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This article is part of the
Fascism series.

This series is linked to the Politics and elections series Jump to: navigation, search Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Look up Politics on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Politics (disambiguation) Democracy History of democracy List of democracy and elections-related topics List of years in politics List of politics by country articles Political corruption Political economy Political movement Political parties of the world Political party Political psychology Political sociology Political...

Varieties and derivatives of fascism


Neo-Fascism
Nazism
Rexism
Falangism
Clerical fascism
Austrofascism
Crypto-fascism
Japanese fascism
Greek fascism
Liberal fascism
Jump to: navigation, search Neo-Fascism is the term used to describe a range of groups emerging after the Second World War that display significant elements of Fascism, or Clerical Fascism. ... Jump to: navigation, search The term National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... Leon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ... The Falange or sometimes the Phalange is the name assigned to several political movements and parties dating from the 1930s, most particularly the original movement in Spain. ... Jump to: navigation, search Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... Crypto-fascism is when a party or group secretly adheres to the doctrines of fascism while attempting to disguise it as another political movement. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by a authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... During the 1930s H.G. Wellss theory of revolutionary praxis centred around a concept of liberal fascism whereby the Wellsian liberal utopia would be achieved by an authoritarian élite. ...


Fascist political parties and movements

List of fascist movements by country

Fascism in history Jump to: navigation, search This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...


Fascio
March on Rome
Italian Social Republic
Greek Fascism
Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian word which in the 1890s came to refer to radical political groups. ... The March on Rome was the name given to the coup détat by which Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in late October 1922. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... Jump to: navigation, search From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by a authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ...


Relevant lists


List of fascists
Jump to: navigation, search This is a list of persons who self-identify as Fascists or a variant (e. ...


Related subjects


Fascist symbolism
Roman salute
Blackshirts
Corporatism
National syndicalism
Black Brigades
Actual Idealism
Fascist unification rhetoric
Conservative Revolutionary movement
Adolf Hitler
National anarchism
National Bolshevism
International Third Position
Neo-Fascism
Neo-Nazism
Neo-Nazi groups of the United States
Neofascism and religion
The fasces on the reverse of the US dime As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palms down. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian corporativismo) is a political system in which legislative power is given to corporations that represent economic, industrial and professional groups. ... National syndicalism is typically associated with the right-wing labor movement in Italy which would later become the basis for Mussolini’s Fascist Party. ... Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Conservative Revolutionary movement was a German nationalist literary youth movement, prominent in the years following The First World War. ... Jump to: navigation, search Adolf Hitler ▶(?) (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Chancellor) of Germany from 1934 to his death, as well as the self-proclaimed Savior of the German people. ... Jump to: navigation, search National anarchism (also anarcho-nationalism) is a political view which seeks to unite a white nationalist with anarchist views rejecting heirarchy, capitalism, and the state. ... Flag of the National Bolsheviks. ... International Third Position (ITP) was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland and as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement that originated in the right-wing British National Front in the early 1980s. ... Jump to: navigation, search Neo-Fascism is the term used to describe a range of groups emerging after the Second World War that display significant elements of Fascism, or Clerical Fascism. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... American Nazis in the news; a Dateline NBC report shows a Neo-Nazi rally in front of Capitol in Washington D.C. There are a number of Nazi (see Neo-nazi) groups in the United States, both past and present. ... Jump to: navigation, search The study of Neofascism and religion is a controversial area which examines the parallels and intersections between what are purported to be various forms of neofascism and contemporary religions and religious movements. ...

The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Jump to: navigation, search Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Jump to: navigation, search A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... Jump to: navigation, search World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns, and poison gas World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of... Jump to: navigation, search World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb. ...


Inspired by Garibaldi's Redshirts, the Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini due to his disgust with the corruption and apathy of the liberal and later socialist Italian government. Originally envisioned as reformers, their methods became harsher as Mussolini's power grew, and they used violence, intimidation, and murder against Mussolini's opponents. One of their distinctive techniques was force-feeding castor oil. Garibaldi may refer to: People Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian revolutionary; Michael Garibaldi, a fictional character in the television series Babylon 5; Garibaldi, a pop music group; Places Garibaldi, Oregon; Garibaldi, British Columbia; Mount Garibaldi; Other Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian aircraft carrier; The garibaldi, a fish; A Garibaldi biscuit; An Italian... During the Italian Risorgimento, the volunteers that followed Giuseppe Garibaldi in Southern Italy were called Redshirts (Camice rosse) because of the colour of their shirts (complete uniforms were beyond the finances of the Italian patriots). ... Jump to: navigation, search Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (Predappio near Forlì, July 29, 1883 – Giulino di Mezzegra near Como, April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... Jump to: navigation, search Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean (or preferably castor seed as the castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is not a member of the bean family). ...


