FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Square (cipher)

In cryptography, Square (sometimes written SQUARE) is a block cipher invented by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. The design, published in 1997, is a forerunner to the Rijndael algorithm, which has been adopted as the Advanced Encryption Standard. Square was introduced together with a new form of cryptanalysis discovered by Lars Knudsen, called the "Square attack".

The structure of Square is a Substitution-Permutation network with eight rounds, operating on 128-bit blocks and using a 128-bit key.

Square is not patented.


  • Joan Daemen, Lars Knudsen, Vincent Rijmen, "The Block Cipher Square" (PDF) (http://www.esat.kuleuven.ac.be/~cosicart/pdf/VR-9700.PDF), Fast Software Encryption, Volume 1267 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (E. Biham, ed.), pp. 149–165. Springer-Verlag, 1997.

External links

  • Square home page (http://www.esat.kuleuven.ac.be/~rijmen/square/)
  • SCAN's entry for Square (http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/hopwood/crypto/scan/cs.html#Square)

Block ciphers edit  (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Block_ciphers&action=edit)
Algorithms: 3-Way | AES | Akelarre | Blowfish | Camellia | CAST-128 | CAST-256 | CMEA | DEAL | DES | DES-X | FEAL | FROG | G-DES | GOST | ICE | IDEA | Iraqi | KASUMI | KHAZAD | Khufu and Khafre | LOKI89/91 | LOKI97 | Lucifer | MacGuffin | Madryga | MAGENTA | MARS | MISTY1 | MMB | NewDES | RC2 | RC5 | RC6 | REDOC | Red Pike | S-1 | SAFER | SEED | Serpent | SHACAL | SHARK | Skipjack | Square | TEA | Triple DES | Twofish | XTEA
Design: Feistel network | Key schedule | Product cipher | S-box | SPN   Attacks: Brute force | Linear / Differential cryptanalysis | Mod n | XSL   Standardisation: AES process | CRYPTREC | NESSIE   Misc: Avalanche effect | Block size | IV | Key size | Modes of operation | Piling-up lemma | Weak key

  Results from FactBites:
Four-square cipher - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (990 words)
The four-square cipher uses four 5 by 5 matrices arranged in a square.
To generate the ciphertext squares, one would first fill in the spaces in the matrix with the letters of a keyword or phrase (dropping any duplicate letters), then fill the remaining spaces with the rest of the letters of the alphabet in order (again omitting "Q" to reduce the alphabet to fit).
When only the ciphertext is known, brute force cryptanalysis of the cipher involves searching through the key space for matches between the frequency of occurrence of digrams (pairs of letters) and the known frequency of occurrence of digrams in the assumed language of the original message.
Chapter 8 -- The Cipher Exchange (5798 words)
Squares 1 and 3 are plain unkeyed (I/J in same cell); squares 2 and 4 are keyed.
Cipher substitutes are found at the other corners of that rectangle, first in square 2, the second in square 4.
The cipher equivalents are those letters forming the opposite corners of a rectangle determined by the pt pair.
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m