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Encyclopedia > Srivijaya
The extent of Srivijayan Empire around 10th to 11th century.
The extent of Srivijayan Empire around 10th to 11th century.
This article is part of
the History of Indonesia series
See also:
Timeline of Indonesian History
Prehistory
Early kingdoms
Srivijaya (3rd to 14th centuries)
Tarumanagara (358-723)
Sailendra (8th & 9th centuries)
Kingdom of Sunda (669-1579)
Kingdom of Mataram (752–1045)
Kediri (1045–1221)
Singhasari (1222–1292)
Majapahit (1293–1500)
The rise of Muslim states
The spread of Islam (1200–1600)
Malacca Sultanate (1400–1511)
Sultanate of Demak (1475–1518)
Aceh Sultanate (1496–1903)
The Sultanate of Banten (1526–1813)
Mataram Sultanate (1500s to 1700s)
European colonialism
The Portuguese (1512–1850)
Dutch East India Company (1602–1800)
Dutch East Indies (1800–1942)
The emergence of Indonesia
National Revival (1899–1942)
Japanese Occupation (1942–45)
Declaration of Independence (1945)
National Revolution (1945–1950)
Independent Indonesia
Liberal Democracy (1950–1957)
Guided Democracy (1957–1965)
Start of the New Order (1965–1966)
The New Order (1966–1998)
Reformation Era (1998–present)
[Edit this template]

Srivijaya, Sriwijaya, Shri Bhoja[citation needed], Sri Boja or Shri Vijaya (200s[citation needed]-1300s[1]) was an ancient Malay[2] kingdom on the island of Sumatra which influenced much of the Malay Archipelago. Records of its beginning are scarce while estimations range from the 3rd to 5th centuries CE[citation needed], but the earliest solid proof of its existence dates from the 7th century; a Chinese monk, I-Tsing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in 671 for 6 months;[3][4] the Kedukan Bukit Inscription is dated 683.[5] The kingdom ceased to exist between 1200 and 1300 due to various factors, including the expansion of Majapahit.[1] In Sanskrit, sri means "shining" or "radiant" and vijaya means "victory" or "excellence". [6] Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... Image File history File links Historyofindonesia. ... Main article: History of Indonesia This is a timeline of Indonesian history. ... Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Taruma kingdom. ... Sailendra ( meaning Lord of the Mountain in Sanskrit ) was the name of an Indonesian dynasty, emerging in Central Java at the end of the 8 th century. ... This acticle concerns the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram. ... Kediri was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1042 to around 1222. ... Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Islam is thought to have first been adopted by Indonesians sometime during the eleventh century, although Muslims had visited Indonesia early in the Muslim era. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Sultanate of Demak was founded in the 16th century by Raden Patah (1475-1518), once a vassal of the declining Majapahit Empire. ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... This article is about a historic kingdom on Java in what is now Indonesia. ... This article is about the trading company. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The period of the Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival was a period in Indonesian history spanning from 1899 until the Japanese Invasion in 1942. ... The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... The independece declaration announced by Sukarno The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The era of Liberal Democracy (Indonesian: Demokrasi Liberal) was the name for the period in Indonesian history from the dissolution of the United States of Indonesia and the return to a unitary state in 1950, following the Indonesian National Revolution, to the imposition of martial law and the introduction by... Guided Democracy was the political system in place in Indonesia from 1957 until the New Order began in 1966. ... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... The New Order (Indonesian: Orde Baru) is the term coined by former Indonesian President Suharto to characterize his regime as he came to power in 1966. ... The Reformation (in bahasa Indonesia Reformasi) is the name commonly used for the present era in the history of Indonesia. ... Septimius Severus, Roman Emperor Category: ... 1308 - Avignon Papacy established, which splits and weakens the Roman Catholic Church Turku, the oldest city in Finland experiences rapid growth around the recently consecrated Cathedral of Turku Category: ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... ... Kedukan Bukit Inscription is telling about Dapunta Hyangs holy journey to build Srivijaya Kingdom. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


After Srivijaya fell, it was largely forgotten and so historians had never considered that a large united kingdom could have been present in Southeast Asia. The existence of Srivijaya was only formally suspected in 1918 when French historian George Coedès of the École française d'Extrême-Orient postulated the existence of the empire.[6] Around 1992 and 1993, Pierre-Yves Manguin proved that the centre of Srivijaya was along the Musi River between Bukit Seguntang and Sabokingking (situated in what is now the province of South Sumatra, Indonesia).[6] George Coedès (1886-1969)was a 20th century scholar of southeast Asian archaeology and history. ... The École française dExtrême-Orient (EFEO) is a French institute dedicated to the study of Asian societies. ... Map of South Sumatra province in Indonesia South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ...

Contents

Historiography and legacy

There is no continuous knowledge of Srivijaya in Indonesian histories; its forgotten past has been recreated by foreign scholars. No modern Indonesians, not even those of the Palembang area around which the kingdom was based, had heard of Srivijaya until the 1920s, when French scholar George Coedès published his discoveries and interpretations in Dutch and Indonesian-language newspapers.[7] Coedès noted that the Chinese references to "Sanfoqi", previously read as "Sribhoja", and the inscriptions in Old Malay refer to the same empire.[8] George Coedès (1886-1969)was a 20th century scholar of southeast Asian archaeology and history. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ...