The ethos and sometimes the uniform were later copied by others who shared Mussolini's political ideas, including Adolf Hitler in Nazi Germany, who issued brown shirts to the Sturmabteilung and black uniforms to the Schutzstaffel (also colloquially known as "Blackshirts", although in fact they wore black tunics with brown or white shirts), Sir Oswald Mosley in the United Kingdom (whose British Union of Fascists were also known as the "Blackshirts"), William Dudley Pelley in the United States (Silver Legion of America or "Silver Shirts"), PlĂ­nio Salgado in Brazil (whose followers wore green shirts), and Eoin O'Duffy in the Irish Free State (Army Comrades Association or "Blueshirts"). In recent years, the name has been appropriated by a militant fathers' rights group in Australia. Jump to: navigation, search Adolf Hitler â–¶(?) (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Chancellor) of Germany from 1934 to his death, as well as the self-proclaimed Savior of the German people. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Jump to: navigation, search The seal of SA The Sturmabteilung [â–¶](audio help) (SA, German for Storm Division and is usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organisation of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ... Jump to: navigation, search The infamous double-sig rune SS insignia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet (November 16, 1896 – December 3, 1980) was a British politician principally known as the founder of the British Union of Fascists. ... Jump to: navigation, search The flag of the British Union of Fascists showing the Flash and Circle symbolic of action within unity The British Union of Fascists (BUF) was a political party of the 1930s in the United Kingdom. ... Jump to: navigation, search William Dudley Pelley wanted poster William Dudley Pelley (March 12, 1890-July 1, 1965) was an American Fascist and leader of the Silver Legion. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Silver Legion of America, commonly known as the Silver Shirts, was an American fascist organization founded by William Dudley Pelley on January 30, 1933. ... Plínio Salgado (January 22, 1895–December 7, 1975) was the founder and leader of the 1930s Brazilian fascist movement known as Integralism. Early life Born in the small traditional town of São Bento do Sapucaí in São Paulo state, he was the son of Col. ... General Eoin ODuffy (20 October 1892 - 30 November 1944), was the Commissioner of the Garda Síochána, leader of the quasi-fascist Blueshirts and the first (extra-parliamentary) leader of Fine Gael (1933-1934). ... Jump to: navigation, search The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty... The Army Comrades Association (ACA), better known by its nickname The Blueshirts, was an Irish organisation set up by former police commissioner and army General Eoin ODuffy in the 1930s. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Fathers rights movement is a loose network of interest groups, primarily in western countries, established to campaign for equal treatment by the courts in family law issues such as child custody after divorce, child support, and paternity determinations. ...

Contents


History

Established as the squadristi in 1919 and consisted of many disgruntled former soldiers which may have numbered 20,000 by the time of Mussolini's March on Rome in 1922. In 1922 the squadristi were reorganized into the milizia and formed numerous bandiere, and on 1 February 1923 they became the MVSN or Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, which lasted until the Italian Armistice in 1943. The Italian Social Republic, northern Italy occupied by Nazi Germany, reformed them into the GNR or Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana. War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ...


Organization

Benito Mussolini was always the Commandant-General, but executive functions were carried out by the Chief of Staff, equivalent to an army general. The MVSN especially was formed in imitation of the old Roman army as follows: Commandant is a military or police title or rank and can mean any of the following: The commander of certain military corps and services, such as the Commandant of the Marine Corps and the Commandant of the Coast Guard in the United States or the Commandant of the (now obsolete... The term Chief of Staff can refer to: The White House Chief of Staff, the highest-ranking member of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. ... Soldiers of the Roman Army (on manoeuvres in Nashville, Tennessee) Rome was a militarized state whose history was often closely entwined with its military history over the 1228 years that the Roman state is traditionally said to have existed. ...


