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Encyclopedia > Sri Lankan civil war
This article documents a current event.
Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.
Sri Lankan civil war

Sri Lankan Army Airborne Commandos
Date July 1983 – present
Location Sri Lanka
Result Ongoing
Casus
belli
Sharp disagreements between the majority Sinhalese and minority Tamil communities
Combatants
Military of Sri Lanka
Indian Peace Keeping Force
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Commanders
Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89)

Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93)
Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94)
Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005)
Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x667, 134 KB) Summary www. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... see Sri Lankan Tamils ... Image File history File links COA_of_Sri_Lanka. ... The Military of Sri Lanka consists of Three Branches which are the Army, Navy, Air Force. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military unit peforming a peacekeeping operation that was formed to oversee the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ... Junius Richard Jayewardene (September 17, 1906 November 1, 1996) was a Sri Lankan political figure. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (born 1922) was the governor of North Western province, Sri Lanka from 1988 to 1989, prime minister of Sri Lanka from 3 March 1989 to 7 May 1993 and President of Sri Lanka from 1 May 1993 to 12 November 1994. ... Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (born June 29, 1945) was the 5th President of Sri Lanka and 4th Executive President of Sri Lanka (November 12, 1994 - November 19, 2005). ... Percy Mahendra Mahinda Rajapaksa () (born November 18, 1945) is the President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, and a Sri Lankan politician. ...

Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present)
Strength
111,000[1] 11,000[1]
Sri Lankan Civil War
Periods:
FirstIPKF - Second - ThirdFourth

Battles & operations – Bombings and terrorist attacks – Massacres Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்; born November 26, 1954), sometimes referred to as V. Prabhakaran or Pirabaharan or as Thambi,[] was born in the northern coastal town of Velvettithurai, Sri Lanka to Thiruvenkadam Velupillai and Vallipuram Parvathy. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Velupillai Prabhakaran J.R. Jayawardene Eelam War I is the name given to the initial phase of the armed conflict between the government of Sri Lankan and the speratist LTTE rebel organization. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military unit peforming a peacekeeping operation that was formed to oversee the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987. ... Eelam War II is the name given to the second phase of armed conflict between Sri Lankan military and the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. ... Eelam War III is the name given to the third phase of armed conflict between Sri Lankan military and the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

The Sri Lankan Civil War is an ongoing conflict on the island-nation of Sri Lanka. Since the year 1983, there has been on-and-off civil war, predominantly between the government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers), a separatist militant organization who fight to create an independent state named Tamil Eelam in the North and East of the island. It is estimated that the war has claimed the lives of more than 68,000 people since 1983[2] and it has caused significant harm to the population and economy of the country, as well as leading to the ban of the LTTE as a terrorist organization across much of the developed world including in the United States, the European Union and Canada. Hopes of a lasting peace were raised when a cease-fire was declared in December 2001, and a ceasefire agreement was signed with international mediation in 2002.[3] However renewed hostilities broke out in late 2005 and have continued to escalate, resulting in the deaths of over 4,000 people since November 2005.[4] 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separatism is a term usually applied to describe the attitudes or motivations of those seeking independence or separation of their land or region from the country that governs them. ... Anthem: Political status      Unrecognized de facto quasi-independent state Languages      Tamil (de facto official) English Capital Trincomalee President Velupillai Prabhakaran[1] Independence (from Sri Lanka) No official declaration   Area           19,509 km² claimed[2] 6,600–9,750 km² administered (40–50% of claimed area) Population (of claimed area) 3... Northern Province is a province of Sri Lanka. ... Eastern Province is a province of Sri Lanka. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Officially, both sides continue to reaffirm their commitment to the ceasefire agreement, although the government has launched a number of military offensives in recent months and driven the LTTE out of virtually the entire Eastern province of the island,[5] and on the fifth anniversary of the signing of the agreement the LTTE declared they would "resume their freedom struggle to achieve statehood".[6]

Contents

Origins

Sri Lanka

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Sri Lanka
The origins of the Sri Lankan civil war lie in sharp disagreements over language, access to universities, and riots between Sri Lankas majority Sinhalese and minority Tamil community. ... Image File history File links COA_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Politics of Sri Lanka takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Sri Lanka is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...



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The President of Sri Lanka is the head of state and dominant political figure in Sri Lanka. ... Percy Mahendra Mahinda Rajapaksa () (born November 18, 1945) is the President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, and a Sri Lankan politician. ... The following is a list of Sri Lankan Prime Ministers: Don Stephen Senanayake (February 4, 1948 - March 26, 1952) Dudley Shelton Senanayake (March 26, 1952 - October 12, 1953) John Lionel Kotalawela (October 12, 1953 - April 12, 1956) Solomon Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (April 12, 1956 - September 26, 1959) Vijayananda Dahanayake (September... Ratnasiri Wickremanayake (born on May 5, 1933) is the 14th Prime Minister of Sri Lanka and a veteran politician. ... The Parliament of Sri Lanka is a Unicameral 225-member legislature elected by universal suffrage and proportional representation for a six-year term. ... Hon. ... The Leader of the Opposition in the Sri Lanka is the politician who leads main opposition. ... This article lists political parties in Sri Lanka. ... During the Donoughmore period of political experimentation (1931-48), several Sri Lanka leftist parties were formed. ... Politics of Sri Lanka Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Sri Lanka ... Sri Lanka is divided into eight provinces for the purposes of local governance. ... Below the provinces Sri Lanka is divided into 25 administrative districts. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... Sri Lanka traditionally follows a nonaligned foreign policy but has been seeking closer relations with the United States since December 1977. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ...

Outbreak of civil war

Main article: Eelam War I

Frustrated by the ongoing politics in Sri Lanka, Tamil youth started to form militant groups, some funded by bank robberies. The most prominent of these was the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam or the LTTE. The LTTE initially carried out a campaign of low intensity violence against the state, particularly targeting policemen. Their first major operation was the assassination of the mayor of Jaffna Alfred Duraiappah in 1975. Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Velupillai Prabhakaran J.R. Jayawardene Eelam War I is the name given to the initial phase of the armed conflict between the government of Sri Lankan and the speratist LTTE rebel organization. ... This is a list that documents the numerous groups of Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups that were formed to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


In July 1983, the LTTE launched a deadly attack on the military in the north of the country killing 13 soldiers[7] and sparking riots in Colombo, the capital, and elsewhere (see Black July). Between 400 and 3,000 Tamils were estimated to have been killed,[8] and many more fled Sinhalese-majority areas. This is usually considered the beginning of the civil war. 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ...


Apart from the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, there initially was a plethora of militant groups. The LTTE's position, adopted from that of the PLO, was that there should be only one. Initially the LTTE gained prominence due to devastating attacks such as the massacre of civilians at the Kent and Dollar Farms in 1984 and the Anuradhapura massacre of 146 civilians in 1985. Over time the LTTE merged with or largely exterminated almost all the other militant Tamil groups. As a result, many Tamil splinter groups ended up working with the Sri Lankan government as paramilitaries, and there remain legitimate Tamil-oriented political parties opposed to LTTE's vision of an independent state. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... Innocent Sinhalese children that barbarically killed by LTTE terrorists. ... The Anuradhapura massacre was carried out by the LTTE, an organization which has been banned in 29 countries including the US, Australia, EU, India and Canada due to its terrorist activities. ... A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ...


Peace talks between the LTTE and the government began in Thimphu in 1985, but they soon failed, and the war continued. In 1987, government troops pushed the LTTE fighters to the northern city of Jaffna. In April 1987, the conflict exploded with ferocity, as both the government forces and the LTTE fighters engaged each other in a series of bloody operations. Thimphu from Sangey Gang Thimphu (Tibetan script: ཐིམ་ཕུ་) is the capital of Bhutan, and also the name of the surrounding valley and dzongkhag, the Thimphu District. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jaffna District. ...


In July 1987, the LTTE carried out their first suicide attack: "Captain Miller" of the Black Tigers drove a small truck with explosives through the wall of a fortified Sri Lankan army camp, reportedly killing forty soldiers. Since then they have carried out over 170 suicide attacks, more than any other organization in the world, and the suicide attack has become a trademark of the LTTE, and a characteristic of the civil war.[9] Suicide (Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of intentionally taking ones own life. ... Captain Miller was the first of the Black Tigers of the LTTE . ... The Black Tigers are special operatives of the LTTE that commit suicide if needed to reach their objectives. ...


Indian involvement

The IPKF was forced to withdraw from Sri Lanka due to opposition from both sides of the conflict

Sri Lankan Conflict Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (876x399, 87 KB) Army, Sri Lanka. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (876x399, 87 KB) Army, Sri Lanka. ...

