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Encyclopedia > St Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola

Saint Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Íñigo López de Loyola (December 24, 1491? – July 31, 1556), was the principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope. Members of the order are called Jesuits. From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... // Events December 6 - King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining, as the final day of July. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... The Very Reverend Peter Hans Kolvenbach, S.J. serves as the current Superior General. ... The Society of Jesus (Societas Iesu/Jesu (S.J.) in Latin) is a Christian religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in direct service to the Pope. ... A religious order is an organization of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with religious devotion. ... The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian body, with over 1. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Catholic Church. ...


He is famous as the compiler of the Spiritual Exercises, and he is remembered as a gifted spiritual director. Ignatius of Loyola was very active fighting the Protestant Reformation and promoting the subsequent Counter-Reformation. He was beatified and then canonized to receive the title of Saint on March 12, 1622. His feast day is July 31, celebrated annually. He is the patron saint of Guipúzcoa and Biscay as well as of the Society of Jesus. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... In Catholicism, beatification (from Greek μακαριος, makarios) is a recognition accorded by the church of a dead persons accession to Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in their name (intercession of saints). ... This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ... In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in Leap years). ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining, as the final day of July. ... In several forms of Christianity, but especially in Roman Catholicism, a patron saint has special affinity for a trade or group. ... Guipúzcoa province Guipúzcoa (Basque Gipuzkoa, Spanish Guipúzcoa, in English sometimes as Guipuscoa) is a province of northern Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... Vizcaya province Vizcaya (Basque Bizkaia) is a province of northern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ...

Contents


Early life

Ignatius was born at the castle of Loyola, near Azpeitia, 16 miles southwest of San Sebastián in the Basque province of Guipúzcoa, Spain. The youngest of 13 children, Ignatius was only seven years old when his mother died. In 1506, Ignatius became a page in the service of a relative, Juan Velázquez de Cuéllar, treasurer (contador mayor) of the kingdom of Castile. Loyola - is the name of: Íñigo López, Ignatius of Loyola (St. ... Geography > Europe > Spain > Basque Country > Guipúzcoa Azpeitia is a city within the province of Guipúzcoa, in the Basque Country. ... Geography > Europe > Spain > Basque Country > Guipúzcoa San Sebastián with sailboats Statue of Jesus on Urgull Mountain Donostia (in Basque) or San Sebastián (in Spanish) is the capital city of the province of Guipuscoa, in the Spanish autonomous community of Basque Country. ... The Basque Country (Euskal Herria in Basque) straddles the western Pyrenees mountains that define the border between France and Spain, extending down to the coast of the Bay of Biscay. ... // Events January 21 - Pope Julius II founds the Swiss Guard Second outbreak of the sweating sickness in England Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa. ... Look up Page in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For a servant or knights apprentice, see page. ... A former kingdom of Spain, Castile comprises the two regions of Old Castile in north-western Spain, and New Castile in the centre of the country. ...


In 1517, Ignatius took service in the army. Severely wounded at the Battle of Pampeluna (May 20, 1521); he spent months as an invalid in his father's castle. The Battle of Pampeluna (also spelled Pamplona) occurred during the war between Spain and France, in which France took possession of Pampeluna (1521), but was later defeated and expelled (1522) from Milan. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther. ...


Religious aspiration

During this period of recuperation he came to read a number of religious texts on the life of Jesus and the saints. He became fired with an ambition to lead a life of self-denying labor and to emulate the heroic deeds of Francis of Assisi and other great monastic leaders. He resolved to devote himself to the conversion of non-Christians in the Holy Land. // Jesus, or Jesus of Nazareth, also known as Jesus Christ, is Christianitys central figure, both as Messiah and, for most Christians, as God incarnate. ... In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... Saint Francis of Assisi (born in Assisi, Italy, 1181; died there on October 4, 1226) founded the Franciscan Order or Friars Minor. He is the patron saint of animals, merchants, Catholic action and the environment. ... The phrase The Holy Land (Arabic الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah; Hebrew ארץ הקודש;, Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreṣ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta) generally refers to Palestine. ...


