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Encyclopedia > St Albans Cathedral
St Albans Cathedral from the west.
St Albans Cathedral from the west.

St Albans Cathedral (formerly St Albans Abbey, officially the Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban) is an Anglican church at St Albans, England. At 106 metres (348 feet), its nave is the longest of any cathedral in England. With much of its present architecture dating from Norman times, it became a cathedral in 1877, and is the second longest cathedral in the United Kingdom. Local residents often call it the Abbey, although the present cathedral represents only the church of the old Benedictine abbey. Download high resolution version (1000x570, 81 KB)St Albans Cathedral, from the west. ... Download high resolution version (1000x570, 81 KB)St Albans Cathedral, from the west. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... , St Albans is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35km) north of central London. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Norman conquests in red. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ...

Contents

Britain's first Christian martyr

Alban was a pagan living in the Roman city of Verulamium, where St Albans is now, in Hertfordshire, England, about twenty miles north of London along Watling Street. Prior to Christianity becoming the official religion of the Roman Empire, local Christians were being persecuted by the Romans. Alban sheltered their priest, Saint Amphibalus, in his home and was converted to the Christian faith by him. When the soldiers came to Alban's house looking for the priest, Alban exchanged cloaks with the priest and let himself be arrested in his stead. Alban was taken before the magistrate, where he avowed his new Christian faith and was condemned for it. He was beheaded, according to legend, on the spot where the cathedral named for him now stands. The site is on a steep hill, and legend has it that his head rolled down the hill after being cut off, and that a well sprang up at the point where it stopped. Saint Alban was the first Christian martyr (protomartyr) in Britain. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Remains of the city walls Verulamium was the third largest city in Roman Britain. ... , St Albans is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35km) north of central London. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The modern Watling Street crossing the Medway at Rochester near the Roman and Celt crossings Watling Street is the name given to an ancient trackway in England and Wales that was first used by the Celts mainly between the modern cities of Canterbury and St Albans. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Saint Amphibalus was formerly venerated as the Christian priest traditionally sheltered by Saint Alban, who was converted by him, as a consequence of which Alban was martyred. ...


A well certainly exists today and the road up to the Cathedral is named Holywell Hill. However the current well structure is no older than the late nineteenth century, and it is thought that the name of the street derives from the "Halywell" river and "Halywell Bridge", not from the well. [1]


The date of Alban's execution is a matter of some debate, and is generally given as "circa 250" - scholars generally suggest dates of 209, 254 or 304.


History of the Abbey and Cathedral

A memoria over the execution point and holding the remains of Alban existed at the site from the mid-300s (possibly earlier); Bede mentions a church and Gildas a shrine. Bishop Germanus of Auxerre visited in 429 and took a portion of the, apparently still bloody, earth away. The style of this structure is unknown; the 13th century chronicler Matthew Paris (see below) claimed that the Saxons destroyed the building in 586. For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Gildas (c. ... Germanus of Auxerre (378–31 July 448) became bishop of Auxerre in Gaul. ... English historians in the Middle Ages is an overview of the history of English historians and their works in the Middle Ages. ... Self portrait of Matthew Paris from the original manuscript of his Historia Anglorum (London, British Library, MS Royal 14. ...


The Saxon buildings

Offa II of Mercia, who ruled in the 8th century, is said to have founded the Benedictine abbey and monastery at St Albans. All later religious structures are dated from the foundation of Offa's abbey in 793. The abbey was built on Holmhurst Hill - now Holywell Hill - across the River Ver from the ruins of Verulamium. Again there is no information to the form of the first abbey. The abbey was probably sacked by the Danes around 890 and, despite Paris's claims, the office of abbot remained empty from around 920 until the 970s when the efforts of Dunstan reached the town. Offa (or Alavivaz Olauus) (? - c. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... Monastery of St. ... River Ver in St Albans The River Ver is a river in Hertfordshire. ...