Background
Sri Lanka • History of Sri Lanka
Origins of the Civil War
Origins of the Civil War
Black JulyRiots and pogroms
Human rightsState terrorism
Tamil militant groups
LTTE
LTTENotable attacks Terrorist attacksAttributed assassinationsChild soldiers
Expulsion of Muslims from Jaffna
Major figures
Mahinda Rajapakse
Velupillai Prabhakaran
Karuna Amman
Sarath Fonseka
Indian Involvement
Operation Poomalai
Indo-Sri Lanka Accord
Indian Peace Keeping Force
Rajiv GandhiRAW
See also
Military of Sri Lanka
TMVPEPDP
Notable assassinations
This box: view  talk  edit
See also: IPKF and Research and Analysis Wing

India became involved in the conflict in the 1980s for a number of reasons including its leaders' desire to project India as the regional power in the area and worries about India's own Tamils seeking independence. The latter was particularly strong in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, where ethnic kinship led to strong support toward the calls for independence by Sri Lankan Tamils. Throughout the conflict, the Indian central and state governments have supported both sides in different ways. Beginning in the 1980s, India, through its intelligence agency RAW, provided arms, training and monetary support to a number of Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups, including the LTTE and its rival Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO).[10] The LTTE's rise is widely attributed to the initial backing it received from RAW. It is believed that by supporting different militant groups, the Indian government hoped to keep the Tamil independence movement divided and be able to exert overt control over it. Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... The recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries. ... The origins of the Sri Lankan civil war lie in sharp disagreements over language, access to universities, and riots between Sri Lankas majority Sinhalese and minority Tamil community. ... Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... Following is a List of riots and pogroms in Sri Lanka. ... The situation of human rights in Sri Lanka is generally considered to be very poor[1]. Major human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have repeatedly expressed concern about the states of human rights in Sri Lanka. ... This article is being considered for deletion for the third time in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ... LTTE is a rebel group active in Sri Lanka that is banned as a terrorist group by 29 countries. ... The following is a list of terrorist attacks attributed to the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (commonly known as the Tamil Tigers or simply the LTTE). ... Assassinations, murders and wholesale massacres of civilians in Sri Lanka have become an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war since 1983. ... Military use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mahinda Rajapaksa Mahinda Rajapaksa (born November 18, 1945), Sri Lankan politician, became Prime Minister of Sri Lanka on April 6, 2004, following the victory of the United Peoples Freedom Alliance in the April 2, 2004 Sri Lankan legislative elections. ... Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்; born November 26, 1954), sometimes referred to as V. Prabhakaran or Pirabaharan or as Thambi,[] was born in the northern coastal town of Velvettithurai, Sri Lanka to Thiruvenkadam Velupillai and Vallipuram Parvathy. ... Karuna Amman was the second highest commanding officer of the LTTE who broke away due to Tigers attacks on civilians in Batticaloa, corruption within LTTE and the recruitment of child soldiers. ... Category: ... Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mercy mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop humanitarian relief supplies over the town of Jaffna and Jaffna Peninsula on 4 June 1987. ... Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J.R. Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. ... Rājiv Ratna GāndhÄ« (DevanāgarÄ«: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW)[1] is Indias external intelligence agency. ... The Military of Sri Lanka consists of Three Branches which are the Army, Navy, Air Force. ... Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (Tamil: தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், English: Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers) is a political party and paramilitary group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Assassinations, murders and massacres of civilians in Sri Lanka have become an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war since 1983. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military unit peforming a peacekeeping operation that was formed to oversee the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987. ... Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW)[1] is Indias external intelligence agency. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW)[1] is Indias external intelligence agency. ... The Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization is a political party in Sri Lanka. ...


India became more actively involved in the late 1980s, and on June 5, 1987 the Indian Air Force airdropped food parcels to Jaffna while it was under siege by Sri Lankan forces. At a time when the Sri Lankan government stated they were close to defeating the LTTE, India dropped 25 tons of food and medicine by parachute into areas held by the LTTE in a direct move of support toward the rebels.[11] Negotiations were held, and the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Sri Lankan President Jayewardene. Under this accord, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, a merger — subject to later referendum — of the northern and eastern provinces into a single province, and official status for the Tamil language (this was eventually enacted as the 13th Amendment). India agreed to establish order in the north and east through a peacekeeping force, and to cease assisting Tamil insurgents. Militant groups including the LTTE, although initially reluctant, agreed to surrender their arms to the IPKF. 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mercy mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop humanitarian relief supplies over the town of Jaffna and Jaffna Peninsula on 4 June 1987. ... Jaffna District. ... Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of the northern... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rājiv Ratna GāndhÄ« (DevanāgarÄ«: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Junius Richard Jayewardene (September 17, 1906 November 1, 1996) was a Sri Lankan politician. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sri Lanka is divided into eight provinces for the purposes of local governance. ... Image:North province Tamil Eelam. ...


At the time the Sri Lankan government, which was facing an unrelated uprising by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna in the south, called in the Indian military immediately after the agreement was signed. A force dubbed the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was formed, and it initially oversaw a cease-fire and a modest disarmament of the militant groups. The Sri Lankan government pulled its troops south and put down the JVP rebellion as the IPKF took over control of most areas in the north of the country. The Peoples Liberation Front (Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna) is a marxist Sinhalese political party in Sri Lanka was involved in 1987-89 insurrection in Sri Lanka which were lost around 50,000 lives. ... The Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (Sinhala janatā vimukti peramuṇa, Peoples Liberation Front) is a nationalist Marxist political party in Sri Lanka. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. ... Disarmament means the act of reducing or depriving arms i. ...


While most Tamil militant groups laid down their weapons and agreed to seek a peaceful solution to the conflict, the LTTE refused to disarm its fighters.[12] Keen to ensure the success of the accord, the IPKF then tried to demobilize the LTTE by force and ended up in full-scale conflict with the them. In the process Indian troops committed major human rights abuses in the north and were accused by many human rights groups of committing various atrocities. It soon met stiff opposition from the Tamils.[13][14][15][16] Simultaneously, nationalist sentiment led many Sinhalese to oppose the continued Indian presence in Sri Lanka. These led to the Sri Lankan government's call for India to quit the island, and they allegedly entered into a secret deal with the LTTE that culminated in a ceasefire. However, the LTTE and IPKF continued to have frequent hostilities, and according to some reports, the Sri Lankan government even armed the rebels in order to see the back of the Indian forces.[17] Although casualties among the IPKF mounted, and calls for the withdrawal of the IPFK from both sides of the Sri Lankan conflict grew, Gandhi refused to remove the IPKF from Sri Lanka. However, following his defeat in India parliamentary elections in December 1989, the new prime Minister V. P. Singh ordered the withdrawal of the IPKF, and their last ship left Sri Lanka on 24 March 1990. The 32 month presence of the IPKF in Sri Lanka resulted in the death of 1100 Indian soldiers and over 5000 Sri Lankans and cost over 20 billion rupees for the Indian government. Vishwanath Pratap Singh (विश्वनाथ प्रताप सिंघ, born 25 June 1931) was the tenth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ...

  • "India deliberately aggravated Sri Lanka's ethnic crisis", Velupillai Prabakaran[18]

Rajiv Gandhi Assassination

Support for the LTTE in India dropped considerably in 1991, after the assassination of an ex-Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, by an LTTE woman suicide bomber, Thenmuli Rajaratnam. The Indian press has subsequently reported that Prabhakaran decided to eliminate Gandhi as he considered him to be against the Tamil liberation struggle and feared that Gandhi might re-induct the IPKF, which Prabakaran termed the "satanic force", if he won the 1991 Indian elections.[19] In 1998 a court in India presided over by Special Judge V Navaneetham found the LTTE and its leader Velupillai Prabhakaran responsible for the assassination.[20] and in a 2006 interview, LTTE ideologue Anton Balasingham stated regret over the assassination, although he stopped short of outright acceptance of responsibility for it.[21][22] Rājiv Ratna GāndhÄ« (DevanāgarÄ«: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Thenmuli Rajaratnam (1974 ?? -1991) was the assassin who killed Rajiv Gandhi, herself, and 16 others in a suicide bombing on May 21, 1991, in the Indian town of Sriperumbudur, near Madras. ...


India remains an outside observer to the ongoing peace process, with frequent demands to press for an extradition of Velupillai Prabhakaran, even if a peace deal is struck between the parties in the future. India's central government has been firmly against the LTTE, although it does still speak up for Tamils' rights. However, regional Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu have often discreetly spoken in favour of the LTTE. Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்; born November 26, 1954), sometimes referred to as V. Prabhakaran or Pirabaharan or as Thambi,[] was born in the northern coastal town of Velvettithurai, Sri Lanka to Thiruvenkadam Velupillai and Vallipuram Parvathy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Eelam War II

Main article: Eelam War II
See also: Terrorist attacks attributed to the LTTE
Bodies of young Buddhist monks who were massacred by the LTTE in Aranthalawa, Sri Lanka

In the 1980s and 1990s, successive governments enacted a number of official acts to appease the Tamil community, including recognizing Tamil as an official language and merging the Northern and Eastern Provinces of the country. Eelam War II is the name given to the second phase of armed conflict between Sri Lankan military and the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Image File history File links Aranthalawa_Massacare_1. ... Image File history File links Aranthalawa_Massacare_1. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


Yet the violence continued, as the LTTE took control of significant parts of the north when the IPKF withdrew, and established many government-like functions in the areas under its control. A tentative ceasefire held in 1990 as the LTTE occupied itself with destroying rival Tamil groups while the government cracked down on the JVP uprising. When both major combatants had established their power bases, they turned on each other and the ceasefire broke down. The government launched an offensive to try to retake Jaffna. Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military unit peforming a peacekeeping operation that was formed to oversee the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...


