 1675 and building work began in June. The first stone of the cathedral was laid in 1677 by Thomas Strong, Wren's master stonemason.[2] The 'warrant' design included a small dome with a spire on top, but King Charles II had given Wren permission to make "ornamental" changes to the approved design and Wren took the liberty to radically rework the design to the current form, including the large central dome and the towers at the west end. Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... 1668 (MDCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Year 1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1677 (MDCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


The cathedral was completed on 20 October 1708, Wren's 76th birthday. On Thursday, 2 December 1697, thirty-two years and three months after a spark from Farryner's bakery caused London to burst into flames, St. Paul's Cathedral came into use. The event proved to be well worth the wait. The widower King William III had been scheduled to appear but, uncomfortable in crowds and public displays, had, at the last minute, bowed out. The crowd of both the great and the small was so big, and their attitude towards William so indifferent that he was scarcely missed. The Reverend Henry Compton, Bishop of London, preached the sermon. It was based on the text of Psalm 122, "I was glad when they said unto me: Let us go into the house of the LORD." The first regular service was held on the following Sunday. The consensus was as with all such works: some loved it ("Without, within, below, above the eye/ Is filled with unrestrained delight."[3]; some hated it ("...There was an air of Popery about the giled capitals, the heavy arches...They were unfamiliar, un-English.."[4]; while most, once their curiosity was satisfied, didn't think about it one way or another. is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... William III of England, II of Scotland and III of Orange (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702) was a Dutch aristocrat, the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King... Henry Compton (1632 - July 7, 1713), English divine, was the sixth and youngest son of the second earl of Northampton. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ...

The clock tower on the west end of the cathedral
The clock tower on the west end of the cathedral
Sir Christopher Wren
Said, "I am going to dine with some men.
If anyone calls,
Say I am designing St Paul's."
A clerihew by Edmund Clerihew Bentley

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 186 KB) The clock tower on St Pauls cathedral in London, viewed from the west. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 186 KB) The clock tower on St Pauls cathedral in London, viewed from the west. ... A Clerihew (or clerihew) is a very specific kind of humorous verse, typically with the following properties: The first line consists solely (or almost solely) of a well-known persons name The verse is humorous and usually whimsical, showing the subject from an unusual point of view; but it... E. C. Bentley (July 10, 1875 – March 30, 1956), was a popular English novelist and humorist of the early twentieth century, and the inventor of the clerihew, an irregular form of humorous verse on biographical topics. ...

Artists and Craftsmen

The construction and decoration of the Cathedral involved many of the foremost artists and craftsmen in England, these were:

  • Sir James Thornhill - painted the eight monochrome paintings of the life of St Paul that decorate the interior of the dome[5].
  • Grinling Gibbons - responsible for the woodwork, most notably the choir stalls[6] & sculpted the pediment of the north transept[7].
  • Jean Tijou - most of the wrought ironwork, including the gates flanking the high altar[8].
  • Bernard Smith - designed and built the organ[9].
  • Caius Gabriel Cibber - sculpted the pediment of the south transept[10].
  • Francis Bird - sculpted the great west pediment showing the conversion of St Paul[11], plus the seven large sculptures on the west front[12].

Potrait of Sir Isaac Newton in old age by James Thornhill, 1709-12. ... One of the many bookcase carvings Gibbons made for the Wren Library, Cambridge. ... Jean Tijou was a French Huguenot ironworker. ... Father Bernard Smith (c 1630 - 1708) was a German-born master organ maker in England in the late 17th century. ... Melancholy and Raving Madness Caius Gabriel Cibber (1630-1700) was a sculptor, and the father of Colley Cibber. ... Francis Bird (1667 – 1731) was one of the leading English sculptors of his time. ...

Description

The cathedral is built of Portland stone in a late Renaissance style that is England's sober Baroque. Its impressive dome was inspired by St Peter's Basilica in Rome. It rises 365 feet (108 metres) to the cross at its summit, making it a famous London landmark. Wren achieved a pleasing appearance by building three domes: the tall outer dome is non-structural but impressive to view, the lower inner dome provides an artistically balanced interior, and between the two is a structural cone that supports the apex structure and the outer dome. Wren was said to have been hauled up to the rafters in a basket during the building of its later stages to inspect progress. The Cenotaph, in Whitehall, London, England, is made from Portland stone Portland stone is limestone from the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. ... By region Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance French Renaissance German Renaissance English Renaissance Renaissance Architecture: The cultural movement called the Renaissance (which literally means re-birth) was just that in architecture, a rebirth of the Roman traditions of design. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...