There was an intention to rebuild the abbey in 1005 when Abbot Ealdred was licensed to remove building material from Verulamium. With the town resting on clay and chalk the only tough stone is flint. This was used with a lime mortar and then either plastered over or left bare. With the great quantities of brick, tile and other stone in Verulamium the Roman site became a prime source of building material for the abbeys, and other projects in the area, up to the 18th century. Sections demanding worked stone used Lincolnshire limestone (Barnack stone) from Verulamium, later worked stones include Totternhoe freestone from Bedfordshire, Purbeck marble, and different limestones (Ancaster, Chilmark, Clipsham, etc.). This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... This article is about the building material. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Barnack is a village and civil parish in the City of Peterborough unitary authority of Cambridgeshire, England. ... Totternhoe Stone is a relatively hard chalk outcropping in the middle of the Lower Chalk in the Chiltern Hills in Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire, England. ... A freestone is a stone used in architecture for molding, tracery and other work required to be worked with the chisel. ... Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a county in England that forms part of the East of England region. ... Purbeck is a local government district in Dorset, England, named for the Isle of Purbeck. ... Ancaster stone is Middle Jurassic oolitic limestone, quarried around Ancaster, Lincolnshire, UK. There are two forms, the rag and the freestone. ... Chilmark Quarries (grid reference ST974312) is a 9. ... Clipsham is a village in the county of Rutland in the East Midlands of England. ...


Renewed Viking raids from 1016 stalled the Saxon efforts and nothing, or very little, from the Saxon abbey was incorporated in the later forms.


The Norman abbey

Much of the current layout and proportions of the structure date from the first Norman abbot, Paul of Caen (1077-1093), the 14th abbot, he was appointed by the new Archbishop of Canterbury, Lanfranc. Abbey gateway St Albans Abbey was an abbey at St Albans, Hertfordshire, England, dissolved in 1539 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Paul of Caen[1] was a Norman Benedictine monk who became fourteenth Abbot of St Albans Abbey in 1077, a position he held to 1093[2] He was a nephew of Lanfranc[3]. He was an energetic builder at the Abbey[4], having materials from the ruins of Roman Verulamium... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Lanfranc (d. ...


Building work started in the year of Abbot Paul's arrival. The design and construction was overseen by the Norman Robert the Mason. The plan has very limited Anglo-Saxon elements and is clearly influenced by the French work at Cluny, Bernay, and Caen and shares a similar floorplan to St Etienne and Lanfranc's Canterbury - although the poorer quality building material was a new challenge for Robert and he clearly borrowed some Roman techniques, learned while gathering material in Verulamium. To take maximum use of the hilltop the abbey was oriented to the south-east. The cruciform abbey was the largest built in England at that time, it had a chancel of four bays, a transept containing seven apses, and a nave of ten bays - fifteen bays long overall. Robert gave particular attention to solid foundations, running a continuous wall of layered bricks, flints and mortar below and pushing the foundations down to twelve feet to hit bedrock. Below the crossing tower special large stones were used. Cluny nowadays The town of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région of France, near Mâcon. ... There are communes that have the name Bernay in France: Bernay, in the Eure département Bernay, in the Sarthe département Related Bernay-en-Ponthieu, in the Somme département Bernay-Saint-Martin, in the Charente_Maritime département Bernay-Vilbert, in the Seine-et-Marne département This is... Caen (pronounced /kɑ̃/) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Saint-Étienne is a commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Loire département. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... Cathedral ground plan. ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... A foundation is a structure that transmits loads from a building or road to the underlying ground. ... Cathedral floor plan (crossing is shaded) A crossing, in ecclesiastical architecture, is the junction of the four arms of a cruciform (cross-shaped) church. ...


The tower was a particular triumph - it is the only 11th century great crossing tower still standing in England. Robert began with special thick supporting walls and four massive brick piers, the four level tower tapers at each stage with clasping buttresses on the three lower levels and circular buttresses on the fourth stage. The entire structure masses 5,000 tons and is 144 feet high. The tower was probably topped with a Norman pyramidal roof; the current roof is flat. The original ringing chamber had five bells - two paid for by the Abbot, two by a wealthy townsman, and one donated by the rector of Hoddesdon. None of these bells has survived.


There was a widespread belief that the abbey had two additional, smaller towers at the west end. No remains have been found.


The monastic abbey was completed in 1089 but not consecrated until Holy Innocent's Day, 1115, by the Archbishop of Rouen. King Henry I attended as did many bishops and nobles. is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Archbishop of Rouen is Primate of Normandy and one of the fifteen Archbishops of France. ...


A nunnery (Sopwell Priory) was founded nearby in 1140. This article is about an abbey as a religious building. ... Sopwell priory (also known as Sopwell nunnery) was built c. ...


Internally the abbey was bare of sculpture, almost stark. The plaster walls were coloured and patterned in parts, with extensive tapestries adding colour. Sculptural decoration was added, mainly ornaments, as it became more fashionable in the 12th century - especially after the Gothic style arrived in England around 1170.