This phase of the war soon acquired the name Eelam War II. It was marked by unprecedented brutality. The LTTE massacred 113 Sinhalese and Muslim policemen after they had surrendered on promises of safe conduct. The government placed an embargo on food and medicine entering the Jaffna peninsula and the air force relentlessly bombed LTTE targets in the area. The LTTE responded by attacking Sinhalese and Muslim villages and massacring civilians. One of the largest civilian massacres of the war occurred when the LTTE massacred 166 Muslim civilians at Palliyagodella. The government trained and armed Home Guard Muslim units then took revenge on Tamil villages. The sight of burning bodies became a common sight along roadsides in the north and east. Throughout the country, government death squads hunted down, kidnapped, or killed Sinhalese or Tamil youth suspected of being JVP or LTTE sympathizers, respectively.[23] In October 1990, the LTTE expelled all the Muslims residing in Jaffna. A total of 28,000 Muslims were forced to leave their homes taking nothing but the clothes on their backs.[24] The massacre of police officers was one of the largest massacres of Prisoners of War carried out by the LTTE. This massacre took place in June 1990 and resulted in the deaths of most of the 400 to 600 police officers captured after they had surrendered to the LTTE[1... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Palliyagodella massacre was carried out by the LTTE, an organization which has been banned in 29 countries including the US, Australia, EU, India and Canada due to its terrorist activities. ... Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The largest battle of the war was in July 1991, when the army's Elephant Pass base, which controlled access to the Jaffna peninsula, was surrounded by 5,000 LTTE troops. More than 2,000 died on both sides in the month-long siege, before 10,000 government troops arrived to relieve the base.[25] Elephant Pass, Northern Province, Sri Lanka is a importnat military base and a salt field located in the gateway of Jaffna Peninsula. ...


In February 1992, another series of government offensives failed to capture Jaffna. The LTTE, for its part, scored a major victory when one of their suicide bombers killed Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa in May 1993. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


The Kumaratunga era

Main article: Eelam War III

In the 1994 parliamentary elections, the UNP was defeated and, amidst great hope, the People's Alliance, headed by Chandrika Kumaratunga, came to power on a peace platform. Chandrika Kumaratunga won the presidential elections as well after the LTTE assassinated the opposition leader Gamini Dissanayake. A ceasefire was agreed in January 1995, but the ensuing negotiations proved fruitless. The LTTE broke the ceasefire on April 19 and thus began the next phase of the war, dubbed Eelam War III.[26] Eelam War III is the name given to the third phase of armed conflict between Sri Lankan military and the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... The Peoples Alliance (PA) is a front of political parties in Sri Lanka, formed in 1994. ... Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (born June 29, 1945) was the 5th President of Sri Lanka and 4th Executive President of Sri Lanka (November 12, 1994 - November 19, 2005). ... Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (born June 29, 1945) was the 5th President of Sri Lanka and 4th Executive President of Sri Lanka (November 12, 1994 - November 19, 2005). ... Lionel Gamini Dissanayake (March 20, 1942 - October 24, 1994) was a prominent Sri Lankan politician and a former Presidential candidate. ...


The new government then pursued a policy of "war for peace". Determined to retake the key rebel stronghold of Jaffna, which was occupied by 2,000 rebels,[27] it poured troops into the peninsula. In one particular incident in August 1995, Air Force jets bombed Navali's St. Peter's church, killing at least 65 refugees and wounding 150 others.[28] Government troops initially cut off the peninsula from the rest of the island,[27] and then after 7 weeks of heavy fighting succeeded in bringing Jaffna under government control for the first time in nearly a decade. In a high profile ceremony, Sri Lankan Defense Minister Anurudda Ratwatte raised the national flag inside the Jaffna fort on December 5, 1995. The government estimated that approximately 2500 soldiers and rebels were killed in the offensive, and an estimated 7,000 wounded.[29] The LTTE and more than 350,000 civilians, compelled by LTTE pressure to leave Jaffna,[30] fled to the Vanni region in the interior. Most of the refugees returned later the next year. Navaly Church massacre or Navaly Church bombing was the result of bombing of The Church of St. ... Vavuniya is town in the the northern part of Sri lanka. ...

Aftermath of the LTTE suicide bombing of the Sacred Buddhist Shrine Sri Dalada Maligawa which killed 7 civilians and resulted in the proscription of the LTTE as a terrorist organization in Sri Lanka

The government launched another offensive in August 1996. Another 200,000 civilians fled the violence.[30] The town of Kilinochchi was taken on September 29. On May 13, 1997, 20,000 government troops tried to open a supply line through the LTTE-controlled Vanni, but failed. Civilians were regularly killed and wounded by both sides Image File history File links Maligawa_Aftermath. ... Image File history File links Maligawa_Aftermath. ... Outside view of the Temple The Sri Dalada Maligawa or The Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a temple in the city of Kandy in Sri Lanka. ... Kilinochchi District. ...


As violence continued in the North, LTTE suicide and time bombs were exploded numerous times in populated city areas and public transport in the South of the country, killing hundreds of civilians. In January 1996, the LTTE carried out one of their deadliest suicide bomb attacks at the Central bank in Colombo, killing 90 and injuring 1,400. In October 1997 they bombed the Sri Lankan World Trade Center and, in January 1998, detonated a truck bomb in Kandy, damaging the Temple of the Tooth, one of the holiest Buddhist shrines in the world. In response to this bombing, the Sri Lankan government outlawed the LTTE and with some success pressed other governments around the world to do the same, significantly interfering with their fund-raising activities. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean by UNESCO. [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... The Temple of the Tooth Relic in Kandy Kandy (මහනුවර/ සෙංකඩගල in Sinhala, கண்டி in Tamil) is the name used by British invaders for the city of Senkadagala (Mahanuwara) in the centre of Sri Lanka. ... The Sri Dalada Maligawa or The Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a temple in the city of Kandy in Sri Lanka. ...


In March 1999, in Operation Rana Gosa, the government tried invading the Vanni from the south. The army made some gains, taking control of Oddusuddan and Madhu, but could not dislodge the LTTE from the region. In September 1999 the LTTE massacred 50 Sinhalese civilians at Gonagala. The Gongala Massacre was a massacre that occurred on September 18, 1999, in the small village of Gonagala, located in the Ampara District of Sri Lanka. ...


The LTTE returned to the offensive with "Operation Unceasing Waves" on November 2, 1999. Nearly all the Vanni rapidly fell back into LTTE hands. The LTTE launched 17 successful attacks in the region which culminated in the overrunning of the Paranthan Chemicals Factory base and the Kurrakkan Kaddukulam base. Thousands were killed in the fighting. The rebels also advanced north towards Elephant Pass and Jaffna. The LTTE was successful in cutting all land and sea supply lines of the Sri Lankan armed forces in the town of Kilinochchi and surrounding areas. In December 1999 the LTTE attempted to assassinate President Chandrika Kumaratunga in a suicide attack at a pre-election rally. She lost one eye, among other injuries, but was able to defeat opposition leader Ranil Wickremesinghe in the Presidential election and was reelected for her second term in office.[31] Kilinochchi District. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Ranil Wickremesinghe was Prime Minister of Sri Lanka during 1993-1994, and 2001-2004 Ranil Shriyan Wickremasinghe (born March 24, 1949) is a popular Sri Lankan politician. ...


Early peace efforts

Exhaustion with the war was building. By mid-2000, human rights groups estimated that more than one million people in Sri Lanka were internally displaced persons, living in camps, homeless and struggling for survival. As a result, a significant peace movement developed in the late 1990s, with many organisations holding peace camps, conferences, trainings and peace meditations, and many other efforts to bridge the two sides at all levels. As early as February 2000, Norway was asked to mediate by both sides, and initial international diplomatic moves began to find a negotiated settlement to the conflict.[32] Tailor in Labuje IDP camp in Uganda An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution or war, but has not crossed an international border. ... A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Hopes for peaced gained ground as the LTTE declared a unilateral ceasefire in December 2000, but they canceled it on April 24, 2001 and launched another offensive against the government. After securing a vast area controlled by the military, the LTTE further advanced northwards. This advancement of the LTTE was posing a serious threat to the Elephant Pass military complex that housed 17,000 troops of the Sri Lankan forces.[33]


On April 22, 2000 the Elephant Pass military complex, which had separated the Jaffna peninsula from the Vanni mainland for 17 years, completely fell to the hands of the LTTE.[34][35] The army then launched Operation Agni Khiela to take back the southern Jaffna Peninsula, but sustained losses. The LTTE continued to press towards Jaffna, and many feared it would fall to the LTTE, but the military repulsed LTTE offensives and was able to maintain control of the city. April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In July 2001 the LTTE carried out a devastating suicide attack on Bandaranaike International Airport in July 2001, destroying eight of the air force's planes (2 IAI Kfirs, 1 Mil-17, 1 Mil-24, 3 K-7 trainers, 1 MiG-27) and four Sri Lankan Airlines planes (2 Airbus A330s, 1 A340 and 1 A320), dampening the economy and causing tourism, a vital foreign exchange earner for the government, to plummet. The Bandaranaike Airport attack was an assault by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) on Bandaranaike International Airport, on July 24, 2001. ... The Israel Aircraft Industries Kfir (Hebrew: כפיר, Lion Cub) is an Israeli-built all-weather, multi-role combat aircraft based on a modified Dassault Mirage 5 airframe, with Israeli avionics and an Israeli-made version of the General Electric J79 turbojet engine. ... Mil Mi-17 The Mil Mi-17 (Also known as the Mi-8MT, NATO reporting name Hip-H) is a Russian helicopter currently in production at two factories in Kazan and Ulan-Ude. ... The Mil Mi-24 is a large combat helicopter gunship and low-capacity troop transport operated from 1976 by the Soviet Air Force, its successors, and over thirty other nations. ... The Hongdu JL-8 (or Nanchang JL-8) is a two-seat trainer aircraft built by joint-cooperation between Pakistan and the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Mikoyan MiG-27 (Russian: ) (NATO reporting name Flogger D) is a ground attack aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan design bureau in the Soviet Union and later licence-produced in India by Hindustan Aeronautics as the Bahadur (Valiant). It is based on the MiG-23 fighter aircraft, but optimized... Categories: Airline stubs | Airlines of Asia ... Air Canada Airbus A330 The Airbus A330 is a large_capacity medium_to_long_range commercial passenger airplane manufactured by Airbus. ... Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340. ... The Airbus A320 is a short to medium range commercial passenger aircraft manufactured by Airbus. ...