Srivijaya became a symbol of early Sumatran greatness, and a great empire to balance Java's Majapahit in the east. In the twentieth century, both empires were referred to by nationalist intellectuals to argue for an Indonesian identity within and Indonesian state prior to the Dutch colonial state.[7] The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ...


Srivijaya and by extension Sumatra had been known by different names to different peoples. The Chinese called it Sanfotsi or San Fo Qi, and at one time there was an even older kingdom of Kantoli that could be considered as the predecessor of Srivijaya.[9][10] In Sanskrit and Pali, it was referred to as Yavadesh and Javadeh respectively.[9] The Arabs called it Zabag and the Khmer called it Melayu.[9] This is another reason why the discovery of Srivijaya was so difficult.[9] While some of these names are strongly reminiscent of the name of Java, there is a distinct possibility that they may have referred to Sumatra instead. [11] Reference to the Sri Lankan materials, king Chandrabhanu Sridhamaraja is one of Javakan kings from Tambralinga kingdom, one the kingdoms in the prehistory period of Thai history, who had invaded Sri Lankan in 1247. ...


Formation and growth

Little physical evidence of Srivijaya remains.[12] According to the Kedukan Bukit Inscription, the empire of Srivijaya was founded by Dapunta Hyang Çri Yacanaca (Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa). He led 20,000 troops (mainly land troopers and a few hundred ships) from Minanga Tamwan to Palembang, Jambi, and Bengkulu. Kedukan Bukit Inscription is telling about Dapunta Hyangs holy journey to build Srivijaya Kingdom. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... For other uses, see Jambi (disambiguation). ... Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. ...


The empire was a coastal trading centre and was a thalassocracy. As such, it did not extend its influence far beyond the coastal areas of the islands of Southeast Asia, with the exception of contributing to the population of Madagascar 3,300 miles to the west. Around the year 500, Srivijayan roots began to develop around present-day Palembang, Sumatra, in modern Indonesia. The empire was organised in three main zones — the estuarine capital region centred on Palembang, the Musi River basin which served as hinterland, and rival estuarine areas capable of forming rival power centres. The areas upstream of the Musi river were rich in various commodities valuable to Chinese traders.[13] The capital was administered directly by the ruler while the hinterland remained under its own local datus or chiefs, who were organized into a network of allegiance to the Srivijaya maharaja or king. Force was the dominant element in the empire's relations with rival river systems such as the Batang Hari, which centred in Jambi. The ruling lineage intermarried with the Sailendras of Central Java. The term thalassocracy (from the Greek Θαλασσο-κρατία) refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... The Musi River is located in southern Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Datu or datto is the title for ancient tribal chieftains and monarchs in pre-Hispanic Philippines. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Allegiance is a duty of fidelity said to be owed by a subject or a citizen to his state or sovereign. ... Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... The Batang Hari is the longest river in Sumatra, Indonesia. ... It has been suggested that Kinship be merged into this article or section. ... Sailendra ( meaning Lord of the Mountain in Sanskrit ) was the name of an Indonesian dynasty, emerging in Central Java at the end of the 8 th century. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ...

Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at Muaro Jambi of Malayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban center.
Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at Muaro Jambi of Malayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban center.

Under the leadership of Jayanasa, the kingdom of Malayu became the first kingdom to be integrated into the Srivijayan Empire. This possibly occurred in the 680s. Malayu, also known as Jambi, was rich in gold and was held in high esteem. Srivijaya recognized that the submission of Malayu to them would increase their own prestige.[14] Muaro Jambi is a regency of Jambi, Indonesia. ... Map of ancient Melayu Kingdom. ... Map of ancient Melayu Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Jambi (disambiguation). ...


Chinese records dated in the late 7th century mention two Sumatran kingdoms as well as three other kingdoms on Java being part of Srivijaya. By the end of the 8th century, many Javanese kingdoms, such as Tarumanagara and Holing, were within the Srivijayan sphere of influence. It has also been recorded that a Buddhist family related to Srivijaya dominated central Java at that time.[15] The family was probably the Sailendras.[16] According to the Kota Kapur Inscription, the empire conquered Southern Sumatra as far as Lampung. The empire thus grew to control the trade on the Strait of Malacca, the South China Sea and Karimata Strait. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Taruma kingdom. ... Lampung is a province of Indonesia, located on the southern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... The Karimata Strait is the wide strait that connects the South China Sea to the Java Sea, between the islands of Sumatra and Borneo in Indonesia. ...


During the same century, Langkasuka on the Malay Peninsula became part of Srivijaya. [17] Soon after this, Pan Pan and Trambralinga, which were located north of Langkasuka, came under Srivijayan influence. These kingdoms on the peninsula were major trading nations that transported goods across the peninsula's isthmus.


With the expansion to Java as well as the Malay Peninsula, Srivijaya controlled two major trade choke points in Southeast Asia. Some Srivijayan temple ruins are observable in Thailand, Cambodia and on the Malay Peninsula. In military strategy, a choke point (or chokepoint) is a geographical feature (such as a valley or defile) which forces an army to go into a narrower formation (greatly decreasing combat power) in order to pass through it. ...