Basic Organization

These units were also organized on the triangular principle as follows: Zone An area allocated to a particular purpose; see zoning. ... A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to fifteen thousand soldiers. ... Legion can refer to several encylopedic topics, including: In military history, an organization or military unit: A Roman legion. ... Jump to: navigation, search A regiment is a military unit, larger than a company and smaller than a division. ... Jump to: navigation, search A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ... Cohort can mean any of the following: 1. ... Jump to: navigation, search Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO code In military terminology, a battalion consists of two to six companies typically commanded by a lieutenant colonel. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A company in the broadest sense is an aggregation of people who stay together for a common purpose. ... Maniple (Latin: manipulus) was a tactical unit of the Roman Legion, consisting of two centuriae within a single cohort. ... Platoon is a term from military science. ... A squad is a small military unit subordinate to an infantry platoon. ...

  • 3 squadre = 1 manipolo (maniple)
  • 3 manipoli = 1 centuria (century)
  • 3 centurie = 1 coorte (cohort)
  • 3 coorti = 1 legione (legion)
  • 3 legioni = 1 divisioni (field division) or
  • 3 or more legioni = 1 zona (zone - an administrative division)

Territorial Organization

The MVSN original organization consisted of 15 zones controlling 133 legions (one per province)of three cohorts each and one Independent Group controlling 10 legions. In 1929 it was reorganized into four raggruppamenti, but later in October of 1936 it was reorganized into 14 zones controlling only 133 legions with two cohorts each, one of men 21 to 36 years old and the other of men up to 55 years old, plus special units in Rome, on Ponza Island and the black uniformed Moschettieri del Duce ("The Leader's Musketeers", Mussolini's Guard) and the Albanian Militia (four legions) and Colonial Militia in Africa (seven legions). Special militias were also organized to provide security police functions, these included: MVSNOriginal Organization by Royal Decree on 1 February 1923 was as follows: 1st Zona (Piemonte) Hq Torino 1st Sabauda - Torino 2d Alpina - Torino 3rd Subalpina - Cuneo 4th Marengo - Allessandria 5th Valle Scrivia - Tortona 11th Monferrato - Casale 12th Monte Bianco - Aosta 28th Randaccio - Vercelli 29th Alpina - Pallanza 30th Oddone - Novara 37th... In Italy, the province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of an intermediate level, between municipality (comune) and region (Regione). ... Jump to: navigation, search Ponza and the Pontine Islands. ... MVSN Albanian Militia was formed in 1939 following Italys invasion and annexation of Italians living in Albania and later on Albanians were also recruited. ... MVSN Colonial Militia was based in Italian African colonial possessions of Italian North Africa comprising Cyrenaica and Tripolitania, Italian East Africa comprising Eritrea, Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland comprising Somalia. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day... Security police (also known as special police) are the special security officers employed by (usually governmental) organizations to protect their facilities, properties, personnel, users, visitors and operations from harm and who enforce laws and administrative regulations. ...


Security Militia

  • the Anti-aircraft and Coastal Artillery Militia,

a combined command which controlled two militias:

  • the Forestry Militia,
  • the Frontier Militia,
  • the Highway Militia,
  • the Port Militia,
  • the Posts and Telegraph Militia,
  • the Railway Militia, and
  • the University Militia.

Coastal artillery was the branch of armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery in coastal fortresses. ... Jump to: navigation, search In the United States and Canada, the frontier was the term applied until the end of the 19th century to the zone of unsettled land outside the region of existing settlements of European immigrants and their descendants. ...

Mobile Units

During the 1936 Abyssinian Campaign or the Invasion of Ethiopia, the MVSN were able to raise six field divisions: Jump to: navigation, search The Second Italo-Abyssinian War lasted seven months in 1935-1936. ...

  • 1st MVSN Division "23 Marzo"
  • 2d MVSN Division "28 Ottobre"
  • 3d MVSN Division "21 Aprile"
  • 4th MVSN Division "3 Gennaio"
  • 5th MVSN Division "1 Febbraio"
  • 6th MVSN Division "Tevere"

World War Two

In 1940 the MVSN was able to muster 340,000 first-line combat troops, providing three divisions (1st, 2nd and 4th) and provided a Gruppo di Assalto to each army division. These Gruppos consisted of two cohorts (each of three centurie of 3 manipoli of 2 squadre each) plus Gruppo Supporto company of two heavy machine gun manipoli (with three HMS each) and two 81 mm mortar manipoli (with 3 Mortars each). Later 41 Mobile groups were raised to become the third regiment in Italian Army divisions. These mobile groups suffered heavy casualties due to being undermanned, underequipped and undertrained. The three divisions were wiped out in combat in North Africa. The MVSN fought in every theater where Italy did. German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


Italian Social Republic

The fall of the fascist regime in Italy and the disbandment of the MVSN saw the establishment of the GNR, and the emergence of the brigate nere or Black Brigades. The 40 Black Brigades consisted of former MVSN, former Carabinieri, former soldiers and others still loyal to the fascist cause. They, like their counterparts, the Nazi SS, committed many atrocities. War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... GNR may be: Great Northern Railways: Great Northern Railway of Great Britain. ... Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... The Carabinieri is the shortened (and common) name for the Arma dei Carabinieri, an Italian military corps of the gendarmerie type with police functions, which also serves as the Italian military police. ... Jump to: navigation, search Look up Nazi on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop...