In the current structure the original Norman arches survive principally under the central tower and on the north side of the nave. The arches in the rest of the building are Gothic, following medieval rebuilding and extensions, and Victorian era restoration. Interior of Cologne Cathedral Interior of San Zanipolo, Venice, photo Giovanni dallOrto. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


The abbey was extended in the 1190s by Abbot John de Cella (also known as John of Wallingford) (1195-1214); as the number of monks grew from fifty to over a hundred, the abbey was extended westwards with three bays added to the nave. The severe Norman west front was also rebuilt by Hugh de Goldclif - although how is uncertain, it was very costly but its 'rapid' weathering and later alterations have erased all but fragments. A more prominent shrine and altar to Saint Amphibalus were also added. The worked was very slow under de Cella and was not completed until the time of Abbot William de Trumpington (1214-1235). The low Norman tower roof was demolished and a new, much higher, broached spire was raised, sheathed in lead. John of Wallingford, also known as John de Cella, (died 1214) was Abbot of St Albans Abbey in the English county of Hertfordshire from 1195 to his death in 1214. ... John of Wallingford, also known as John de Cella, was abbot of St Albans Abbey from 1195 to his death in 1214. ...


Matthew Paris, a monk at St Albans from 1217, kept its chronicles; he died in about 1259. Eighteen of his manuscripts survive and are a rich source of contemporary information for historians. Self portrait of Matthew Paris from the original manuscript of his Historia Anglorum (London, British Library, MS Royal 14. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...


Nicholas Breakspear was born in St Albans and applied to be admitted to the abbey as a novice, but he was turned down. He eventually managed to be accepted into an abbey in France. In 1154 he was elected Pope Adrian IV, the only English Pope there has ever been. The head of the abbey was confirmed as the premier abbot in England also in 1154. Pope Adrian IV (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin...


13th to 15th century

An earthquake shook the abbey in 1250 and damaged the eastern end of the church. In 1257 the dangerously cracked sections were knocked down - three apses and two bays. The thick Presbytery wall supporting the tower was left. The rebuilding and updating was completed during the rule of Abbot Roger de Norton (1263-1290). A presbytery can be - * the residence of one or more presbyters, priests, or religious elders; - * an area of a church or cathedral reserved for priests; - * the collective college of priests in a diocese, archdiocese, or prelature; - * the local unit in the polity of a Presbyterian church, consisting of presbyters (i. ...


On October 10, 1323 two piers on the south side of the nave collapsed dragging down much of the roof and wrecking five bays. Mason Henry Wy undertook the rebuilding, matching the Early English style of the rest of the bays but adding distinctly 14th century detailing and ornaments. The shrine to St Amphibalus had also been damaged and was remade. is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: in Letters of Gediminas, Vilnius is named as the capital city Pharos of Alexandria Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world...

Abbey Gateway
Abbey Gateway

Richard of Wallingford, abbot from 1297 to 1336 and a mathematician and astronomer, designed a celebrated clock, which was completed by William of Walsham after his death, but apparently destroyed during the reformation. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2527 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of St Albans St Albans Abbey St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2527 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of St Albans St Albans Abbey St. ... Richard of Wallingford (1292–1336) was an English mathematician active in the 14th century, who made major contributions to astronomy and horology whilst serving as the abbot of St Albans Abbey. ...


A new gateway was built to the abbey grounds in 1365, which was the only part of the monastery buildings (besides the church) to survive the dissolution, later being used as a prison and now part of St Albans School. The other monastic buildings were located to the south of the gateway and church. The Abbey Gateway, now home to the schools History, Economics and Classics departments. ...


In the 15th century a large west window of nine main lights and a deep traced head was commissioned by John of Wheathampstead. The spire was reduced to a 'Hertfordshire spike', the roof pitch greatly reduced and battlements liberally added. Further new windows, at £50 each, were put in the transept by Abbot Wallington (also known as William of Wallingford), who also had a new high altar screen made. William of Wallingford, 47th abbot of St Albans Abbey, died 20 June 1492. ...


The Dissolution and after

After the death of Abbot Ramryge in 1521 the abbey fell into debt and slow decay under three weak abbots. At the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries and its surrender on December 5, 1539 the income was £2,100 annually. The abbot and remaining forty monks were pensioned off and then the buildings were looted. All gold, silver and gilt objects were carted away with all other valuables; stonework was broken and defaced and graves opened to burn the contents. For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ...