At some point in the 7th century, Cham ports in eastern Indochina started to attract traders. This diverted the flow of trade from Srivijaya. In an effort to divert the flow, the Srivijayan king or maharaja, Dharmasetu, launched various raids against the coastal cities of Indochina. The city of Indrapura by the Mekong River was temporarily controlled from Palembang in the early 8th century.[16] The Srivijayans continued to dominate areas around present-day Cambodia until the Khmer King Jayavarman II, the founder of the Khmer Empire dynasty, severed the Srivijayan link later in the same century.[18] Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... View of the Mekong before the sunset The Mekong is one of the worlds major rivers. ... The Khmer people are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 13. ... Jayavarman II was the founder of a local realm in the Angkor region around 800 A.D. He is probably identical with a king called Jayavarman Ibis, mentioned in inscriptions of the years 770 and 781 A. D. The late legend (of the Sdok Kak Thom inscription dated 8th February... Map of Asia and Europe c. ...


After Dharmasetu, Samaratungga became the next Maharaja of Srivijaya. He reigned as ruler from 792 to 835. Unlike the expansionist Dharmasetu, Samaratuga did not indulge in military expansion but preferred to strengthen the Srivijayan hold of Java. He personally oversaw the construction of Borobudur; the temple was completed in 825, during his reign.[19] Samaratungga was the last ruler of the Sailendra dynasty. ... Borobudur is a ninth century Buddhist Mahayana monument in Central Java, Indonesia. ...


By the twelfth century, the kingdom included parts of Sumatra, Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula, Western Java, Sulawesi, the Moluccas, Borneo and the Philippines, most notably the Sulu Archipelago and the Visayas islands (and indeed the latter island group, as well as its population, is named after the empire). [20] For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Sulu Region: Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) Capital: Jolo Founded: Population: 2000 census—619,668 (40th largest) Density—387 per km² (13th highest) Area: 1,600. ... Map of the Philippines showing Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao Visayas is one of the three island groupings in the Philippines along with Luzon and Mindanao. ...


Srivijaya remained a formidable sea power until the thirteenth century.[1]