Plan
Plan

The nave has three small chapels in the two adjoining aislesAll Souls and St Dunstan's in the north aisle and the Chapel of the Order of St Michael and St George in the south aisle. The main space of the cathedral is centred under the Dome; it rises 108.4 metres from the cathedral floor and holds three circular galleries – the internal Whispering Gallery, the external Stone Gallery, and the external Golden Gallery. Image File history File linksMetadata St_Pauls_Picturesque_England_Laura_Valentine_1891. ... Image File history File linksMetadata St_Pauls_Picturesque_England_Laura_Valentine_1891. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... In a modern church an aisle is a row down the middle of the church with a set of pews on each side. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ...


The Whispering Gallery runs around the interior of the Dome and is 99 feet (30.2 m) above the cathedral floor. It is reached by 259 steps from ground-level. It gets its name because a whisper against its wall at any point is audible to a listener with their ear held to the wall at any other point around the gallery. This works only for whispered speech - normal voiced speech is not focused in this way. A whispering gallery is a gallery beneath a dome or vault or enclosed in a circular or elliptical area in which whispers can be heard clearly in other parts of the building. ...


The base of the inner dome is 173 feet (53.4 m) above the floor. The top of the inner dome is about 65 m above the floor, making this the height of the enclosed space.


The Quire extends to the east of the dome and holds the stalls for the clergy and the choir and the organ. To the north and south of the dome are the transepts of the North Choir and the South Choir. The choir stalls in the quire of Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England The choir stalls at Buxheim Priory, by Ignaz Waibl See also: Choir (disambiguation) A quire (sometimes referred to as a choir) is an area of a church or cathedral, usually in the western part of the chancel between the... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ...


The north-west tower contains 13 bells and the south-west contains four, including Great Paul, cast in 1881, and Great Tom (the hour bell), recast twice, after being moved from the old Palace of Westminster. “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ...


Post-Wren history

Herbert Mason's famous photograph, taken during the Second Great Fire of London, caused by the Blitz

This cathedral has survived despite being targeted during the Blitz - it was struck by bombs on 10 October 1940 and 17 April 1941. On 12 September 1940 a time-delayed bomb that had struck the cathedral was successfully defused and removed by a Bomb Disposal detachment of Royal Engineers under the command of Temporary Lieutenant Robert Davies. Had this bomb detonated it would have totally destroyed the Cathedral, as it left a 100 foot crater when it was later remotely detonated in a secure location.[citation needed] As a result of this action Davies was awarded the George Cross[13] Image File history File links Photo of St. ... Image File history File links Photo of St. ... The night of 29 December/30 December 1940 was one of the most destructive air raids of the London Blitz, destroying many Livery Halls and gutting the medieval Great Hall of the Citys Guildhall. ... For other uses, see Blitz. ... For other uses, see Blitz. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Longest Walk: a British Army ATO approaches a suspect device in Northern Ireland. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... The George Cross (GC) is the highest civil decoration of the Commonwealth of Nations. ...


Memorials

The cathedral has a very substantial crypt, holding over 200 memorials, and serves as both the Order of the British Empire Chapel and the Treasury. The cathedral has very few treasures: many have been lost, and in 1810 a major robbery took almost all of the remaining precious artefacts. Christopher Wren was the first person to be interred, in 1723: on the wall above his tomb in the crypt is written, "Lector, si monumentum requiris, circumspice" (Reader, if you seek his monument, look around you). The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ...


St Paul's is home to other plaques, carvings, statues, memorials and tombs of famous British figures including: A church monument is an architectural or sculptural memorial to a dead person or persons, often in the form of an effigy or a wall tablet, located within a Christian church. ...

Most of the memorials commemorate the British military, including several lists of servicemen who died in action, the most recent being the Gulf War. There are special monuments to Lord Nelson in the south transept and to the Duke of Wellington in the north aisle; both are buried here. Also remembered are poets, painters, clergy and residents of the local parish. There are lists of the Bishops and cathedral Deans for the last thousand years. This article refers to the British general. ... Lutyens Early Life Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens OM (March 29, 1869 - January 1, 1944), a British architect, designed many English country houses and was instrumental in the layout and building of New Delhi. ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was an Anglo-Irish British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman popularly referred to as Lord Kitchener. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, during which he lost his life. ... Reclining Figure (1951) outside the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, is characteristic of Moores sculptures, with an abstract female figure intercut with voids. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ... A bust can be one of: Bust (sculpture), a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. ... Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (May 13, 1842–November 22, 1900) was a British composer best known for his operatic collaborations with librettist William S. Gilbert. ... Embley Park, now a school, was the family home of Florence Nightingale. ... J. M. W. Turner, English landscape painter The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, painted 1839. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds Sir Joshua Reynolds (July 16, 1723–February 23, 1792) was the most important and influential of eighteenth-century English painters, specialising in portraits and promoting the Grand Style in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. ... Samuel Johnson circa 1772, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, during which he lost his life. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ...