The abbey became part of the diocese of Lincoln in 1542 and was moved to the diocese of London in 1550. The buildings suffered - neglect, second-rate repairs, even active damage. Richard Lee purchased all the buildings, except the church and chapel and some other Crown premises, in 1550. Lee then began the systematic demolition for building material to improve Lee Hall at Sopwell. In 1551, with the stone removed, Lee returned the land to the abbot, the area was named Abbey Ruins for the next 200 years or so. The Diocese of Lincoln forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. ... The Diocese of London forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. ... Sir Richard Lee (1513-1575) was a military engineer. ... Sopwell priory (also known as Sopwell nunnery) was built c. ...


In 1553 the Lady Chapel became a school, the Great Gatehouse a town jail, some other building passed to the Crown, and the Abbey Church was sold to the town for £400 in 1553 by King Edward VI to be the church of the parish. “GBP” redirects here. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Edward I of Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ...


The cost of upkeep fell upon the town, although in 1596 and at irregular intervals later the Archdeacon was allowed to collect money for repairs by Brief in the diocese. After James I visited in 1612 he authorised another Brief, which collected around £2,000 - most of which went on roof repairs. The English Civil War slashed the monies spent on repairs, while the abbey was used to hold prisoners of war and suffered from their vandalism, as well as that of their guards. Most of the metal objects that had survived the Dissolution were also removed and other ornamental parts were damaged in Puritan sternness. Another round of fund-raising in 1681-84 was again spent on the roof, repairing the Presbytery vault. A royal grant from William and Mary in 1689 went on general maintenance, 'repairs' to conceal some of the unfashionable Gothic features, and on new internal fittings. There was a second royal grant from William in 1698. Brief redirects here. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... William III Mary II The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the joint sovereignty over the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland of King William III and his wife Queen Mary II. Their joint reign began in February, 1689, when they were called to the throne by...


By the end of the 17th century the dilapidation was sufficient for a number of writers to comment upon it.


In 1703, from November 26 to December 1, the 'Great Storm' raged across southern England; the abbey lost the south transept window which was replaced in wood at a cost of £40. The window was clear glass with five lights and three transoms in an early Gothic Revival style by John Hawgood. Other windows, although not damaged in the storm, were a constant drain on the abbey budget in the 18th century. is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Storm of 1703 is the most severe storm ever recorded in the British Isles. ...


A Brief in 1723-24, seeking £5,775, notes a great crack in the south wall, that the north wall was eighteen inches from vertical, and that the roof timbers were decayed to the point of danger. The money raised was spent on the nave roof over ten bays.


Another Brief was not issued until 1764. Again the roof was rotting, as was the south transept window, walls were cracked or shattered in part and the south wall had subsided and now lent outwards. Despite a target of £2,500 a mere £600 was raised.


In the 1770s the abbey came close to demolition; the expense of repairs meant a scheme to destroy the abbey and erect a smaller church almost succeeded.


A storm in 1797 caused some subsidence, cracking open graves, scattering pavement tiles, flooding the church interior and leaving a few more arches off-vertical.

The Wallingford Screen - a Victorian reconstruction (1884-89) of the original, destroyed in the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Statues of St Alban and St Amphibalus stand on either side of the altar.

Download high resolution version (550x733, 93 KB)Wallingford Screen, St Albans Cathedral. ... Download high resolution version (550x733, 93 KB)Wallingford Screen, St Albans Cathedral. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... Saint Alban was the first Christian martyr in Britain. ... Saint Amphibalus was formerly venerated as the Christian priest traditionally sheltered by Saint Alban, who was converted by him, as a consequence of which Alban was martyred. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The nineteenth century

This century was marked with a number of repair schemes. The abbey received some money from the 1818 "Million Act" and in 1820 £450 was raised to buy an organ - a second-hand example made in 1670. Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ...


The major efforts to revive the abbey church came under four men - L. N. Cottingham, Rector H.J.B. Nicholson, and, especially, George Gilbert Scott and Edmund Beckett, first Baron Grimthorpe. The chapel of St Johns College, Cambridge is characteristic of Scotts many church designs Sir George Gilbert Scott (July 13, 1811 – March 27, 1878) was an English architect of the Victorian Age, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches, cathedrals and workhouses. ... Edmund Beckett Edmund Beckett, 1st Baron Grimthorpe, Q.C. (May 12, 1816, Carlton Hall, Nottinghamshire, England - April 29, 1905), known previously as Sir Edmund Beckett, 5th Baronet was a lawyer, amateur horologist, and architect. ...