Vajrayana Buddhism

This article is part of
the History of Malaysia series

Prehistory (60,000–2,000 BCE)
Early kingdoms
Gangga Negara (2nd–11th century CE)
Langkasuka (2nd–14th century)
Pan Pan (3rd–5th century)
Srivijaya (3rd–14th century)
The rise of Muslim states
Kedah Sultanate (1136–present)
Malacca Sultanate (1402–1511)
Sulu Sultanate (1450–1899)
Johor Sultanate (1528–current)
Jementah Civil War (1879)
European colonialism
Portuguese Malacca (1511 - 1641)
Dutch Malacca (1641 - 1824)
Kingdom of Sarawak (1841–1946)
British Malaya (1874–1946)
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Burney Treaty (1826)
Straits Settlements (1826–1946)
Larut War (1861–1874)
Klang War (1867–1874)
Pangkor Treaty of 1874
Federated Malay States (1895–1946)
Unfederated Malay States (1800s–1946)
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Battle of Penang (1914)
North Borneo (1882–1963)
Mat Salleh Rebellion (1896–1900)
World War II
Japanese occupation (1941–1945)
Battle of Malaya (1941–42)
Parit Sulong Massacre (1942)
Battle of Muar (1942)
Battle of Singapore (1942)
Syburi (1942–1945)
Battle of North Borneo (1945)
Sandakan Death Marches (1945)
Malaysia in transition
Malayan Union (1946–1948)
Federation of Malaya (1948–1963)
Malayan Emergency (1948–1960)
Bukit Kepong Incident (1950)
Independence Day (1957)
Federation of Malaysia (1963–present)
Operation Coldstore (1963)
Indonesia confrontation (1962–1966)
Brunei Revolt (1962–1966)
Singapore in Malaysia (1963–1965)
1964 Race Riots (1964)
Communist Insurgency War (1967-1989)
Contemporary Malaysia
Malaysia today
May 13 Incident (1969)
New Economic Policy (1971–1990)
Operation Lalang (1987)
1988 constitutional crisis (1987–88)
Asian financial crisis (1997–98)
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A stronghold of Vajrayana Buddhism, Srivijaya attracted pilgrims and scholars from other parts of Asia. These included the Chinese monk Yijing, who made several lengthy visits to Sumatra on his way to study at Nalanda University in India in 671 and 695, and the 11th century Bengali Buddhist scholar Atisha, who played a major role in the development of Vajrayana Buddhism in Tibet. Yijing reports that the kingdom was home to more than a thousand Buddhist scholars; it was in Srivijaya that he wrote his memoir of Buddhism during his own lifetime. Travellers to these islands mentioned that gold coinage was in use on the coasts, but not inland. The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... Image File history File links History_merdeka. ... Caves paintings of Tambun, dated 3000 BC, in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. ... The Common Era is the period beginning with a year near the birth of Jesus, coinciding with the period from AD 1 onwards. ... Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... BCE redirects here. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the province, see Sulu Location of Sulu in the Philippines Capital Jolo Language(s) Arabic (official), Tausug, Malay, Banguingui, Bajau languages Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan  - 1450-1480 Shariful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr  - 1884-1899 Jamal ul-Kiram I History  - Established 1450  - Annexed by USA 1899 The Sultanate... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jementah Civil War happened in 1879 in Jementah, Sultanate of Johor when Tengku Alam, the heir of Sultan Ali of Muar refused to give the district of Muar under temporary administration of Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor. ... Portuguese Malacca Capital Malacca Town Language(s) Portuguese, Malay Political structure Colony King  - 1511-1521 Manuel I  - 1640-1641 John IV Captains-major  - 1512-1514 Ruí de Brito Patalim (first)  - 1638-1641 Manuel de Sousa Coutinho (last) Captains-general  - 1616-1635 António Pinto da Fonseca (first)  - 1637-1641 Lu... Dutch Malacca Capital Malacca Town Language(s) Dutch, Malay Political structure Colony Governor  - 1641 - 1642 Jan van Twist  - 1824 - 1825 Hendrik S. van Son British Residents  - 1795 Archibald Brown  - 1803 - 1818 William Farquhar Historical era Imperialism  - Established 14 January, 1641  - British occupation 1795-1818  - Anglo-Dutch Treaty 17 March, 1824... State motto: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti State anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku Capital Kuching Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Abang Muhammad Salahuddin  - Ketua Menteri Abdul Taib Mahmud History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - Brooke dynasty 1841   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 124,450... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... Larut War was a series of four wars started in July 1861 and ended with the signing of the Pangkor Treaty of 1874. ... The Klang War or Selangor Civil War took place in the Malay state of Selangor and was fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator of Klang and Raja Mahadi bin Raja Sulaiman from 1867 to 1874. ... The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the British and the Sultan of Perak. ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Unfederated Malay States were five Malay states, namely Johore Terengganu Kelantan Kedah Perlis Together the states were not a single entity but merely a category to describe those states which were not Federated Malay States or Straits Settlements. ... The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was a treaty between the United Kingdom and Thailand signed on March 10, 1909 in Bangkok. ... The Battle of Penang occured in 1914, during World War I. It was a naval action. ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now Malaysian state of Sabah, from 1894 to 1900. ... Throughout much of the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... On January 23, 1942, the Parit Sulong Massacre was committed against Allied soldiers by members of the Imperial Guards Division of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Combatants Westforce: Australian 8th Division Indian 9th Division 45th Indian Brigade 53rd Infantry Brigade Twenty-Fifth Army: Imperial Guards 5th Division Commanders Arthur Percival Gordon Bennett Herbert Duncan â€  Charles Anderson Frederick Galleghan Takuma Nishimura Strength 45th Indian Brigade: 4000 Infantry 60 aircraft 8000 Infantry 400 aircraft Casualties 45th Indian Brigade... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... During the Japanese Occupation of Malaya, control of the State of Kedah was given to Thailand by the Japanese. ... The Battle of North Borneo was fought from June 17 to August 15 of 1945 between Australia and Japan. ... October 24, 1945. ... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand British colonies Federation of Malaya Rhodesia Fiji various British East African colonies Malayan Communist Party Malayan Races Liberation Army Commanders Harold Briggs Henry Gurney † Gerald Templer Henry Wells Chin Peng Strength 250,000 Malayan Home Guard troops 40,000 regular Commonwealth personnel 37,000... Combatants Malayan Races Liberation Army or Malayan Communist Party Malayan Police Commanders Muhammad Madera Lek Tuan Sgt Jamil Mohd Shah (Bukit Kepong police chief) Penghulu Ali Mustapha (penghulu of the Bukit Kepong town) Strength 200 25 Casualties about 40 dead 23 dead including non-combatants (Assistant Police (AP)) Bukit Kepong... Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule. ... Motto: Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu Unity Is Strength1 Anthem: Negaraku Capital (and largest city) Kuala Lumpur3 Official languages Malay2 Demonym Malaysian Government Constitutional monarchy and Parliamentary democracy  -  Yang di-Pertuan Agong Mizan Zainal Abidin  -  Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi Independence  -  from the United Kingdom (Malaya only) August 31, 1957   -  Federation... In February 1963, the government of Singapore conducted a security operation, named Operation Coldstore (sometimes spelled Operation Cold Store), and arrested at least 107 left-wing politicians and trade unionists. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Malaya Brunei Parti Rakyat Brunei Indonesia Commanders General Sir Nigel Poett Yassin Affandi Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Brunei Revolt broke out on December 8, 1962 and was led by Yassin Affandi and his armed rebels. ... On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. ... The start of the July riot on Prophet Muhammads birthday, that would later injure hundreds and kill 23 people. ... Combatants Malaysian Federal Government Malaysian Army Royal Malay Regiment Royal Ranger Regiment Royal Malaysian Air Force Royal Malaysian Police Malayan Communist Party Commanders Abdullah CD (Che Anjang Abdullah) - CPM leader Chin Peng - Secretary general Ah Sek (Ah Sze) Casualties Civilian casualties: The Communist Insurgency War or Second Malayan Emergency was... Motto: Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu Unity Is Strength1 Anthem: Negaraku Capital (and largest city) Kuala Lumpur3 Official languages Malay2 Demonym Malaysian Government Constitutional monarchy and Parliamentary democracy  -  Yang di-Pertuan Agong Mizan Zainal Abidin  -  Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi Independence  -  from the United Kingdom (Malaya only) August 31, 1957   -  Federation... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputras are given discounts on real estate. ... Operation Lalang (or in English, Weeding Operation; also referred to as Ops Lallang) was carried out on 27 October 1987 by the Malaysian police to crackdown on opposition leaders and social activists. ... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building housed the Supreme Court at the time of the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... I Ching (monk) or Yi Jing (Yijing, Yiqing, I-Tsing or YiChing) (義淨, 三藏法師義淨 635-713) is Tang Dynasty Buddhist monk, original name was Zhang Wen Ming (张文明). He contributed to the world the information of ancient Srivijaya (written in Chinese), large numbers of Buddhist scriptures, his adventure stories en route to Nalanda... Remains at Nalanda Nalanda is a historical place in central Bihar, India, 90 km south-east of the state capital of Patna. ... Events Chinese Buddhist pilgrim I-Ching visited the capital of the partly-Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya, Palembang, Indonesia. ... Events People of Byzantium revolt against Justinian II. Leontius II made emperor, Justinian II is banished. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... AtiÅ›a Dipamkara Shrijnana (Bangla: অতীশ দীপঙ্কর শ্রীজ্ঞান) (982 - 1054 CE) was a Buddhist teacher who reintroduced Buddhism into Tibet after King Langdharma had nearly destroyed it. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