The Apse of the cathedral is home to the American Memorial Chapel. It honours American servicemen and women who died in World War II, and was dedicated in 1958. It was paid for entirely by donations from British people, and was designed, as a modern exercise in the Wren style, by Godfrey Allen and Stephen Dykes Bower.[14] The roll of honour contains the names of more than 28,000 Americans who gave their lives while on their way to, or stationed in, the United Kingdom during the Second World War. It is in front of the chapel's altar. The three chapel windows date from 1960. They feature themes of service and sacrifice, while the insignia around the edges represent the American states and the US armed forces. The limewood panelling incorporates a rocket - a tribute to America's achievements in space.[15] This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... This article is about the idea of space. ...


The cathedral has been the site of many famous funerals, including those of Horatio Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, Sir Winston Churchill and George Mallory Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... The Dukedom of Wellington, derived from Wellington in Somerset, is a hereditary title and the senior Dukedom in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Churchill redirects here. ... George Herbert Leigh Mallory (18 June 1886 – 8 June/9 June 1924) was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s. ...


Modern-day

The Royal Family holds most of their important marriages, christenings and funerals at Westminster Abbey, but St Paul's was used for the marriage of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer. The religious service for Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee was also celebrated there. The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... Princess Diana redirects here. ...

St Paul's from across the Thames, over the top of surrounding postwar construction.
St Paul's from across the Thames, over the top of surrounding postwar construction.

In 2001, Britain's memorial service to honour the victims of the September 11, 2001 attacks was held at the cathedral, attended by the Royal Family and then-U.S. ambassador William Farish. Prince Philip spoke, as did Farish, and Farish said in 2004 in The Times just before he resigned as ambassador that this service showed the strong relationship between the US and Britain. On 1 November 2005 it held a memorial service for the 7 July bombings. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1457x1053, 367 KB) Summary Taken from the gallery of the Tate Modern. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1457x1053, 367 KB) Summary Taken from the gallery of the Tate Modern. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Prince Philip redirects here. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... (Redirected from 1 November) November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Londoners in Trafalgar Square on the evening of 14th of July Following the events of the 7 July 2005 London bombings, the United Kingdom and other nations have devised many ways to honor the dead and missing. ...


The cathedral is open to the public, with a charge for non-worshipping visitors. In 2000, the cathedral began a major restoration programme, scheduled for completion in 2008, to celebrate the 300th anniversary of its opening. A ceremony to celebrate the anniversary was directed by Patrick Garland. The restoration programme is expected to cost £40 million, and involves repair and cleaning of the building, and improvement of visitor facilities, such as accessibility for the disabled, and provision of additional educational facilities. Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Categories: Buildings and structures stubs ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Patrick Garland (born April 10, 1935) is an actor and a director of British theatre, television and film, and a writer. ...


Cultural references

Because of its prominent form on the skyline, a view that is protected from many vantage points, St Paul's is often used in movies as part of an establishing shot to place the viewers in London. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1218x987, 978 KB) Summary Photo by Paddy Briggs Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: St Pauls Cathedral LEGOLAND Windsor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1218x987, 978 KB) Summary Photo by Paddy Briggs Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: St Pauls Cathedral LEGOLAND Windsor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Map of Berkshire, UK, showing the location of Legoland Windsor at 51. ... A protected view is the legal requirement within urban planning to preserve the view of a specific place or historic building from another location. ...