In February 1832 a portion of the clerestory wall fell through the roof of the south aisle, leaving a hole almost thirty feet long. With the need for serious repair work evident the architect Cottingham was called in to survey the building. His Survey was presented in 1832 and was worrying reading: everywhere mortar was in a wretched condition and wooden beams were rotting and twisting. Cottingham recommended new beams throughout the roof and a new steeper pitch, removing the spire and new timbers in the tower, new paving, ironwork to hold the west transept wall up, a new stone south transept window, new buttresses, a new drainage system for the roof, new ironwork on almost all the windows, and on and on. He estimated a cost of £14,000. Using public subscription £4,000 was raised, of which £1,700 vanished in expenses. With the limited funds the clerestory wall was rebuilt, the nave roof releaded, the tower spike removed, some forty blocked windows reopened and glazed, and the south window remade in stone. Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ...


Henry Nicholson, rector from 1835 to 1866, was also active in repairing the abbey - as far as he could - and also uncovering Gothic features lost or neglected.


In 1856 repair efforts began again; £4,000 was raised and slow moves started to gain the abbey the status of cathedral. Scott was appointed the project architect and oversaw a number of works from 1860 until his death in 1878.


Scott began his efforts by having the medieval floor restored, necessitating the removal of tons of earth, and fixing the north aisle roof. The restored floors were retiled in matching stone and copies of old tile designs from 1872-77. A further 2,000 tons of earth were shifted in 1863 during work on the foundation and a new drainage system. In 1870 the tower piers were found to have been shockingly weakened with many cracks and cavities. Huge timbers were inserted and the arches filled with brick as an emergency measure, repair work took until May 1871 and cost over £2,000. The south wall of the nave was now 28 inches from straight; Scott reinforced the north wall and put in scaffolding to take the weight of the roof off the wall then had it jacked straight in under three hours. The wall was then rebuttressed with five huge new masses and set right. Scott was lauded as "saviour of the Abbey." From 1870-75 around £20,000 was spent on the abbey.


In 1845 St Albans was transferred to the Diocese of Rochester. Then, in 1875, the Bishopric of St Albans Act was passed and on April 30, 1877 the See of St Albans was created, which comprises about 300 churches in the counties of Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire. On June 12 of that year, Bishop Thomas Legh Claughton (1877-1890) was enthroned. The Diocese of Rochester forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Diocese of St Albans forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England and is part of the wider Church of England, in turn part of the world-wide Anglican Communion. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a county in England that forms part of the East of England region. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Legh Claughton (6 November 1808–25 July 1892) was a Britishh academic, poet and churchman. ...


Scott was continuing to work on the nave roof, vaulting and west bay when he died on March 27, 1878. His plans were partially completed by his son, John Oldrid Scott, but the remaining work fell into the hands of Lord Grimthorpe, whose efforts have attracted much controversy - Nikolaus Pevsner calling him a "pompous, righteous bully." Much of the immense £130,000 for the work was donated by Grimthorpe. is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... John Oldrid Scott (1841-1913) was an English architect. ... Sir Nikolaus Pevsner CBE (January 30, 1902 – August 18, 1983) was a German-born British historian of art and, especially, architecture. ...


Whereas Scott's work had clearly been in sympathy with the existing building, Grimthorpe's plans reflected the Victorian ideal - indeed he spent considerable time dismissing and criticising the work of Scott and the efforts of his son.


Grimthorpe first directed the return of a nave roof matching the original high-pitched design, although the battlements added for the lower roof were retained. Completed in 1879 the roof was leaded, following on Scott's desires.


His second major project was the most controversial. The west front, with the great Wheathampstead window, was cracked and leaning, and Grimthorpe, never more than an amateur architect, designed the new front himself - attacked as dense, misproportioned and unsympathetic, "his impoverishment as a designer ... [is] evident", "this man, so practical and ingenious, was utterly devoid of taste ... his great qualities were marred by arrogance ... and a lack of historic sense". Counter proposals were deliberately substituted by Grimthorpe for poorly drawn versions and Grimthorpe's design was accepted. During building it was considerably reworked in order to fit the actual frontage and is not improved by the poor quality sculpture. Work began in 1880 and was completed in April 1883, having cost £20,000.