2002 Peace Process

Approximate extent of area under the LTTE control, as of December 2001. Red areas are under full control, orange indicates partial control, yellow regions are claimed but not controlled.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (601x960, 243 KB) Summary This map approximately shows the areas of Sri Lanka controlled by the LTTE and the Government, as of December 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (601x960, 243 KB) Summary This map approximately shows the areas of Sri Lanka controlled by the LTTE and the Government, as of December 2005. ...

Beginning of the ceasefire

Towards the end of 2001, however, following the attacks of 9/11, the LTTE began to declare their willingness to explore measures for a peaceful settlement to the conflict. The LTTE are believed to have taken this action after fear of international pressure and even direct US support of the Sri Lankan Government as part of the War on Terror.[36] In the south, the government was facing increasing criticism over its "war for peace" strategy, with peace nowhere in sight, and the economy in tatters. After losing a no-confidence motion, President Kumaratunga was forced to dissolve parliament and call for fresh elections. The elections, held on December 5, 2001 saw a sweeping victory for the United National Front, led by Ranil Wickremasinghe, who campaigned on a pro-peace platform and pledged to find a negotiated settlement to the conflict. The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... Parliamentary elections were held in Sri Lanka on December 6, 2001, just a little over a year after the last elections in October 2000. ... The United National Front is a alliance in Sri Lanka, formed by the United National Party and the Ceylon Workers Congress. ... Hon. ...


On December 19, amidst efforts by Norway to bring the government and the Tamil Tigers to the negotiating table, the LTTE announced a 30 day ceasefire with the Sri Lankan government and pledged to halt all attacks against government forces.[37] The new government welcomed the move, and reciprocated it 2 days later, announcing a month long ceasefire and agreeing to lift a long standing economic embargo on rebel-held territory.[38] December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ...


Signing of MoU

LTTE Sea Tiger boat patroling during the peace.

The two sides formalized a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on February 22, 2002 and signed a permanent ceasefire agreement (CFA). Norway was named mediator, and it was decided that they, together with the other Nordic countries, monitor the ceasefire through a committee of experts named the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission.[39] In August, the government agreed to lift the ban on the LTTE and paved the way for the resumption of direct negotiations with the LTTE.[40] Download high resolution version (1280x608, 168 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1280x608, 168 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Mediation, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), aims to assist two (or more) disputants in reaching an agreement. ... The Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission - SLMM, was established on February 22, 2002 by the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ...


Following the signing of the ceasefire agreement, commercial air flights to Jaffna began and the LTTE opened the key A9 highway, which linked government controlled area in the south with Jaffna and ran through LTTE territory, allowing civilian traffic through the Vanni region for the first time in many years. Many foreign countries also offered substantial financial support if peace was achieved and optimism grew that an end to the decades long conflict was in sight.


The much anticipated peace talks began in Phuket, Thailand on the September 16 and 5 further rounds followed in Phuket, Norway and Berlin, Germany.[41] During the talks, both sides agreed to the principle of a federal solution and the Tigers drooped their long standing demand for separate state. This was a key compromise from the LTTE, which had always insisted on an independent Tamil state and it also represented a compromise from the government, which had seldom agreed to more than minimal devolution. Both sides also exchanged prisoners of war for first time.[36] Phuket (Thai ภูเก็ต) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ...


Political changes in the South

Following the elections of 2001, for the first time in Sri Lanka's history, the President and Prime Minister were of two different parties. This co-habitation was extremely uneasy, especially since Prime Minister Wickremasinghe and the UNP favoured a federal solution to the conflict, while hard-line elements within President Kumaratunga's party and other Sinhala Nationalist groups allied to her opposed one as they did not trust the LTTE, which continued to levy taxes, strengthen themselves militarily by smuggling in arms and ammunition, recruit child soldiers, and engage in killings of members of rival Tamil groups and government intelligence agents. The United National Party, often referred to as the UNP Sinhalese: එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය (pronounced Eksath Jathika Pakshaya), Tamil: ஐக்கிய தேசியக் கட்சி), is a leading political party in Sri Lanka. ...

Government inaction in the face of continuing arms smuggling by the LTTE in vessels such as this led to growing opposition in the south to Wickramasinghe's policies

The talks broke down on April 21, 2003 when the Tamil Tigers announced they were suspending them due to their "displeasure" at the handling of some "critical issues". Among the reasons the Tigers gave for this were their exclusion from reconstruction talks in Washington DC on 14 April and a more general perception that they were not receiving the full economic rewards of peace, the failure, as they saw it, of dividends in peace talks to transfer to security withdrawals on the ground and the disparity, as they saw it, between the relative calm of the government-held north-east and continuing violence in Tiger-held areas. However the LTTE maintained it was committed to a settlement to the two-decade conflict, but stated that progress had to be made on the ground before the settlement proceeded.[42] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


On October 31, the LTTE issued its own peace proposal, calling for an Interim Self-Governing Authority (ISGA). The ISGA would be controlled by the LTTE and would have broad powers in the north and east. (see the Full text of the proposals) This provoked a strong backlash among the hardline elements in the South, who accused Premier Wickremasinghe of handing the North and East to the LTTE. Under pressure from within her own party to take action, Kumaratunga declared a state of emergency and took three key government ministries, the Ministry of Mass Media, the Interior Ministry and the crucial Defense Ministry.[43] She then formed an alliance with the JVP, called the United People's Freedom Alliance, opposed to the ISGA and advocating a harder line on the LTTE and called for fresh elections. The elections, held on April 8, 2004, resulted in victory for UPFA with Mahinda Rajapakse appointed as Prime Minister. Initial fears of a resumption of the conflict were proved unfounded when the new government expressed its desire to continue the peace process and find a negotiated settlement to the conflict. UPFA election symbol The United Peoples Freedom Alliance is a political alliance in Sri Lanka. ... Legislative elections were held in Sri Lanka on 2 April 2004. ... Mahinda Rajapaksa Mahinda Rajapaksa (born November 18, 1945), Sri Lankan politician, became Prime Minister of Sri Lanka on April 6, 2004, following the victory of the United Peoples Freedom Alliance in the April 2, 2004 Sri Lankan legislative elections. ...


Split of the LTTE

The breakaway of Karuna from the LTTE significantly weakened it in the east

Meanwhile, there was a major fracturing between the northern and eastern wings of the LTTE. Colonel Karuna, the Eastern commander of the LTTE and one of Prabakaran's trusted lieutenants pulled 5,000 eastern troops out of the LTTE, claiming insufficient resources and power were being given to Tamils of the eastern part of the island. It was the biggest expression of dissension in the history of the LTTE and a civil war within the LTTE seemed imminent. After the parliamentary elections, brief fighting south of Trincomalee led to a rapid retreat and capitulation of Karuna's group, their leaders eventually going into hiding including Karuna himself, who was helped by a Muslim politician from the ruling party to escape. However the "Karuna faction" maintains a significant presence in the East and continues to launch attacks against the LTTE.[44] The LTTE accuses the army of covertly backing the breakaway group, which subsequently formed a political party named the TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP) and hopes to contest in future elections. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Vinayagamoorthi Muralitharan Colonel Karuna Amman is the nom de guerre of Vinayagamoorthi Muralitharan (born 1966), the President of the TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal, a breakaway faction of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ... Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (Tamil: தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், English: Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers) is a political party and paramilitary group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ...


The ceasefire largely held through all this turmoil, although the situation was complicated by allegations that both sides were carrying out covert operations against each other. The government claimed that the LTTE was killing political opponents and government intelligence officers, while the rebels accused the government of supporting paramilitary groups against them, especially the Karuna group.


Tsunami and aftermath

On December 26, 2004, the Indian Ocean tsunami hit Sri Lanka, killing more than 30,000 people, and leaving many more homeless. Aid poured in from donor countries, but disagreements arose instantly over how it should be distributed to the Tamil regions under LTTE control. By June 24, the government and LTTE agreed on the Post-Tsunami Operational Management Structure (P-TOMS), but it received sharp criticism from Muslims and from the JVP, who left the government in protest. President Kumaratunga eventually scrapped P-TOMS, which led to widespread criticism that sufficient aid was not reaching the North and East of the country. However, immediately following the tsunami there was a marked decrease in violence in the North. Animation of the tsunami caused by the earthquake (see also the full-length version) From NOAA/PMEL. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) on December...