It also features in:

Fire Watch by Connie Willis, a Hugo and Nebula winning short story, is set mostly in and around the cathedral during the final months of 1940, when it was targeted in the Blitz. For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... For the 2004 stage musical, see Mary Poppins (musical). ... Robert B. Sherman & Richard M. Sherman at the London Palladium in 2002 during the premiere of Chitty Chitty Bang Bang: The Stage Musical. ... Feed the Birds (Tuppence a Bag) is a song written by the Sherman Brothers (Richard M. Sherman & Robert B. Sherman) and featured in the 1964 motion picture Mary Poppins. ... Lawrence of Arabia is an award-winning 1962 film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence. ... Steamboy ) is a Japanese anime film, produced by Sunrise, and directed by Katsuhiro Otomo, his second major anime release, following Akira. ... This article is about the 1996 film. ... This article is about the play by J.M. Barrie. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Team America: World Police Team America: World Police is a 2004 movie by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, the creators of the Comedy Central television program South Park. ... The Bed-Sitting Room is a satirical play by Spike Milligan and John Antrobus. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... For the animated television series of the same name, see Mr. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the television series. ... The Invasion is a serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in eight weekly parts from November 2 to December 21, 1968. ... The Cybermen are a fictional race of cyborgs who are amongst the most persistent enemies of the Doctor in the British science fiction television series, Doctor Who. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Georgy Girl is a 1966 British film, based on a novel by Margaret Forster. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... New company logo as introduced in May 2007 A poster for Dracula: Prince of Darkness (1966). ... Hands of the Ripper is a 1971 British horror film directed by Peter Sasdy for Hammer Film Productions. ... Giant black rats are a fictional species of ferocious radiation spawned rodents featured in James Herberts horror novels The Rats which was first published in 1974, Lair in 1979, Domain in 1985 and the graphic novel The City in 1993 illustrated by Ian Miller. ... James Herbert (born 8 April 1943, London) is a best selling English horror writer known for his simple yet compelling sensationalist novels, which are notable for their use of horrific set pieces. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Madness of King George is a 1994 film which tells the story of King George III of the United Kingdoms deteriorating mental health, and the equally declining relationship between him and his son, the Prince of Wales. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... This is an article about a 2001 novel by Philip Reeve. ... Philip Reeve is a bestselling British author and illustrator. ... In Philip Reeves Hungry City Chronicles, Traction Cities are vast metropoleis built on tiers that are capable of moving on gigantic wheels and caterpillar tracks. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... From Hell is a graphic novel by writer Alan Moore and artist Eddie Campbell speculating upon the identity and motives of Jack the Ripper. ... For other persons named Alan Moore, see Alan Moore (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the television series. ... The Empty Child is an episode in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast on May 21, 2005. ... For other uses, see Blitz. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the television series. ... Rise of the Cybermen is an episode in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... Parallel universe or alternate reality in science fiction and fantasy is a self-contained separate reality coexisting with our own. ... Connie Willis at Clarion West, 1998 Constance Elaine Trimmer Willis (born 31 December 1945) is an American science fiction writer. ... For other uses, see Blitz. ...


The idiom "rob Peter to pay Paul" has a folk etymology of using the funds of Westminster Abbey for the cathedral. [[An idiom is an expression (i. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


There is a scale model of the cathedral at LEGOLAND Windsor. A scale model of the Tower of London. ... Map of Berkshire, UK, showing the location of Legoland Windsor at 51. ...


Organ and Organists

Organ

The organ was commissioned in 1694: the current instrument is the third-biggest in Britain with 7,189 pipes and 138 stops, enclosed in an impressive case by Grinling Gibbons. Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... One of the many bookcase carvings Gibbons made for the Wren Library, Cambridge. ...


Details of the organ from the National Pipe Organ Register


Organists

  • 1530 John Redford
  • 1549 Thomas Giles
  • 1591 Thomas Morley
  • 1622 John Tomkins
  • 1624 Adrian Batten
  • 1638 Aibertus Bryne
  • 1687 Isaac Blackwell
  • 1888 George Martin
  • 1916 Charles Macpherson
  • 1927 Stanley Marchant
  • 1936 John Dykes Bower
  • 1968 Christopher Dearnley
  • 1990 John Scott
  • 2004 Malcolm Archer

Thomas Morley (1557 or 1558 – October 1602) was an English composer, theorist, editor and organist of the Renaissance, and the foremost member of the English Madrigal School. ... Adrian Batten (c1591 - c1637) was an English organist and Anglican church composer. ... Jeremiah Clarke (c. ... Maurice Greene (August 12, 1696 - December 1, 1755) was an English composer and organist. ... Sir John Goss (December 27, 1800 - May 10, 1880) was an English organist and composer. ... Sir John Stainer (London, 6 June 1840 – Verona, 31 March 1901) was an English composer and organist. ... John Gavin Scott LVO (born June 18, 1956) is an English-born organist and choirmaster. ... Malcolm Archer is currently the Organist and choirmaster of St Pauls Cathedral in London, England [1]. He has previously been the choirmaster of Bristol and Wells Cathedrals. ...