Relationship with regional powers

Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand
Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand

Although historical records and archaeological evidence are scarce, it appears that by the seventh century, Srivijaya had established suzerainty over large areas of Sumatra, western Java and much of the Malay Peninsula. Dominating the Malacca and Sunda straits, Srivijaya controlled both the spice route traffic and local trade, charging a toll on passing ships. Serving as an entrepôt for Chinese, Malay, and Indian markets, the port of Palembang, accessible from the coast by way of a river, accumulated great wealth. Envoys travelled to and from China frequently. Download high resolution version (480x820, 41 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (480x820, 41 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... The Sunda Strait The Sunda Strait is the strait between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra. ... Spices at the central market of Agadir, Morocco in May 2005 The spice trade has been of major economic importance throughout human history and it particularly helped spur the Age of Exploration. ...


The Jambi kingdom was the first rival power centre absorbed into the empire, and thus began the domination of the region through trade and conquest in the 7th and 9th centuries. Jambi's gold mines were a crucial economic resource and may be the origin of the word Suvarnadvipa (island of gold), the Sanskrit name for Sumatra. Srivijaya helped spread the Malay culture throughout Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, and western Borneo. Srivijaya's influence waned in the 11th century. It was in frequent conflict with, and ultimately subjugated by, Javanese kingdoms, first Singhasari and then Majapahit. The seat of the empire moved to Jambi in the last centuries of Srivijaya's existence. Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ...


Some historians claim that Chaiya in the Surat Thani province in Southern Thailand was at least temporarily the capital of Srivijaya, but this claim is widely disputed. However, Chaiya was probably a regional centre of the kingdom. The temple of Borom That in Chaiya contains a reconstructed pagoda in Srivijaya style. The Khmer Empire may also have been a tributary in its early stages. Chaiya (Thai: ไชยา) is a small town in southern Thailand in Surat Thani province. ... Surat Thani (often in short Surat, Thai: ) is the largest of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand, on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Thailand. ... Myanmars Shwedagon Pagoda is one of the most recognizable and revered pagodas in the Buddhist World A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia For other uses, see Pagoda (disambiguation). ... Map of Asia and Europe c. ... The term tributary state refers to one of the two main ways in which a pre-modern state might be subordinate to a more powerful neighbour. ...


Srivijaya also maintained close relations with the Pala Empire in Bengal, and an 860 inscription records that the maharaja of Srivijaya dedicated a monastery at the Nalanda university in Pala territory. Relations with the Chola dynasty of southern India were initially friendly but deteriorated into actual warfare in the eleventh century. Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Events First attack on Constantinople by Swedish Vikings (the Rus, see Varangians). ... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ...


Golden age

The graceful golden statue of Avalokiteçvara in Malayu-Srivijayan style, discovered at Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia.

After trade disruption at Canton between 820 and 850, the ruler of Jambi was able to assert enough independence to send missions to China in 853 and 871.[citation needed] Jambi's independence coincided with the troubled time when the Sailendran Balaputradewa, expelled from Java, seized the throne of Srivijaya. The new maharaja was able to dispatch a tributary mission to China by 902. Only two years later, the expiring Tang Dynasty conferred a title on a Srivijayan envoy. Avalokiteśvara holding a lotus flower. ... For other uses, see Jambi (disambiguation). ... Events A Byzantine fleet destroys Damiette (in Egypt) Births Deaths Categories: 853 ... Nine battles are fought between the Danes and Wessex. ... Sailendra ( meaning Lord of the Mountain in Sanskrit ) was the name of an Indonesian dynasty, emerging in Central Java at the end of the 8 th century. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...


In the first half of the tenth century, between the fall of Tang and the rise of Song, there was brisk trade between the overseas world and the Fujian kingdom of Min and the rich Guangdong kingdom of Nan Han. Srivijaya undoubtedly benefited from this, in anticipation of the prosperity it was to enjoy under the early Song. Circa 903, the Muslim writer Ibn Rustah was so impressed with the wealth of Srivijaya's ruler that he declared one would not hear of a king who was richer, stronger or with more revenue. The main urban centres were at Palembang (especially the Bukit Seguntang area), Muara Jambi and Kedah. Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Min é–© was one of the Ten Kingdoms which was in existence between the years of 909 and 945. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Events Vikings invade England. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Ibn Rustah (in Persian: ابن رسته) was a 10th century Persian explorer and geographer born in Rosta district, Isfahan, Persia (See Encyclopaedia Iranica [1]). He wrote a geographical compendium. ... Muaro Jambi is a regency of Jambi, Indonesia. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density...