United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signing the Condolence Book for Lakshman Kadirgamar

Then Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar, a Tamil who was highly respected by foreign diplomats and who had been sharply critical of the LTTE, was assassinated at his home on August 12, 2005, allegedly by an LTTE sniper.[45] His assassination led to the marginalization of the LTTE from the international community, and is thought to be the instance when the LTTE lost all sympathy it enjoyed in the eyes of foreign nations. When the Sri Lankan government later took military action against the LTTE in 2006 violating the ceasefire agreement, one of the reasons cited towards the silence of the international community was LTTE's assassination of Kadiragama. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Kadirgamar on a diplomatic visit to France, January 1996. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Further political change occurred when the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka declared President Kumaratunga's second and final term over and ordered her to hold fresh Presidential elections. The main candidates for the election, which was held in November, were former Prime Minister Wickremasinghe, the UNF candidate and who advocated the reopening of talks with the LTTE and the UPFA candidate, Prime Minister Rajapaksa who called for a tougher line against the LTTE and a renegotiation of the ceasefire. The LTTE openly called for a boycott of the election by the Tamils, but, believing the Tamils were getting ready to vote in large numbers, the LTTE used violence and intimidation to prevent a vast number of Tamils from voting. Many of them were expected to vote for Wickremasinghe, and the loss of their votes proved fatal to his chances as Rajapakse achieved a narrow win. Despite being seen as a hardliner, Rajapaksa promised to pursue peace and restart talks with the rebels. The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka is the highest court of the land. ... Presidential elections in Sri Lanka were held on 17 November 2005. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Following the election, the LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran stated in his annual address that the Tigers would "renew their struggle" in 2006 if the government did not take serious moves toward peace. Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்; born November 26, 1954), sometimes referred to as V. Prabhakaran or Pirabaharan or as Thambi,[] was born in the northern coastal town of Velvettithurai, Sri Lanka to Thiruvenkadam Velupillai and Vallipuram Parvathy. ...


Resumption of hostilities

Main article: Eelam War IV

Just days after Prabhakaran's speech, a new round of violence erupted. Beginning in December 2005, there was increased guerrilla activity to the northeast, including Claymore mine attacks which killed 150 government troops,[46] clashes between the Sea Tigers and the Sri Lanka navy, and the killings of sympathizers on both sides including Taraki Sivaram, a journalist, and Joseph Pararajasingham, a pro-LTTE MP. This violence left around 200 people dead.[47] The LTTE denied responsibility for the attacks, blaming "armed civilian groups" for them, although the government held them directly responsible.[48] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... now. ... LTTE Sea Tiger head, Colonel Soosai on a Sea Tiger vessel off Mullaitivu Sea Tigers is the naval part of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, founded in 1984. ... Dharmeratnam Sivaram Taraki Sivaram or Dharmeratnam Sivaram (11 August 1959 – 28 April 2005) was a popular minority Tamil journalist of Sri Lanka. ... Joseph Pararajasingham was a Sri Lankan politician known for his pro-Tamil Tiger views who represented the Tamil National Alliance party in the Sri Lankan Parliament. ...


Talks and further violence

In light of this violence, the co-chairs of the Tokyo Donor conference called on both parties to return to the negotiating table. The co-chairs — the United States in particular — were heavily critical of the violence perpetrated by the LTTE. US State Department officials, as well as the US ambassador to Sri Lanka, gave warnings to the Tigers claiming a return to hostilities would mean that the Tigers would face a "more capable and more determined" Sri Lankan military.[49] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...

Norwegian special envoy Erik Solheim addresses peace talks between the Sri Lankan Government and the LTTE at Chatueau de Bossey in Switzerland

In a last-minute effort to salvage an agreement between the parties, the Norwegian special envoy Erik Solheim and the LTTE theoretician Anton Balasingham arrived in the island. The parties severely disagreed on the location of the talks; however, continued efforts produced a breakthrough when both parties agreed on February 7, 2006, that new talks could be held in Geneva, Switzerland on February 22 and February 23. These talks were reported to have gone "above expectations", with both the government and the LTTE agreeing to curb the violence and to hold further talks on April 19-21.[50] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Erik Solheim (born January 18, 1955 in Oslo) is a Norwegian politician and the leader of the Socialist Left Party from 1987 to 1997. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the weeks after the talks, there was a significant decrease in violence. However the LTTE resumed attacks against the military in April beginning with a Claymore anti-personnel mine attack on military vehicles which killed 10 navy sailors on April 11th. The following day, coordinated bombings by rebels and rioting in the north-eastern part of the country left 16 dead. First, a Claymore anti-personnel mine exploded in Trincomalee, killing two policemen in their vehicle. Another blast, set off in a crowded vegetable market, killed one soldier and some civilians. Ensuing rioting by civilians left more than a dozen dead.[51] Responsibility for these attacks was claimed by an organisation called the Upsurging People's Force, which the military accused of being a front for the LTTE. The Chieftain by Albion Swords, a reproduction of a two-handed claymore (Oakeshott XIIIa, ca. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ... The Upsurging Peoples Force (Tamil பொங்கி எழும் மக்கள் படை) is a Tamil militant group in Sri Lanka. ...


In light of this violence, the LTTE called for a postponement of the Geneva talks until April 24-25, and the government initially agreed to this. Following negotiations, both the government and the rebels agreed to have a civilian vessel transport the regional LTTE leaders with international truce monitors on April 16, which involved crossing government-controlled territory. However, the climate shifted drastically when the Tamil Tigers canceled the meeting, claiming not to have agreed to a naval escort. According to the SLMM, the Tamil rebels had previously agreed to the escort. This led to Helen Olafsdottir, spokesperson for the SLMM saying "It was part of the agreement. The rebels should have read the clauses carefully. We are frustrated."[52]


On April 20, 2006, the LTTE officially pulled out of peace talks indefinitely. While they stated that transportation issues had prevented them from meeting their regional leaders, some analysts and the international community held a deep skepticism, seeing the transportation issue as a delaying tactic by the LTTE in order to avoid attending peace talks in Geneva.[53]


Violence continued to spiral and on April 23, 2006, six Sinhalese rice farmers were massacred in their paddy fields by suspected LTTE cadres in the Trincomalee district.[54] The following day, two suspected Tamil Tiger rebels were shot dead in Batticaloa when caught planting mines after rebels reportedly hacked a young mother to death and kidnapped her infant.[55] Victims of the massacre Gomarankadawala is a tiny village in the Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka, where 6 Sinhalese civilians were gunned down by suspected LTTE cadres in an incident known as the Gomarankadawala massacre. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ... Batticaloa District. ...


International condemnation against the LTTE skyrocketed following the attempted assassination of the commander of the Sri Lanka Army, Lieutenant General Sarath Fonseka by a pregnant LTTE Black Tiger suicide bomber Anoja Kugenthirasah, who blew herself up at the Sri Lankan Army headquarters in the capital, Colombo. Lt. Gen. Fonseka and twenty-seven others were injured, while ten people were killed in the attack. For the first time since the 2001 ceasefire, the Sri Lanka Air Force carried out aerial assaults on rebel positions in the north-eastern part of the island nation in retaliation for the attack.[56] Category: ... The Black Tigers are special operatives of the LTTE that commit suicide if needed to reach their objectives. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death in addition to the attacks primary purpose (see suicide, suicide weapons). ... Sri Lankan Army Flag The Sri Lankan Army is a branch of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces with the responsbility of overseeing land-based operations. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ...


This attack, along with the assassination of Lakshman Kadiragama a year earlier and an unsuccessful attack against a naval vessel carrying 710 unarmed security force personnel on holiday, proved the catalysts as the European Union decided to proscribe the LTTE as a terrorist organisation on May 19, 2006. It resulted in the freezing of LTTE assets in the member nations of the EU, and put an end to its efforts to raise funds its terror campaign in Sri Lanka. In a statement, the European Parliament said that the LTTE did not represent all the Tamils and called on it to "allow for political pluralism and alternate democratic voices in the northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka".[57] May 19 is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Political parties 8 Committees 22 Last election June 2004 (785 MEPs) Meeting place Brussels and Strasbourg Secretariat Luxembourg and Brussels Website europarl. ...


As north and east of the country continued to be rocked by attacks, new talks were scheduled in Oslo, Norway, between June 8-9. Delegations from both sides arrived in Oslo, but the talks were canceled when the LTTE refused to meet directly with the government delegation claiming its fighters were not been allowed safe passage to travel to the talks. Norwegian mediator Erik Solheim told journalists that the LTTE should take direct responsibility for the collapse of the talks.[58]


Further violence followed, including the Kebithigollewa massacre on June 15, 2006 in which the LTTE attacked a bus killing at least 64 Sinhalese civilians and prompting more air strikes by the Air Force,[59] and the assassination of Sri Lankas third highest-ranking army officer and Deputy Chief of Staff General Parami Kulatunga on June 26 by an LTTE suicide bomber.[60] These events led the SLMM to question whether a ceasefire could still be said to exist.[61] However most analysts continued to believe that the return to full-scale war was unlikely and the "low-intensity conflict" would continue.[60] The Kebithigollewa massacre was carried out by the LTTE, an organization which has been banned in 29 countries including the US, Australia, EU, India and Canada due to its terrorist activities. ... Lieutenant General Parami Kulatunga (born circa 1950 in Kandy, died 26 June 2006) was Deputy Chief of Staff of the Sri Lankan Army, its third highest ranking officer. ... The Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission - SLMM, was established on February 22, 2002 by the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ...


Mavil Aru Water dispute

A new crisis leading to the first large-scale fighting since signing of the ceasefire occurred when the LTTE closed the sluice gates of the Mavil Aru reservoir on July 21 and cut the water supply to 15,000 villages in government controlled areas.[62] After initial negotiations and efforts by the SLMM to open the gates failed, the Air Force attacked LTTE positions on July 26, and ground troops began an operation to open the gate.[63] Following these moves, the political leader of the LTTE S Elilan announced an end to the cease-fire although Palitha Kohona, a government spokesman, stated that the government remained committed to the cease-fire. Sluice gates at Teddington, on the River Thames Combination of sluice gates and canal lock under bridge Grave A small wooden sluice in Magome, Japan, used to power a waterwheel. ... Mavil Aru is a waterway in Sri Lanka that supplies water to some regions of eastern Sri Lanka. ... ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A water supply system provides water to the locations that need it. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: non-notable politician bio If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ...