Images

Present day

Historical

See also

A list of the cathedrals, former cathedrals and intended cathedrals in the United Kingdom and its dependencies. ... St. ... Paternoster Square, redeveloped in 2003, is an area of London next to St Pauls Cathedral. ... 30 St. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Light of the World The Light of the World (1853–4) is an allegorical painting by William Holman Hunt representing the figure of Jesus preparing to knock on an overgrown and long-unopened door, symbolic of the human conscience. ...

References

  1. ^ pages 12 to 26, Sir Christopher Wren: The Design of St Paul's Cathedral, Kerry Downes Trefoil Press 1988
  2. ^ The Worshipful Company of Masons: Company History
  3. ^ Wright, James, The Choire,(London, 1693)
  4. ^ Tinniswood, Adrain, His Invention so Furtile: A Life of Christopher Wren, (Oxford Press, London 2001) p.315
  5. ^ page 252, Rebuilding St. Paul's after the Great Fire of London, Jane Lang 1956 O.U.P.
  6. ^ page 166, Rebuilding St. Paul's after the Great Fire of London, Jane Lang 1956 O.U.P.
  7. ^ page 209, Rebuilding St. Paul's after the Great Fire of London, Jane Lang 1956 O.U.P.
  8. ^ page 169, Rebuilding St. Paul's after the Great Fire of London, Jane Lang 1956 O.U.P.
  9. ^ page 171, Rebuilding St. Paul's after the Great Fire of London, Jane Lang 1956 O.U.P.
  10. ^ page 209, Rebuilding St. Paul's after the Great Fire of London, Jane Lang 1956 O.U.P.
  11. ^ page 230, Rebuilding St. Paul's after the Great Fire of London, Jane Lang 1956 O.U.P.
  12. ^ page 252, Rebuilding St. Paul's after the Great Fire of London, Jane Lang 1956 O.U.P.
  13. ^ Gazetted 30 September 1940. Davies's George Cross and other medals are on display at the Imperial War Museum, London.
  14. ^ Paul's Cathedral, St. (November 28, 2006). Explore St. Paul's. explore-stpauls.net. Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
  15. ^ Paul's Cathedral, St. (November 28, 2006). St. Paul's Cathedral Floor. stpauls.co.uk. Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
  16. ^ Michael Joseph - Park Lane Press (London) in 1985 with an ISBN 0 7181 2629 7
  17. ^ Detail from a copy of the book published by OUP (Oxford University Press) at Oxford in 1967 with no ISBN

The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Imperial War Museum is a museum in London featuring military vehicles, weapons, war memorabilia, a library, a photographic archive, and an art collection of 20th century and later conflicts, especially those involving Britain, and the British Empire. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ...

Bibliography

  • St Pauls and the City by Frank Atkinson (With numerous photographic plates, both in colour, and black and white) [16]
  • The Chapel of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire by Frederic Hood with a foreword by Prince Phillip. (Mainly colour plates on glossy paper relating to St. Paul's Cathedral - 65 pages with descriptive text) [17]

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
St. Paul's Cathedral
360° view near the High Altar at St Pauls Cathedral.
360° view near the High Altar at St Pauls Cathedral.
List of Anglican Cathedrals in the United Kingdom and Ireland
Anglican Communion

  Results from FactBites:
 
St Pauls Cathedral- London, United Kingdom - VirtualTourist.com (1518 words)
Paul's Cathedral is a Renaissance Church and Sir Christopher Wren's masterpiece, which took 35 years to build.
The current Cathedral, started in 1669, is the fourth and was built after a fire destroyed 4/5th of all of London in 1666, destroying 13,200 houses and 89 churches (including the St. Paul's Cathedral).
paul's cathedral is a prominent landmark in central london.
Chinese Architecture: St. Pauls Cathedral, Macau (145 words)
The most dramatic symbol of Macau is the towering facade of the Jesuit church of the Mother of God (Madre de Deus), commonly known as St. Paul's (Sao Paulo).
This was the church of the adjoining St. Paul's college, the first western college in east Asia--where the noted Jesuits Matteo Ricci and Adam Schall and other studied.
A fire that started in the kitchen of the college in 1835, however, destroyed both the college and the church, so that all that remains today is the facade with its marvelous statues and reliefs.
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