Decline

In 1025, Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Coromandel in South India, conquered Kedah from Srivijaya and occupied it for some time. The Cholas continued a series of raids and conquests throughout what is now Indonesia and Malaysia for the next 20 years. Although the Chola invasion was ultimately unsuccessful, it gravely weakened the Srivijayan hegemony and enabled the formation of regional kingdoms based, like Kediri, on intensive agriculture rather than coastal and long-distance trade. Events April 18 - Boleslaw I Chrobry is crowned as the first king of Poland. ... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Districts along the Coromandel Coast Map of the coast (French) The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density...

Srivijaya's Empire and its neighbors in 900 AD.

Between 1079 and 1088, Chinese records show that Srivijaya sent ambassadors from Jambi and Palembang.[21] In 1079 in particular, an ambassador from Jambi and Palembang each visited China. Jambi sent two more ambassadors to China in 1082 and 1088.[21] This suggests that the centre of Srivijaya frequently shifted between the two major cities during that period.[21] The Chola expedition as well as changing trade routes weakened Palembang, allowing Jambi to take the leadership of Srivijaya from the 11th century on.[22]


According to a Chinese source in the book of Chu-fan-chi written around 1200, Chou-Ju-Kua describe that in Southeast Asia archipelago there was two most powerful and richest kingdoms; Srivijaya and Java (Kediri). In Java he founds that the people adhere two kinds of religions; buddhism and the religions of brahmins (hinduism), while the people of Srivijaya adhere buddhism. The people of Java are brave and short tempered, dare to put a fight. Their favourite pastimes was cockfighting and pigfighting. The curency was made from the mixture of copper, silver, and tin. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ...

Srivijaya Empire and Kediri around 12th to early 13th century AD.
Srivijaya Empire and Kediri around 12th to early 13th century AD.

The book of Chu-fan-chi mentioned that Java was ruled by a maharaja, that rules several colonies: Pai-hua-yuan (Pacitan), Ma-tung (Medang), Ta-pen (Tumapel), Hi-ning (Dieng), Jung-ya-lu (Hujung Galuh), Tung-ki (Jenggi, west Papua), Ta-kang (Sumba), Huang-ma-chu (Southwest Papua), Ma-li (Bali), Kulun (Gurun, identified as Gorong or Sorong in Papua or an island in Nusa Tenggara), Tan-jung-wu-lo (Tanjungpura in Borneo), Ti-wu (Timor), Pingya-i (Banggai in Sulawesi), and Wu-nu-ku (Maluku). Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. ... Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... Papua is: Another name for New Guinea Papua (Australian territory): A former Australian territory comprising the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea, now the southern part of Papua New Guinea Papua (Indonesian province): An Indonesian province comprising the western half of the island of New Guinea Related Words... The Lesser Sunda Islands; Sumba is in the center Sumba is an island in Indonesia, and is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ...


About Srivijaya, Chou-Ju-Kua reported that Kien-pi (Kampe, in northern Sumatra) with armed forced rebellion has liberated themself from Srivijaya, thus has coronated their own king. The same fate goes to some Srivijaya's colonies at Malay Peninsula that liberated themself from Srivijaya domination. However Srivijaya still the mightiest and wealthiest state in western part of archipelago. Srivijaya's colony are: Pong-fong (Pahang), Tong-ya-nong (Trengganu), Ling-ya-ssi-kia (Langkasuka), Kilan-tan (Kelantan), Fo-lo-an (?), Ji-lo-t'ing (Jelutong), Ts'ien-mai (?), Pa-t'a (Batak), Tan-ma-ling (Tambralingga, Ligor), Kia-lo-hi (Grahi, northern part of Malay peninsula), Pa-lin-fong (Palembang), Sin-t'o (Sunda), Lan-wu-li (Lamuri at Aceh), and Si-lan (Sailan?) [23]. According to this source in early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda). About Sunda, the book describe it further that the port of Sunda (Sunda Kelapa) is really good and strategic, pepper from Sunda is among the best quality. People work on agriculture and their house are build on wooden piles (rumah panggung). However the country was invested by robbers and thieves. In sum, this Chinese source from early 13th century suggested that the Indonesian archipelago was ruled by two great kingdoms, western part was under Srivijaya's rule, while eastern part was under Kediri domination. The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... State anthem: Pahang State Anthem Capital Kuantan Royal capital Pekan Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Ahmad Shah  - Menteri Besar Adnan Yaakob History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 35,964 km² Population  - 2005 estimate 1,372,500  - Density 38. ... Map of Terengganu in Peninsular Malaysia Terengganu (Jawi:ترنجانو, formerly spelled Trengganu) is a state of Malaysia. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... State motto: Berserah kepada Tuhan Kerajaan Kelantan State anthem: Selamat Sultan Capital (and royal capital) Kota Bharu Ruling party PAS  - Sultan Tuanku Ismail Petra  - Menteri Besar Nik Aziz Nik Mat History    - Siamese control 1603   - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942-1946   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 14... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Look up pepper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. ...