On recovering he visited the Benedictine monastery of Montserrat (March 25, 1522), where he hung his military accouterments before an image of the Virgin. He then went and spent several months in a cave near the town of Manresa, Catalonia where he practised the most rigorous asceticism. March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... In Christianity according to the New Testament, Mary (Judæo-Aramaic מרים Maryām Bitter; Septuagint Greek Μαριαμ, Mariam, Μαρια, Maria; Arabic: Maryem, مريم) was the mother of Jesus of Nazareth who at the time of his conception was the betrothed wife of Joseph, awaiting the customary Home-Taking that would permit them to... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article is about the traditional Catalan domain. ... Asceticism denotes a life which is characterised by refraining from worldly pleasures (austerity). ...


He is said to have had visions. The Virgin became the object of his chivalrous devotion. Military imagery played a prominent part in his religious contemplations. Overview Devotion Album Cover Devotion is a music album by CCM artist, Newsboys, released in November 2004. ...


During this time he drafted his Ejercicios espirituales (Spiritual Exercises), which describes a series of meditations to be undertaken by various people who came to him for spiritual direction, including in due time the early Jesuits. The Spiritual Exercises was to exert a strong influence in changing the methods of teaching in the Church; "the mill into which all Jesuits are cast; they emerge with characters and talents diverse; but the imprint remains ineffaceable" (Cretineau-Joly). The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola is a brief set of meditations, prayers and mental exercises, available in various book formats, designed to be carried out over over a period of 28 to 30 days. ... Meditation usually refers to a state in which the body is consciously relaxed and the mind is allowed to become calm and focused. ...

Engraving of Ignatius, from Wishart's 1900 A Short History of Monks and Monasteries
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Engraving of Ignatius, from Wishart's 1900 A Short History of Monks and Monasteries

Download high resolution version (723x799, 185 KB)Ignatius of Loyola - from Project Gutenberg eText 13206 - This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (723x799, 185 KB)Ignatius of Loyola - from Project Gutenberg eText 13206 - This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Studies in Paris

In 1528 he entered the University of Paris where he remained over seven years, extending his literary and theological education and disturbing the students by attempting to interest them in the Spiritual Exercises. Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: Université de Paris) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganized as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola is a brief set of meditations, prayers and mental exercises, available in various book formats, designed to be carried out over over a period of 28 to 30 days. ...


By 1534 he had six key followers - Peter Faber (French), Francis Xavier (Navarre), Alfonso Salmeron, Jacob Laines, and Nicholas Bobedilla (Spaniards), and Simon Rodrigues (a Portuguese). Peter Faber (French Pierre Lefevre, or Pierre Favre, Latin Petrus Faber) (April 13, 1506 - August 1, 1546) was a French Jesuit theologian and a cofounder of the Society of Jesus. ... Memorial to St. ... Alfonso Salmeron (September 8, 1515 _ February 13, 1585) was a biblical scholar and one of the first Jesuits. ... James Lainez (1512 - 1565) was a Jesuit General and theologian. ... Nicolas Bobadilla (1511 - 1590) was one of the first Jesuits. ... Simon Rodrigues or Simão Rodrigues (died 1579) was one of the first Jesuits. ...


Foundation of the Society of Jesus

On August 15, 1534, he and the other six in St. Mary's Church, Montmartre founded the Society of Jesus - "to enter upon hospital and missionary work in Jerusalem, or to go without questioning wherever the pope might direct". In 1537 they travelled to Italy to seek papal approval for their order. Pope Paul III gave them a commendation, and permitted them to be ordained priests. They were ordained at Venice by the bishop of Arbe (June 24). They devoted themselves to preaching and charitable work in Italy, the renewed war between the emperor, Venice, the pope and the Ottoman Empire rendered any journey to Jerusalem inadvisable. August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Events February 27 - Group of Anabaptists of Jan Matthys seize Münster and declare it The New Jerusalem - they begin to exile dissenters and forcible baptize all others May 10 - Jacques Cartier explores Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage. ... (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ... Jerusalem (31°46′ N 35°14′ E; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim; Arabic: القدس al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... Paul III, né Alessandro Farnese (February 29, 1468 - November 10, 1549) was pope from 1534 to 1549. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′ N 12°19′ E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ... You might also be looking for the G-protein rab. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (Ottoman Turkish for the Eternal State) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Constantinople (Ä°stanbul) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 6. ...