The sluice gates were eventually reopened on August 8, with conflicting reports as to who actually opened them. Initially, the SLMM claimed that they managed to persuade the LTTE to lift the waterway blockade conditionally.[64] However a government spokesman said that "utilities could not be used as bargaining tools" by the rebels[62] and government forces launched fresh attacks on LTTE positions around the reservoir. These attacks prompted condemnation from SLMM Chief of Staff, who stated "(The government) have the information that the LTTE has made this offer." "It is quite obvious they are not interested in water. They are interested in something else."[62] The LTTE then claimed they opened the sluice gates "on humanitarian grounds" although this was disputed by military correspondents, who stated the water began flowing immediately after the security forces carried out a precise bombing of the Mavil Aru anicut.[65] Eventually, following heavy fighting with the rebels, government troops gained full control of the Mavil Aru reservoir on August 15.[66] August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ...


LTTE offensives in Muttur and Jaffna

As fierce fighting was ongoing in the vicinity of Mavil Aru, the violence spread to Trincomalee, where the LTTE launched an attack on a crucial Sri Lanka Navy base,[64] and to the strategic government controlled coastal town of Muttur in early August, resulting in the deaths of at least 30 civilians and displacing 25,000 residents of the area.[67] The clashes erupted on August 2, 2006 when the LTTE launched a heavy artillery attack on Muttur[68] and then moved in, gaining control of some parts of the town.[69] The military retaliated, and reestablished full control over the town by August 5, killing over 150 LTTE cadres in heavy fighting.[68] August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ...


Soon afterwards, 17 persons working for the International French charity Action Against Hunger (ACF) in Muthur, were found executed. They were found lying face down on the floor of their office, with bullet wounds, still wearing their clearly marked T-shirts indicating they were international humanitarian workers. The murders prompted widespread international condemnation.[70] The SLMM claimed that the government was behind the attack,[71] but the government denied the allegation calling it "pathetic and biased", and stated that the SLMM had "no right to make such a statement because they are not professionals in autopsy or post-mortem"[72] An official investigation launched by the government with the aid of international forensic experts is currently ongoing.[73] Action Against Hunger (also known under French name Action Internationale Contre la Faim) is international non-profit non-governmental organization that fights against hunger, the physiological need to eat, worldwide. ... 2006 Trincomalee massacre of NGO workers happened on August 4 or 5 th 2006, 17 NGO workers working for Action Against Hunger a French NGO were shot at close range. ...


Meanwhile, in the north of the country, some of the bloodiest fighting since 2001 took place after the LTTE launched massive attacks on Sri Lanka Army defence lines in the Jaffna peninsula on August 11. The LTTE used a force of 400 to 500 fighters in the attacks which consisted of land and amphibious assaults, and also fired a barrage of artillery at government positions, including the key military airbase at Palaly.[74] Initially, the Tigers broke through army defense lines around Muhamalai, and advanced further north,[75] but they were halted after 10 hours of fierce fighting. Isolated battles continued over the next few days, but the LTTE was forced to give up its offensive due to heavy casualties.[76] The LTTE is estimated to have lost over 250[76] cadres in the operation, while 90 Sri Lankan soldiers and sailors were also killed.[77] The Sri Lanka Army is the oldest and largest of Sri Lankas three armed services. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Chencholai Airstrike

Bodies of dead girls after the airstrike in Mullaitivu

As ground battles were ongoing in the north and the east of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Air Force carried out an air strike against a facility in the rebel held Mullaitivu area, killing a number of Tamil girls. Although the LTTE claimed 61 girls were killed, the SLMM stated they were able to count just 19 bodies.[78] The government stated that it was an LTTE training facility and that the children were LTTE child soldiers,[79] although the LTTE claimed the victims were schoolgirls attending a course on first aid at an orphanage.[79] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Chencholai orphanage bombing took place on August 14 2006 when the Sri Lankan Airforce attacked the Vallepuram((Vallepuram compound had been formerly an orphanage)) compound in Mullaitivu killing 51 A Level students and wounding over 155 all of them were girls between 16 and 18. ...


On the same day, a convoy carrying the Pakistani High Commissioner to Sri Lanka Bashir Wali Mohamed was attacked by a claymore antipersonnel mine concealed within an auto rickshaw. The High Commissioner escaped unhurt, but seven people were killed and a further seventeen injured in the blast.[80] No group claimed responsibility for the attack, but the LTTE are strongly believed to have carried it out,[81] in order to intimidate Pakistan, which is one of the main suppliers of military equipment to the Sri Lankan government.[81] A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ... now. ... Passengers and drivers meet at this auto rickshaw stand in Chennai. ...


Fall of Sampur

Since the resumption of violence, concerns were mounting among the military establishment that the strategically crucial[82] Sri Lanka Navy base in Trinconmalee was under grave threat from LTTE gun positions located in and around Sampur, which lies across the Koddiyar Bay from Trincomalee.[83][84] Artillery fired from LTTE bases in the area could potentially cripple the naval base, bringing it to a complete standstill and therefore cutting the only military supply chain to Jaffna. All movements of naval vessels were also under the constant surveillance of the LTTE.[83] These fears were backed up by a United States military advisory team which visited the island in 2005.


Following the clashes in Mavil Aru and Muttur, the LTTE had intensified attacks targeting the naval base in Trincomalee,[84] and in a speech on August 21, Sri Lankan president Mahinda Rajapakse made clear the government intentions were to neutralize the LTTE threat from Sampur.[84] On August 28, the Sri Lankan military launched an assault to retake the LTTE camps in Sampur and the adjoining Kaddaiparichchan and Thoppur areas. This led the LTTE to declare that if the offensive continued, the ceasefire would be officially over. August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Sri Lankan police "Special Task Force" in action.

After steady progress, Sri Lankan security forces led by Brigade Commander Sarath Wijesinghe[85] re-captured Sampur from the LTTE on September 4, and began to establish military bases there,[86] as the LTTE admitted defeat and stated their cadres "withdrew" from the strategically important town.[87] It marked the first significant territorial change of hands since the signing of the ceasefire agreement in 2002.[88] The Sri Lankan Military estimated that 33 personnel were killed in the offensive, along with over 200 LTTE cadres.[85] Image File history File links STF_on_mission. ... Image File history File links STF_on_mission. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ...


LTTE retaliation and further peace talks

The LTTE struck back in October. First, they killed nearly 130 soldiers in a fierce battle at Muhamalai, the crossing-point between government and LTTE controlled area in the north of the country.[89] Just days later, a suspected LTTE suicide bomber struck a naval convoy in Habaraba, in the center of the country killing about 100 unarmed sailors who were returning home on leave.[90][91] It was the deadliest suicide attack in the history of the conflict.[92] Two days later, LTTE Sea Tiger cadres launched an attack against the Dakshina naval base in the sothern port city of Galle. It was the farthest south any major LTTE attack had taken place, and involved 15 LTTE cadres who arrived in five suicide boats. The attack was repulsed by the government, and the damage to the naval base was minimum. All 15 LTTE suicide cadres are believed to have died in the attack, along with one Sri Lanka Navy sailor.[93] The 2006 Digampathana truck bombing was a suicide bombing carried out by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) against a convoy of 15 military buses on October 16, 2006 at Digampathana, near the towns of Dambulla and Habarana. ... Galle (ගාල්ල in Sinhala; காலி in Tamil) (pronounced as one syllable, rhyming with Gaul in English, in Sinhalese, IPA /gaːlːə/) is a town situated on the southwestern tip of Sri Lanka, 119 km from Colombo. ...


Despite these incidents, both parties agreed to unconditionally attend peace talks in Geneva on October 28-29.[94] However the peace talks broke down due to disagreements over the reopening of the key A9 highway, which is the link between Jaffna and government controlled areas in the south. While the LTTE wanted the highway, which was closed following fierce battles in August, to be reopened, the government refused, stating the LTTE would use it to collect tax from people passing through and would use it to launch further offenses against government troops.[95]


Following the dawn of the new year, suspected LTTE cadres carried out two bus bombings in the south of the country, killing 21 civilians. News reports stated that the attacks bore all the hallmarks of an LTTE attack.[96] The Sri Lankan government condemned the attacks and blamed the LTTE for carrying them out,[97] although the LTTE denied any involvement. Iqbal Athas, an analyst for Jane's Defence Weekly commented that the LTTE's targeting of civilians was a cause for concern, and that further attacks against civilians couldn't be ruled out.[98] Other analysts too expressed fears that LTTE attacks, which had largely been confined to military and political targets during the ceasefire period, may now increasingly target civilians as in earlier stages of a conflict. LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ...


Government offensive in the East

Sri Lanka Army commandos in front of Vaharai hospital following its fall to Sri Lankan troops
See also: Operation Definite Victory

In December 2006, the Commander of the Army and other senior government officials expressed their plans to initially drive the LTTE out of the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka, and then use the full strength of the military to defeat the LTTE in the North of the country.[63] Among the reasons cited by the military for the offensives in the east were the need to "free the civilians in the area from the LTTE", who the military stated was firing artillery towards civilian settlements and were using 35,000 people as human shields.[99] These claims were later backed by the civilians who told reporters that they were held by force by the Tamil Tigers.[100] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Combatants  Sri Lanka Special Task Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders DIG Nimal Lewke Illegal Timber traded by the LTTE Skull of a Tusker killed by the LTTE Cannabis grown by the LTTE LTTE Torture Chambers Operation Definite Victory (Sinhala: ) was a military operation launched by Sri Lankan Special... Eastern Province is a province of Sri Lanka. ...