In 1288, Singhasari, the successor of Kediri in Java, conquered Palembang, Jambi as well as much of Srivijaya during the Pamalayu expedition. Events February 22 - Nicholas IV becomes Pope. ... Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ... Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. ...


In the year 1293, Majapahit ruled much of Sumatra as the successor of Singhasari. Prince Adityawarman was given responsibilities over Sumatra in 1347 by Hayam Wuruk, the fourth king of Majapahit. The rebellion in 1377 was squashed by Majapahit but it left the area of southern Sumatra in chaos and desolation. The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Adityawarman was a prince in the Majapahit empire during the 14th century, and a blood relative of Hayam Wuruk. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Hayam Wuruk, also called (after 1350) Rajasanagara, (1334 -1389), was the ruler of the Javanese Hindu state of Majapahit at the time of its greatest power. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ...


In the following years, sedimentation on the Musi river estuary cut the kingdom's capital off from direct sea access. The strategic disadvantage crippled the trade in the Kingdom's capital. As the decline continued, Islam made its way to the Aceh region of Sumatra, spreading through contacts with Arab and Indian traders. By the late 13th century, the kingdom of Pasai in northern Sumatra converted to Islam. At the same time, Srivijaya was briefly a tributary state of the Khmer empire and later the Sukhothai kingdom. The last inscription, on which a crown prince, Ananggavarman, son of Adityawarman, is mentioned, dates from 1374. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Map of Pasai. ... The term tributary state refers to one of the two main ways in which a pre-modern state might be subordinate to a more powerful neighbour. ... The Sukhothai kingdom was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city Sukhothai. ... Ananggavarman (year 1374) is the last ruler of Palembang of Srivijaya [1]. Melayu Kingdom Category: ... Adityawarman was a prince in the Majapahit empire during the 14th century, and a blood relative of Hayam Wuruk. ...


By 1402 Parameswara (the great-great-grandson of Raden Wijaya, the first king of Majapahit), the last prince of Srivijaya[citation needed] founded the Sultanate of Malacca on the Malay peninsula. Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... Parameswara (1344 – 1414) was a Palembang prince of Hindu descent from Srivijaya that founded Malacca around 1402. ... Raden Wijaya (also known as Kertarajasa Jayawardhana) (1293-1309) was the founder and first raja of the Majapahit Empire in Java, Indonesia [edit] Origins Raden Wijaya was the son of Dyah Lembu Tal, the great, great grandson of Ken Arok, the founder of the Kingdom of Singhasari. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Commerce

In the world of commerce, Srivijaya rapidly rose to be a far-flung empire controlling the two passages between India and China, namely the Sunda Strait from Palembang and the Malacca straits from Kedah. Arab accounts state that the empire of the maharaja was so vast that in two years the swiftest vessel could not travel round all its islands, which produced camphor, aloes, cloves, sandal-wood, nutmegs, cardamom and crubebs, ivory, gold and tin, making the maharaja as rich as any king in the Indies.[citation needed] The Sunda Strait The Sunda Strait is the strait between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra. ...


List of Rulers

  • Dapunta Hyang Çri Yacanaca (Kedukan Bukit Inscription, 683 and Talang Tuo Inscription, 684)
  • Cri Indrawarman (Chinese story, 724)
  • Rudrawikrama (Chinese story, 728)
  • Wishnu (Ligor Inscription, 775)
  • Maharaja (Arabian story, 851)
  • Balaputradewa (Nalanda Inscription, 860)
  • Cri Udayadityawarman (Chinese story, 960)
  • Cri Udayaditya (Chinese story, 962)
  • Cri Cudamaniwarmadewa (Leiden Inscription, 1044)
  • Maraviyayatunggawarman (Leiden Inscription, 1044)
  • Cri Sanggaramawijayatunggawarman (Chola Inscription, 1044)

Kedukan Bukit Inscription is telling about Dapunta Hyangs holy journey to build Srivijaya Kingdom. ... Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...

References

Part of History of Thailand.

Prehistoric Thailand
Early history of Thailand
Initial states of Thailand (3 BCE-1238)
Sukhothai Kingdom (1238-1448 )
Ayutthaya Kingdom (1351-1767)
Thonburi Kingdom (1768-1782)
Rattanakosin Kingdom (1782-1932)
Kingdom of Thailand
  • 1932 - 1973
  • 1973 - present
Regional history
[edit this box]
  1. ^ a b c Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pages 171. ISBN 9814155675. 
  2. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 77. 
  3. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 122. 
  4. ^ Zain, Sabri. Sejarah Melayu, Buddhist Empires.
  5. ^ Peter Bellwood, James J. Fox, Darrell Tryon (1995). The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives.
  6. ^ a b c Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 117. 
  7. ^ a b Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp. 8-9. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 
  8. ^ Krom, N.J. (1938). "Het Hindoe-tijdperk", in F.W. Stapel: Geschiedenis van Nederlandsch Indië. Amsterdam: N.V. U.M. Joost van den Vondel, vol. I p. 149. 
  9. ^ a b c d Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 114. 
  10. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 102. 
  11. ^ Krom, N.J. (1943). Het oude Java en zijn kunst, 2nd ed., Haarlem: Erven F. Bohn N.V., p. 12. 
  12. ^ Taylor. Indonesia, p. 29. 
  13. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 113. 
  14. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 124. 
  15. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 125. 
  16. ^ a b Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 132. 
  17. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 130. 
  18. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 140. 
  19. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 143. 
  20. ^ Rasul, Jainal D. (2003). Agonies and Dreams: The Filipino Muslims and Other Minorities". Quezon City: CARE Minorities, pages 77. 
  21. ^ a b c Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 165. 
  22. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms, p. 167. 
  23. ^ Drs. R. Soekmono, (1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed.. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius, page 60. 