Grimthorpe was noted for his aversion to the Perpendicular - to the extent that he would have sections he disliked demolished as "too rotten" rather than remade. In his reconstruction, especially of windows, he commonly mixed architectural styles carelessly (see the south aisle, the south choir screen and vaulting). He spent £50,000 remaking the nave. Elsewhere he completely rebuilt the south wall cloisters, with new heavy buttresses, and removed the arcading of the east cloisters during rebuilding the south transept walls. In the south transept he completely remade the south face, completed in 1885, including the huge lancet window group - his proudest achievement - and the flanking turrets, a weighty new tiled roof was also made. In the north transept Grimthorpe had the Perpendicular window demolished and his design inserted - a rose window of circles, cusped circles and lozenges arrayed in five rings around the central light, sixty-four lights in total, each circle with a different glazing pattern. Winchester Cathedral Sherborne Abbey The Perpendicular Gothic period (or simply Perpendicular) is the third historical division of English Gothic architecture, and is so-called because it is characterised by an emphasis on vertical lines; it is also known as the Rectilinear style, or Late Gothic. ... The rood screen (also choir screen or chancel screen) is a common feature in late medieval church architecture. ...


Grimthorpe continued through the Presbytery in his own style, adapted the antechapel for Consistory Courts, and into the Lady Chapel. After a pointed lawsuit with Henry Hucks Gibbs, first Baron Aldenham over who should direct the restoration, Grimthorpe had the vault remade and reproportioned in stone, made the floor in black and white marble (1893), and had new Victorian arcading and sculpture put below the canopy work. Externally the buttresses were expanded to support the new roof and the walls were refaced.


Unfortunately, as early as 1897, Grimthorpe was having to return to previously renovated sections to make repairs. His use of over-strong cement led to cracking, while his fondness for ironwork in windows led to corrosion and damage to the surrounding stone.


Grimthorpe died in 1905 and was interred in the churchyard. He left a bequest for continuing work on the buildings.


During this century the name St Albans Abbey was given to one of the town's railway stations. St Albans Abbey railway station is situated about 1 km south of St Albans town centre. ...


The twentieth century

John Oldrid Scott (d. 1913) (George Gilbert Scott's son), despite frequent clashes with Grimthorpe, had continued working within the cathedral. Scott was a steadfast supporter of the Gothic revival and designed the tomb of the first bishop, had a new bishop's throne built (1903), together with commemorative stalls for Bishop Festing and two Archdeacons, and new choir stalls. He also repositioned and rebuilt the organ (1907). Further work was interrupted by the war.


A number of memorials to the war were added to the cathedral, notably the painting The Passing of Eleanor by Frank Salisbury (stolen 1973) and the reglazing of the main west window, dedicated in 1925.


Following the Enabling Act of 1919 control of the buildings passed to a Parochial Church Council (replaced by the Cathedral Council in 1968), who appointed the woodwork specialist John Rogers as Architect and Surveyor of the Fabric. He uncovered extensive death watch beetle damage in the presbytery vault and oversaw the repair (1930-31), he had four tons of rubbish removed from the crossing tower and the main timbers reinforced (1931-32), and invested in the extensive use of insecticide throughout the wood structures. In 1934 the eight bells were overhauled and four new bells added to be used in the celebration of George V's jubilee. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Cecil Brown was architect and surveyor from 1939 to 1962. At first he merely oversaw the lowering of the bells for the war and established a fire watch, with the pump in the slype. After the war, in the 1950s, the organ was removed, rebuilt and reinstalled and new pews added. His major work was on the crossing tower, Grimthorpe's cement was found to be damaging the Roman bricks, every brick in the tower was replaced as needed and reset in proper mortar by one man, Walter Barrett. The tower ceiling was renovated as were the nave murals. Brown established the Muniments Room to gather and hold all the church documents. The term slype is a variant of slip in the sense of a narrow passage; in architecture, the name for the covered passage usually found in monasteries between the transept and the chapter-house, as at Winchester, Gloucester, Exeter and St. ...


In 1972, to encourage a closer link between celebrant and congregation, the choir stalls and the massive nine-ton pulpit, and the permanent pews were dismantled and removed. The altar space was enlarged and improved, new 'lighter' wood (limed oak) choir stalls put in, and chairs replaced the pews. A new wooden pulpit was acquired from a Norfolk church and installed in 1974. External floodlighting was added in 1975.


A major survey in 1974 revealed new leaks, decay and other deterioration and a ten-year restoration plan was agreed. Again the roofing required much work, the nave and clerestory roofs were repaired in four stages with new leading. The nave project was completed in 1984 at a total cost of £1.75 million. The clerestory windows were repaired with the corroded iron replaced with delta bronze and other Grimthorpe work on the clerestory was replaced. Seventy-two new heads for the corbel table were made. Grimthorpe's west front was cracking, again due to the use originally of too strong a mortar, and was repaired.