Subsequently, the Army began an offensive against the LTTE on December 8, 2006 in the Batticoloa district with the objective of taking Vakarai, the principle stronghold of the LTTE in the East,[101] but temporarily aborted it after a week of fighting due to the large number of civilians in the area and the difficulty in conducting combat operations due to the ongoing Monsoon rain.[102] Over the next few weeks, an estimated 20,000 civilians fled from Vakarai to Government controlled areas fearing the imminent assault. The Army launched a new offensive in mid January, and Vakarai fell to the advancing troops on January 19, 2007. The Army launched assaults from three different directions, and the LTTE and Defence Spokesman Keheliya Rambukwella announced that "The people of Vaharai have been liberated from the clutches of the terrorists". The loss of Vakarai has been predicted to cut off supply routes of the northern Tigers to their cadres in the east, thus weakening the Tigers' already diminishing grip on the east.[103][104] December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a heavy rainy season which lasts for several months and has lasting climatic effects. ...


As the military offensive was ongoing, the LTTE continued to carry out attacks against civilians in government held territory. On April 1, 2007, the Sri Lankan military accused the LTTE of killing six Sinhalese tsunami aid workers in the Eastern district of Batticaloa.[105][106] The next day, suspected LTTE cadres set off a bomb abord a civilian bus in Ampara which killing seventeen people, including three children. [107][108]


Troops mostly operating in small groups of Special Forces and Commando units began a new operation in February[109] to clear the last remaining LTTE cadres from the Eastern Province. As part of the operation, troops captured the a key LTTE base in Kokkadicholai on March 28th,[110] and the strategic A5 highway on April 12, bringing the entire highway under government control for the first time in 15 years.[111] This meant the LTTE's presence in the east was reduced to 140 square kilometer pocket of jungle land in the Thoppigala area north-west of Batticaloa. The offensive had left nine soldiers dead along with 184 Tiger cadres, with no civilian casualties, according to military estimates.[109]


LTTE Air Arm

An air strike by the LTTE happened in the first time in history on March 26th 2007. Its air arm, the Air Tigers, hit the Sri Lanka Air Force base at Katunayake, killing 3 SLAF personnel and wounding about 17 according to SLAF sources[citation needed]. On April 23[verification needed], an air raid was flown by 1-3 LTTE planes which dropped bombs on targets in the Palali area. LTTE and government sources give conflicting but not mutually exclusive accounts of the event: One attack seems to have caused significant damage, and a possible second one was aborted; Jaffna-Palali Air Force Base seems to have been among the targets attacked[citation needed]. LTTE Liberation Tigers credit the formation of the Air Tigers air-wing (Vaanpuligal) to Colonel Shankar alias Vythialingam Sornalingam, an old boy of Hartley College, Point Pedro. ... Sri Lankan Air Force Ensign. ... Katunayake a town is situated on the west coast of the island of Sri Lanka close to the commercial capital of Colombo. ... Palali is a small town in the North Srilankan city of Jaffna. ...


See also

The following is a list of Terrorist attacks carried out by the LTTE, a seperatist group fighting for a separate Tamil state in the North and East of Sri Lanka. ... This is a list of civil wars. ... Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research Modern warfare      Lists of wars by date Before 1000 | 1000-1499 | 1500-1799 | 1800-1899 | 1900-1944 | 1945-1989 | 1990-2002 | 2003-Current | Ongoing wars Peace Reporter coverage of ongoing wars Global Security coverage of ongoing wars History Guys coverage of 21st century...