The previous theory often been proposed, the history of Thailand begins with the migration of the Thais from their ancestral home in southern China into mainland southeast asia around the 10th century AD. Prior to this Mon, Khmer and Malay kingdoms ruled the region. ... Map of Thailand highlighting the Bangkok province File links The following pages link to this file: Bangkok Categories: GFDL images ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 576 KB) Photographer: Paul Brockmeyer from Chicago, USA Title: Grand Palace Description: The square building in the middle is the Phra Mondop, the library in the Wat Phra Kaeo, the Thai buddhist temple attatched to the Grand Palace in Bangkok. ... Prehistoric Thailand may be traced back as far as 1,000,000 years ago from the fossils and stone tools found in northern and western Thailand, an archaeological site in Lampang, northern Thailand. ... The known early history of Thailand begins with the earliest major archaeological site at Ban Chiang; dating of artefacts from this site is controversial, but there is a consensus that at least by 3600 BC, the inhabitants had developed bronze tools and had begun to cultivate wet rice, providing the... Prior to the southwards migration of the Tai people from Yunnan in the 10th century, the Indochina peninsula had been a home to various indigenous animistic communities for as far back as 500,000 years ago. ... Suvarnabhumi is ancient name for lower Burma or the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. ... Funan (Old Khmer Bnam, Modern Khmer Phnom (i. ... The Dvaravati kingdom of the Mon people existed from the 6th to the 11th centuries, when it was conquered by the Khmer Empire. ... Location of Thailand Known as Lavo during most of its history, Lopburi province is one of the most important cities in Thai history. ... The ancient Lanna society of the northern Thailand is considered more progressive than societies in other regions of the same period in that the Lanna people recorded their history and social development. ... A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chi Tu. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... Location of Malayu peninsula Tambralinga is one part of Thai history. ... The Sukhothai kingdom was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city Sukhothai. ... The kingdom of Ayutthaya (Thai: ) was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. ... Thon Buri (Thai: ธนบุรี) was the capital of Thailand for a short time during the reign of King Taksin the Great, after the ruin of capital Ayutthaya by the Myanmar. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Kingdom of Thailand is a country in Southeast Asia, bordering Laos and Cambodia to the east, the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia to the south, and the Andaman Sea and Myanmar to the west. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The history of Thailand since 1973 has been marked by a struggle to define the political contours of the state. ... Hariphunchai (or Haribhunjaya) was a Mon kingdom in the north of present Thailand in the centuries before the Thais moved into the area. ... The history of Isan has been determined by its geography: situated between Cambodia, Laos and Thailand, it has been dominated by each in turn, although its relative infertility meant it was more often a battleground than a prize. ... Lanna (English One Million Thai Rice Fields, Thai: ) was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city of Chiang Mai. ... Nakhon Si Thammarat (Thai นครศรีธรรมราช) is a town in southern Thailand, capital of the Nakhon Si Thammarat province. ... The lands situated in the present-day Phitsanulok Province of Thailand were inhabited since the stone age, although the neolithic inhabitants of the region are not likely to have been the ancestors of the modern Thai people who reside there today. ...

Further references

  • D. G. E. Hall, A History of South-east Asia. London: Macmillan, 1955.
  • D. R. SarDesai. Southeast Asia: Past and Present. Boulder: Westview Press, 1997.
  • Lynda Norene Shaffer. Maritime Southeast Asia to 1500. London: ME Sharpe Armonk, 1996.
  • Stuart-Fox, Martin. A Short History of China and Southeast Asia: Tribute, Trade, and Influence. London: Allen and Unwin, 2003.
  • Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 9814155675. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sri Vijaya
  • Review of Srivijaya resources on the Internet - but many are dead links
  • Review of the origin of Melayu dialectics based on Srivijayan Inscriptions; site in Indonesian on Old Malay
  • Timeline of Indonesia from prehistory to present: click on the period for info
  • [1]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Srivijaya Summary (1664 words)
The maritime Buddhist empire of Srivijaya emerged in the seventh century CE as the first sea power to dominate the Strait of Malacca and the Sunda Strait, the key positions along the spice route connecting China, the Malay archipelago, India, and the West.
Srivijaya also maintained close relations with the Pala Empire in Bengal and an 860 inscription records that the maharaja of Srivijaya dedicated a monastery at the Nalanda university in Pala territory.
In 1365, Srivijaya was conquered by the Kingdom of Majapahit.
4. Southeast Asia, c. 900-1557. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History (961 words)
Srivijaya and other kingdoms of central Java as well as the kingdoms of the mainland relied on alliances, often via marriage, and on relationships that were mutually beneficial.
The prominence of the kingdom of Srivijaya, crucial to the development of Malay society and the founding of Malacca, continued during this period.
The Sailendra dynasty, rulers of Srivijaya, were ardent patrons of Buddhism, as is shown in the great Borobudur victory monument in central Java.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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