A new visitors' centre was proposed in 1970, planning permission was sought in 1973, there was a public inquiry and approval was granted in 1977. Constructed to the south side of the cathedral close to the site of the original chapter house of the abbey, the new 'Chapter House' cost around £1 million and was officially opened on June 8, 1982 by Queen Elizabeth. The main building material was 500,000 replica Roman bricks. is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The...


Other late twentieth century works include the restoration of Alban's shrine, with a new embroidered canopy, the stained glass designed by Alan Younger for Grimthorpe's north transept rose window [2], unveiled in 1989 by the Princess of Wales and, also in the north transept, Henry Moore's sculpture, Single Standing Figure, dating from 1981. “Diana Spencer” redirects here. ... Reclining Figure (1951) outside the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, is characteristic of Moores sculptures, with an abstract female figure intercut with voids. ...


Modern times

The current Bishop of St Albans is the Right Reverend Christopher Herbert (since 1995), and the current Archdeacon of St Albans is the Venerable Helen Cunliffe. On July 2, 2004, the Reverend Canon Dr Jeffrey John became the ninth Dean of the Cathedral. A list of the Anglican bishops of the Diocese of St Albans 1877 - Thomas Leigh Chaughton 1890 - John Wogan Festing 1903 - Edgar Jacob 1920 - Michael Bolton Furse 1944 - Philip Henry Loyd 1950 - Edward Michael Gresford Jones 1970 - Robert Runcie 1980 - John Bernard Taylor 1995 - Christopher William Herbert Categories: Religion stubs... Christopher Herbert is the present Bishop of St Albans. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Reverend Dr Jeffrey Philip Hywel John, MA DPhil (born 1953) is a Church of England cleric, and the current Dean of St Albans. ...


Robert Runcie, later Archbishop of Canterbury, was bishop of St Albans from 1970 to 1980 and returned to live in the city after his retirement; he is commemorated by a gargoyle on the Cathedral as well as being buried in the graveyard. Colin Slee, now Dean of Southwark Cathedral, was sub-dean at St Albans under Runcie and then Dean, Peter Moore. The bishop's house is in Abbey Mill Lane, St Albans, as is the house of the Bishop of Hertford. The Reverend Canon Eric James, Chaplain Extraordinary to HM the Queen, was Canon at St Albans for many years. Robert Alexander Kennedy Runcie, Baron Runcie of Cuddesdon PC MC (October 2, 1921 – July 11, 2000) was the 102nd Archbishop of Canterbury from 1980 to 1991. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Southwark Cathedral Southwark Cathedral or The Cathedral and Collegiate Church of St Saviour and St Mary Overie, Southwark, London, lies on the south bank of the River Thames close to London Bridge. ... The Suffragan Bishop of Hertford is a post in the Church of England, responsible to the Bishop of St Albans, together with the Suffragan Bishop of Bedford. ... Canon Eric James is an Anglican clergyman, Chaplain Extraordinary to HM the Queen and for many years a regulr on BBC Radio 4s Thought for the Day programme. ...


There are a number of youth groups organised by the minor canon and chaplain for young people, Stuart Cradduck: Abbey Youth for people aged between 15 and 18, Flames for 12 to 15 year olds and Sparks for 8 to 12 year olds.[1]


Organ and Organists

Organ

Details of the organ from the National Pipe Organ Register


Organists

The post of organist and choirmaster has been held by a number of well-known musicians including Peter Hurford, Stephen Darlington, and Barry Rose. Andrew Lucas is the current Master of the Music.[2] Since 1965 the Cathedral has been home to the St Albans International Organ Festival, whose competition winners include Dame Gillian Weir and Thomas Trotter. Peter Hurford is a British organist, born St Cecilias day (November 22) 1930 in Minehead, Somerset. ... Stephen Darlington is a British choral director and conductor, and president of the Royal College of Organists from 1999-2001. ... Barry Michael Rose (born 24 May 1934) is a renowned choir trainer and organist. ... The console of the Peter Collins organ built for the St Albans International Organ Festival. ... Gillian Constance Weir, DBE (b. ... Thomas Trotter is a British organist. ...