Notes

  1. ^ a b International Institute for Strategic Studies, Armed Conflicts Database
  2. ^ "Sri Lanka says sinks rebel boats on truce anniversary", Simon Gardner, Reuters, February 22, 2007. 
  3. ^ "Ceasefire raises Sri Lankan peace hopes", The Guardian, February 22, 2002. 
  4. ^ "Monitors Say 4,000 Dead in Sri Lanka", Dillip Ganguly, Fox News, February 23, 2007. 
  5. ^ "Diplomats hurt in S Lanka attack", BBC News, February 27, 2007. 
  6. ^ "Sri Lankan Government Finds Support From Buddhist Monks", Somini Sengupta, The New York Times, February 25, 2007. 
  7. ^ "Timeline - Conflict in Sri Lanka", Radio Australia. 
  8. ^ "Twenty years on - riots that led to war", BBC News, 23 July 2003. 
  9. ^ Jane's Information Group, Suicide terrorism: a global threat
  10. ^ Asia Times Who's behind the LTTE split?
  11. ^ "INDIA AIRLIFTS AID TO TAMIL REBELS", STEVEN R. WEISMAN, New York Times, 5 June 1987. 
  12. ^ "Tamil rebels abduct 2 rivals, Sri Lankan military says", AP, 12 December 2006. 
  13. ^ Balasingham, Adele. (2003) The Will to Freedom - An Inside View of Tamil Resistance. Fairmax Publishing Ltd, 2nd ed. ISBN 1-903679-03-6
  14. ^ NorthEast Secretariat report on Human rights 1974 - 2004 (See Further Reading Section)
  15. ^ IPKF in Sri Lanka, 1987-1991, A Chronology of events available online (See Further Reading section)
  16. ^ India's My Lai - The Valvettiturai Massacre, 1989 A collection of media reports about the event available online
  17. ^ Dissanayaka, T.D.S.A.: "War or Peace in Sri Lanka, Volume II", page 332. Swastika (Pvt.) Ltd., 1998
  18. ^ M R, Narayan Swamy (2005). Inside an Illusive Mind Prabhakaran. Konark Publishers New Delhi, pp. 89. ISBN 955-8095-35-4. 
  19. ^ "Prabhakaran had Rajiv killed for being 'anti-Tamil'", Rediff, 31 August 2006. 
  20. ^ "26 sentenced to death for Rajiv Gandhi's assassination", Rediff, 31 August 2006. 
  21. ^ "LTTE regrets Rajiv assassination: Anton", NDTV.com, 28 June 2006. 
  22. ^ "Tiger Apologizes for Rajiv Gandhi's Death", Associated Press via WTOP, 27 June 2006. 
  23. ^ Sri Lanka. Human Rights Watch (1990). Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  24. ^ http://uthayam.net/articles/oct30_2005html_2.htm Fifteenth Anniversary of Muslim Expulsion From Jaffna, DBS Jeyaraj
  25. ^ Sri Lanka. Human Rights Watch (1992). Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  26. ^ Human Rights Watch, SRI LANKA Human Rights Developments
  27. ^ a b Sri Lanka Says It Has Sealed Rebel Stronghold. New York Times (November 24, 1995). Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  28. ^ Sri Lanka: displaced civilians killed in air strike. International Committee of the Red Cross (11 July 1995). Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  29. ^ Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified. CNN (December 5, 1995). Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  30. ^ a b Sri Lanka. Human Rights Watch (1997). Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  31. ^ Chandrikare-elected President. The Tribune (December 23, 1999). Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  32. ^ Norway role in Sri Lanka peace plan. Susannah Price. BBC News (February 1, 2000).
  33. ^ Another LTTE offensive. Frontline (April 15-28, 2000). Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  34. ^ Military debacle at Elephant Pass set to trigger political crisis in Sri Lanka. World Socialist Web Site (25 April 2000). Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  35. ^ Tigers seize Elephant Pass. Sri Lanka Monitor. Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  36. ^ a b BBC News, Timeline: Sri Lanka
  37. ^ "Sri Lanka rebels announce truce", BBC News, 19 December 2001. 
  38. ^ "Sri Lanka enters truce with rebels", BBC News, 21 December 2001. 
  39. ^ "Sri Lanka seals truce deal", BBC News, 22 February 2002. 
  40. ^ "Colombo lifts ban on Tamil Tigers", BBC News, 26 August 2002. 
  41. ^ "Upbeat opening for Sri Lanka talks", BBC News, 16 September 2002. 
  42. ^ "Tamil Tigers call off peace talks", BBC News, 21 April 2003. 
  43. ^ "Sri Lanka thrown into political crisis", BBC News, 4 November 2003. 
  44. ^ "Sri Lanka Says Rebels Took Losses in Raids", New York Times, 31 December 2006. 
  45. ^ Senior Sri Lanka minister killed. BBC News. Retrieved on 2005-08-13.
  46. ^ "How President decided on retaliation", The Sunday Times, April 30, 2006. 
  47. ^ "Violence Ebbs in Sri Lanka Following Agreement to Hold Talks", Voice of America, 30 January 2006. 
  48. ^ "Firm steps to protect national security", The Sunday Observer, 31 December 2006. 
  49. ^ "Sri Lanka bomb attack fuels fear of return to civil war", Justin Huggle, The Independent, January 13, 2006. 
  50. ^ "Sri Lanka foes to 'curb violence'", BBC News, 24 February 2006. 
  51. ^ "Sri Lanka violence leaves 16 dead", BBC News, 12 April 2006. 
  52. ^ "Tamil Tigers harden talks stance", BBC News, 17 April 2006. 
  53. ^ "EU ban on LTTE urged", BBC News, 23 April 2006. 
  54. ^ http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/COL157189.htm
  55. ^ "'Eight die' in Sri Lanka violence", BBC News, 24 April 2006. 
  56. ^ "Bomb targets Sri Lanka army chief", BBC News, 25 April 2006. 
  57. ^ "European Union bans LTTE", Amit Baruah, The Hindu, May 31, 2006. 
  58. ^ "Collapse of talks", Saroj Pathirana, BBC News, June 9, 2006. 
  59. ^ United States International Information Programs", United States Condemns Terrorist Attack on Sri Lankan Bus
  60. ^ a b "Sri Lanka general killed in blast", BBC News, June 26, 2006. 
  61. ^ Press releases. Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission. Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  62. ^ a b c "Sri Lanka forces attack reservoir", BBC News, August 6, 2006. 
  63. ^ a b "Air Force jets hit LTTE targets", Sunil Jayasiri, The Daily Mirror, July 27, 2006. 
  64. ^ a b "Water war", B. Muralidhar Reddy, The Hindu, August 12, 2006. 
  65. ^ The Sunday Times Situation Report, Eelam war IV rages on several fronts
  66. ^ Iqbal Athas, Janes Defence Weekly, Full-scale fighting flares in Sri Lanka
  67. ^ "Civilians die in Sri Lanka clash", BBC News, 3 August 2006. 
  68. ^ a b "152 LTTE rebels killed in Sri Lanka", The Times of India, August 4, 2006. 
  69. ^ "34 killed as LTTE `overruns' Muttur town", B. Muralidhar Reddy, The Hindu, August 4, 2006. 
  70. ^ 15 NGO workers killed. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2007-01-30.
  71. ^ "Military 'killed Lanka aid staff'", BBC, 30 August 2006. 
  72. ^ "Sri Lanka forces attack reservoir", BBC News, August 6, 2006. 
  73. ^ Eminent Australian Jurist to Assist Human Rights Inquiry in Sri Lanka
  74. ^ "At least 127 combatants killed in Lanka fighting: military", The Hindu, August 12, 2006. 
  75. ^ "Lanka rebels destroy northern defenses, advance", One India, August 12, 2006. 
  76. ^ a b "Lanka's chilling 2006 timeline", PK Balachandran, Hindustan Times, December 30, 2006. 
  77. ^ "Fighting rages in northern Sri Lanka in fourth week of hostilities", USA Today, August 15, 2006. 
  78. ^ "SLMM counted 19 Bodies", monstersandcritics.com, 13 August 2006. 
  79. ^ a b "Unicef: Bombed orphans were not Tamil Tigers", Mail and Guardian Online, 15 August 2006. 
  80. ^ Rica Roy & Anisa Khan (August 14, 2006). Lanka blast: Pak envoy safe, 7 killed. NDTV.
  81. ^ a b Sudha Ramachandran (August 16, 2006). Had enough? Tigers turn on Pakistan. Asia Times.
  82. ^ "Sri Lanka army battles rebels in northeast", Peter Apps, Reuters, September 12, 2006. 
  83. ^ a b "Sri Lanka: LTTE's moment of truth at Sampur - Update 101", Col R Hariharan (retd., South Asai Analysis Group, September 8, 2006. 
  84. ^ a b c "Sri Lankan army captures Sampur", B. Muralidhar Reddy, The Hindu, September 5, 2006. 
  85. ^ a b "Fierce battles continue in Jaffna", B. Muralidhar Reddy, The Hindu, September 12, 2006. 
  86. ^ "Sri Lanka Army captures Sampur", Bloomberg.com, 4 September 2006. 
  87. ^ "LTTE admits defeat in Sampoor", BBC, 4 September 2006. 
  88. ^ "Sri Lankan military captures key rebel territory, Tigers vow to keep fighting", International Herald Tribune, September 3, 2006. 
  89. ^ "No repeat of Muhamalai, President warns; orders full probe into debacle", Poorna Rodrigo and Sunil Jayasiri, The Daily Mirror, October 18, 2006. 
  90. ^ "Bloodbath in Sri Lanka: At Least 100 Unarmed Sailors Dead", Playfuls.com, October 16, 2006. 
  91. ^ "Analysis: Sri Lanka military setbacks", BBC, 16 October 2006. 
  92. ^ "Bloody Day in Sri Lanka: 103 Dead", Zaman Daily, October 17, 2006. 
  93. ^ "LTTE attack on Galle repulsed", B. Muralidhar Reddy, The Hindu, October 19, 2006. 
  94. ^ "Sri Lanka - Tamil Tigers OK Talks With Sri Lanka : Tamil Tigers Agree to Unconditional Talks With Sri Lankan Government", BHARATHA MALLAWARACHI, Conflict and Religion, October 3, 2006. 
  95. ^ "Sri Lankan peace talks end in deadlock over road blockade", International Herald tribune, October 28, 2006. 
  96. ^ "Fear and loathing in south Sri Lanka after bus bombs", Buddhika Weerasinghe, Reuters, January 08, 2007. 
  97. ^ Media Center for National Security, The Government Condemns LTTE Terror Attacks on Civilians
  98. ^ "Suspected suicide bomber attacks S.Lanka bus", Simon Gardner, Reuters, January 6, 2007. 
  99. ^ "Sri Lanka military vows to drive Tigers from east coast", Reuters, December 14, 2006. 
  100. ^ "Fleeing Tamil refugees descibe being held by separatists as Sri Lanka shelled camps", International Herald Tribune, December 18, 2006. 
  101. ^ "Heavy fighting in Sri Lanka's restive east, 13 injured", The Hindu, December 9, 2006. 
  102. ^ "3,000 Tamils Flee to Escape Fighting", GEMUNU AMARASINGHE, The Hindu, December 16, 2006. 
  103. ^ "Tigers admit fall of Vakarai", Asian Tribune, 20 January 2007. 
  104. ^ "Sri Lanka Security forces captured LTTE controlled Vaharai", Asian Tribune, 19 January 2007. 
  105. ^ "Sri Lanka says rebels killed aid workers", Sydney Morning Herald, 2007-04-02. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. 
  106. ^ "Tamil Tigers kill 6 civilian workers in Lanka", Times of india, 2007-04-02. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. 
  107. ^ "Sri Lanka blast 'kills civilians'", BBC, 2007-04-02. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. 
  108. ^ "Seventeen persons killed, over two dozens injured- Ampara [4th Lead]", Ministry of Defence, 2007-04-02. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. 
  109. ^ a b "Sri Lanka captures key highway in rebel territory", Radio Australia, 2007-04-12. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. 
  110. ^ "Kokkadicholai LTTE base falls to SL Army", Ministry of Defence, 2007-03-28. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. 
  111. ^ "SL Army Troops gain complete control over the A-5 Main Road", Ministry of Defence, 2007-04-12. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. 

Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... 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November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Voice of America (VOA) is the official international broadcasting service of the Government of the United States. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (114th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 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The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Hindustan Times is a leading newspaper in India along with times of india. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 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January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ...

Bibliography

  • Balasingham, Adele: The Will to Freedom - An Inside View of Tamil Resistance. Fairmax Publishing Ltd, 2nd ed. 2003, ISBN 1-903679-03-6.
  • Dissanayaka, T.D.S.A.: War or Peace in Sri Lanka, Volume II. Swastika (Pvt.) Ltd., Colombo 1998.
  • Dixit, J.N.: Assignment Colombo, ISBN 81-220-0499-7. (Dixit was the Indian High Commissioner during the 1980s negotiations that led to the IPKF presence.)
  • Gamage, S. and Watson, I.B.: Conflict and Community in Contemporary Sri Lanka. Sage, New Delhi 1999.
  • Gamage, S.: Ethnic Conflict, State Reform and Nation Building in Sri Lanka: Analysis of the Context and Suggestions for a Settlement, in: Neelsen, John P. and Malik, Dipak: "Crises of State and Nation: South Asian States between Nation Building and Fragmentation", Manohar, New Delhi (forthcoming).
  • Hoole, R., Somasundaram, D., Sritharan K., and Thiranagama, R. The Broken Palmyra - The Tamil Crisis in Sri Lanka: An Inside Account. The Sri Lanka Studies Institute, Claremont 1990. (Also available online[1].)
  • Johnson, Robert: A Region in Turmoil. Reaktion, New York and London 2005. (Covers Sri Lanka and its regional context.)
  • Narayan Swamy, M. R.: Tigers of Lanka: from Boys to Guerrillas. Konark Publishers; 3rd ed. 2002, ISBN 81-220-0631-0.
  • Rajasinghan, K.T.: Sri Lanka: The Untold Story. 2001-2002. (Serialised in Asia Times Online [2]).

External links

Official websites

  • Ministry of Defence, Sri Lanka
  • Government of Sri Lanka Peace Secretariat
  • LTTE Peace Secretariat
  • Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission

Independent reports and texts

  • Texts of key agreements in the peace process and an analysis of the process by Conciliation Resources
  • Report on the Sri Lankan peace process by Asiafoundation
  • hWeb - Sri Lanka’s recent history of ethnic conflict and political crisis originates from its colonial legacy

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5348 words)
The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka is an ongoing conflict between the Government of Sri Lanka and the ethnic Sri Lankan Tamils on the island-nation of Sri Lanka.
The Sri Lankan government was facing a mostly unrelated uprising by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna in the south, and called in the Indian military immediately after the agreement was signed.
Sri Lankan general Parami Kulatunga was killed June 26 by an LTTE suicide bomber.
Alfred Duraiappah - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (371 words)
Alfred Duraiappah was a former MP and mayor of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, whose murder by the LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran marks the beginning of violent phase of the Sri Lankan civil war
Alfred Duriappah was a former MP and mayor of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, whose murder by the LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran marks the beginning of violent phase of the Sri Lankan civil war.
It was alleged that the organizers who were Tamil nationalists as opposed to Alfred Duriappah who was aligned to the Sri Lankan Sinhalese nationalistic Party the SLFP shunned him in the proceedings.
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