Ranks

Mussolini as Commandante Generale was made Primo Caporale Onorario (First Honorary Corporal) in 1935 and Adolf Hitler was made Caporale Onorario (Honorary Corporal) in 1937. All other ranks closely approximated those of the old Roman army as follows: Jump to: navigation, search 1935(MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...

  • Comandante generale = Commander in chief
  • Comandante = general
  • Console generale = brigadier general
  • Console = colonel and commanded a legion
  • Primo seniore = lieutenant colonel
  • Seniore = major who commanded a cohort
  • Centurione = captain who commanded a centuria
  • Capomanipolo = First Lieutenant
  • Sottocapomanipolo = second lieutenant
  • Aspirante sottocapomanipolo = officer cadet
  • Primo aiutante = First or Master Warrant officer
  • Aiutante capo = Chief Warrant Officer
  • Aiutante = Warrant officer
  • Primo capo squadra = First Sergeant
  • Capo squadra = Squad Leader or Corporal or Sergeant
  • Vicecapo squadra = Vice Squad Leader or Lance Corporal
  • Camicia nera scelta = Private First Class
  • Camicia nera = Private

Uniforms

The MVSN wore the basic army uniform, either the grey green or khaki drill with a black shirt and tie, black collar patches bearing silver metal fascio (the Roman bundle of sticks wrapped around an axe which represented legal authority) and a black fez with tassles. Bedouin man wearing a Fez During the reign of Turkeys Sultan Mahmud Khan II (1808-39), European code of dress gradually replaced the traditional robes worn by members of the Ottoman court. ...


Rank insignias were similar to those of the army, with enlisted rank stripes in black braided chevrons, and officer ranks stripes in black braid with the topmost having a lozenge shaped loop instead of the army's round or oval loop.


They also wore a black-colored version of the standard Italian army helmet, again with a silver fascio on the front, although later in the war they war a standard grey-green army helmet with a black stenciled fascia on the front.


The GNR wore a black shirt or turtle necked shirt or sweater with black helmets and Italian army trousers.


See also

Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... Jump to: navigation, search A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ... The Army Comrades Association (ACA), better known by its nickname The Blueshirts, was an Irish organisation set up by former police commissioner and army General Eoin ODuffy in the 1930s. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Jump to: navigation, search A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... Political colours are colours used to represent a political stance, a political ideology, or — in a telling use of terminology — a position on the political spectrum. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Silver Legion of America, commonly known as the Silver Shirts, was an American fascist organization founded by William Dudley Pelley on January 30, 1933. ... Jump to: navigation, search The seal of SA The Sturmabteilung [â–¶](audio help) (SA, German for Storm Division and is usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organisation of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ...

External links

  • Axis History Factbook/Italy/Militia
  • Comando Supremo
  • Il Duce Website

  Results from FactBites:
 
Blackshirts - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (820 words)
Inspired by Giuseppe Garibaldi's Redshirts, the Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini due to his disgust with the corruption and apathy of the liberal and later socialist Italian government.
Established as the squadristi in 1919 and consisted of many disgruntled former soldiers which may have numbered 20,000 by the time of Mussolini's March on Rome in 1922.
In 1922 the squadristi were reorganized into the milizia and formed numerous bandiere, and on 1 February 1923 they became the MVSN (Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale), which lasted until the Italian Armistice in 1943.
March on Rome - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (869 words)
After the assassination of Giordani, a right-wing municipal counsellor in Bologna, in November 1920, the squadristi were used as repression tool by the state to crush the socialist movement (which included a strong anarcho-syndicalist component), especially in the Po Valley.
The contract with the socialists was then broke at its turn in November 1921, Mussolini adopted a nationalist and conservative program and founded the National Fascist Party, which boasted 700 000 members in July 1922.
The march itself was composed of less than 30,000 men, but the king in part feared a civil war since the squadristi had already taken control of the Po plain and most part of the country, while Fascism was no longer seen as a threat to the establishment.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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