  • 1302 Adam
  • 1498 Robert Fayrfax
  • 1529 Henry Besteney
  • 1820 Thomas Fowler
  • 1831 Edwin Nicholls
  • 1833 Thomas Fowler
  • 1837 Thomas Brooks
  • 1846 John Brooks
  • 1855 William Simmons
  • 1858 John Stocks Booth
  • 1880 George Gaffe
  • 1907 Willie Lewis Luttmann
  • 1930 Cuthbert E. Osmond
  • 1937 Albert Charles Tysoe
  • 1947 Meredith Davies
  • 1951 Claude Peter Primrose Burton
  • 1957 Peter Hurford
  • 1978 Stephen Darlington
  • 1985 Colin Walsh
  • 1988 Barry Rose
  • 1998 Andrew Lucas

Robert Fayrfax (1464-1521) was an English composer for Henry VIII. He was born in Deeping Gate, Lincolnshire, on April 23, 1464. ...

Miscellany

Among the persons buried at St Albans are Thomas de la Mare, who died at the age of 87 in 1396, having been abbot for 47 years, and Sir Anthony (or Antony) Grey, who died in 1480 and was the brother-in-law of Elizabeth Woodville, the queen consort of Edward IV of England. The brasses are still on their tombs, all the others in the church having been destroyed at the time of the Dissolution. Elizabeth Woodville or Wydville (c. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Monumental Brass is a species of engraved sepulchral memorial which in the early part of the 13th century began to take the place of tombs and effigies carved in stone. ...


The University of Hertfordshire holds graduation ceremonies in the cathedral and St Albans School holds regular services there. The University of Hertfordshire is a modern university based largely in Hatfield, in the county of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, from which the university takes its name. ... The Abbey Gateway, now home to the schools History, Economics and Classics departments. ...


Grimthorpe's west front appears in at least one episode of Inspector Morse (masquerading as part of Oxford). The nave was used to represent Westminster Abbey in the coronation scene of the film Johnny English, starring Rowan Atkinson, whilst the Lady Chapel was used as a location for a scene in Sean Connery's 1995 film First Knight. Morse (left) as played by John Thaw in the television adaption (with Kevin Whately as Lewis (right)). Detective Chief Inspector Morse is a fictional character, who features in a series of thirteen detective novels by British author Colin Dexter, though he is better known for the 33 episode TV series... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... α Johnny English (2003) is a comic film parodying the James Bond secret agent genre, starring Rowan Atkinson as the incompetent British spy of the title, with John Malkovich, Natalie Imbruglia and Ben Miller. ... Rowan Sebastian Atkinson (born 6 January 1955) is an English comedian, actor and writer, famous for his title roles in the British television comedies Blackadder and Mr. ... Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born 25 August 1930) is a retired Scottish actor and producer who is perhaps best known as the first actor to portray James Bond in cinema, starring in seven Bond films. ... First Knight is a 1995 film based on Arthurian legend. ...


Following the successful selection in September 2007 of St Albans as the most expensive square on a special UK Here and Now Edition of Monopoly,[3] a picture of the cathedral was used to represent the city on the board. Monopoly is the best-selling commercial board game in the world. ...


References

  1. ^ [Press Releases January 2005 (Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Albans)]
  2. ^ [Andrew Lucas (St Albans Bach Choir)]
  • The Hill of the Martyr: an Architectural History of St Albans Abbey, Eileen Roberts (Book Castle, 1993), ISBN 1-871199-26-3

See also

A list of the cathedrals, former cathedrals and intended cathedrals in the United Kingdom and its dependencies. ... St Albans is in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35. ...

External links

List of Anglican Cathedrals in the United Kingdom and Ireland
Anglican Communion

Coordinates: 51°45′2″N, 0°20′32″W Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
St Albans Cathedral - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4300 words)
St Albans Cathedral (formerly St Albans Abbey, officially the Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban) is an Anglican church at St Albans, England.
The bishop's house is in Abbey Mill Lane, St Albans, as is the house of the Bishop of Hertford.
Among the persons buried at St Albans are Thomas de la Mare, who died at the age of 87 in 1396, having been abbot for 47 years, and Sir Anthony (or Antony) Grey, who died in 1480 and was the brother-in-law of Elizabeth Woodville, the queen consort of Edward IV of England.
Saint Albans: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (2727 words)
St Albans (thus spelt, no apostrophe or dot) is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35.5km) north of central London.
St Albans is one of several places that, by repute, has the most pubs per square mile in the country (Edinburgh, Norwich, Nottingham, Otley and Rochdale are other claimants).
The public St Albans School, which occupies a site to the West of the Abbey and includes the former Norman Abbey Gateway, was founded in AD 948 and is the only school in the English-speaking world to have educated a Pope.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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