With Faber and Lainez, Ignatius made his way to Rome in October, 1538, to have the pope approve the constitution of the new order. A congregation of cardinals reported favorably upon the constitution presented, and Paul III confirmed the order through the bull Regimini militantis (September 27, 1540), but limited the number of its members to sixty. This limitation was removed through the bull Injunctum nobis (March 14, 1543). Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 95 days remaining. ... Events January 6 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves, his fourth Queen consort. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in Leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ...


Father General of the Jesuits

Ignatius was chosen as the first Superior General of his religious order, invested with the title of Father General by the Jesuits. He sent his companions as missionaries around Europe to create schools, colleges, and seminaries. The Very Reverend Peter Hans Kolvenbach, S.J. serves as the current Superior General. ...


In 1548 Spiritual Exercises was finally printed, and he was briefly brought before the Roman Inquisition, but was released. Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola is a brief set of meditations, prayers and mental exercises, available in various book formats, designed to be carried out over over a period of 28 to 30 days. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ...


Ignatius wrote the Jesuit Constitutions, adopted in 1554, which created a monarchical organization and stressed absolute self-abnegation and obedience to Pope and superiors (perinde ac cadaver, "[well-disciplined] like a corpse" as Ignatius put it). His main principle became the Jesuit motto: Ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam ("for the greater glory of God"). Events February 12 - After claiming the throne of England the previous year, Lady Jane Grey is beheaded for treason alongside her husband. ...


The Jesuits were a major factor in the success of the Counter-Reformation. The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ...


During 1553-1555 Ignatius dictated his life's story to his secretary, Father Gonçalves da Câmara. This autobiography is a valuable key for the understanding of his Spiritual Exercises. It was kept in the archives for about 150 years, until the Bollandists published the text in Acta Sanctorum. A critical edition exists in Vol. I (1943) of the Fontes Narrativi of the series Monumenta Historica Societatatis Iesu. The Bollandists are an association of Jesuit scholars publishing the Acta Sanctorum (the Lives of the Saints). ... Acta Sanctorum (Acts of the Saints) is an encyclopedic text in 68 folio volumes of documents examining the lives of Christian saints, in essence a critical hagiography, which is organised according to each saints feast day. ...


He died in Rome.


A neighbourhood in Bilbao and the corresponding Metro Bilbao station San Inazio are named after him. Cityscape of Bilbao, with the Guggenheim Museum on the bottom right Bilbao from satellite (NASA World Wind Landsat) Bilbao (Basque: Bilbo) is in northern Spain, is the largest city in the Pais Vasco and the capital of the province of Vizcaya (Basque: Bizkaia). ... Station Casco Viejo The contract for the underground metro system in Bilbao, Spain was awarded to architects Sir Norman Foster and partners in 1988 following an open competition as metro was decided to be the best method to improve congestion problems in the evolving and regenerating city. ...


Beatification and canonization

He was beatified by Paul V on 27 July, 1609, and canonized by Gregory XV on 22 May, 1622. In Catholicism, beatification (from Greek μακαριος, makarios) is a recognition accorded by the church of a dead persons accession to Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in their name (intercession of saints). ... Painting of Pope Paul V by Caravaggio Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1550 - January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ... Pope Gregory XV Gregory XV, né Alessandro Ludovisio (January 9, 1554–July 8, 1623), pope (1621-1623), born at Bologna in 1554, succeeded Paul V on February 9, 1621. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ...


Portrayals

St Ignatius is a principal character of the opera Four Saints in Three Acts by composer Virgil Thomson and librettist Gertrude Stein. Four Saints in Three Acts was an Opera by American composer Virgil Thomson and with a libretto by Gertrude Stein. ... Virgil Thomson, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1947 Virgil Thomson (November 25, 1896 - September 30, 1989) was an American composer from Missouri, whose rural background gave a sense of place in his compositions. ... Gertrude Stein was born in Pittsburgh on February 3, 1874 and died on July 27, 1946 in Paris. ...


References and external links

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Ignatius of Loyola

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The Life of St. Ignatius of Loyola (4205 words)
Inigo de Loyola was born in 1491 in Azpeitia in the Basque province of Guipuzcoa in northern Spain.
Ignatius never revealed exactly what the vision was, but it seems to have been an encounter with God as He really is so that all creation was seen in a new light and acquired a new meaning and relevance, an experience that enabled Ignatius to find God in all things.
Ignatius was elected on the first ballot of the group to be superior, but he begged them to reconsider, pray and vote again a few days later.
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