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Encyclopedia > Sputnik program
USSR postage stamp depicting Sputnik 1. The caption reads: "The world's first Soviet artificial satellite of the Earth".
USSR postage stamp depicting Sputnik 1. The caption reads: "The world's first Soviet artificial satellite of the Earth".

The Sputnik program (Russian: Спутник, Russian pronunciation: [ˈsputnʲɪk]) was a series of robotic spacecraft missions launched by the Soviet Union. The first of these, Sputnik 1, launched the first man-made object to orbit the Earth. That launch took place on October 4, 1957 as part of the International Geophysical Year and demonstrated the viability of using artificial satellites to explore the upper atmosphere. Sputnik may refer to: The Sputnik program in which satellites were launched by the Soviet Union beginning in the 1950s The Sputnik browser for the MorphOS operating system The Sputnik Agent for managing WLAN routers based on opensource firmware. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 732 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1094 × 896 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sputnik 1 - Source (NSSDC Master Catalog by NASA). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 732 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1094 × 896 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sputnik 1 - Source (NSSDC Master Catalog by NASA). ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sputnik-stamp-ussr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sputnik-stamp-ussr. ... An artists interpretation of the MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury A robotic spacecraft is a spacecraft with no humans on board, that is usually under telerobotic control. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The International Geophysical Year or IGY was an international scientific effort that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958. ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ...


The Russian name "Спутник" means literally "co-traveler", "traveling companion" or "satellite", and its R-7 launch vehicle was designed initially to carry nuclear warheads. R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 (Semyorka) was the worlds first ICBM and was deployed by the Soviet Union. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ...

Contents

Impact

The surprise launch of Sputnik 1, coupled with the spectacular failure of the United States' first two Project Vanguard launch attempts, shocked the United States, which responded with a number of early satellite launches, including Explorer 1, Project SCORE, and Courier 1B. The Sputnik crisis also led to the creation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1972): DARPA, and NASA, and an increase in U.S. government spending on scientific research and education. Vanguard Rocket Project Vanguard was the name given to the first United States program that was commissioned to design and launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit. ... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Launched October 4, 1960, Courier 1B was the worlds first active repeater satellite. ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...


The launch of Sputnik 1 inspired U.S. writer Herb Caen to coin the term "beatnik" in an article about the Beat Generation in the San Francisco Chronicle on April 2, 1958.[1] See also: -nik. Herbert Eugene Caen (April 3, 1916 – February 1, 1997) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist working in San Francisco. ... For other uses, see Beatnik (disambiguation). ... Beats redirects here. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... The English suffix -nik is of Slavic origin. ...


Early flights

Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4, 1957. The satellite was 58 cm (about 23 in) in diameter and weighed approximately 83.6 kg (about 183 lb). Each of its elliptical orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes. Monitoring of the satellite was done by many amateur radio operators.[2] The first long-range flight of the R-7 booster used to launch it had occurred on August 21 and was described in Aviation Week. Sputnik 1 was not visible from Earth but the casing of the R-7 booster, traveling behind it, was. Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 Semyorka was the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile and was deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War from 1959 to 1968. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Stub | Science & technology magazines ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 Semyorka was the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile and was deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War from 1959 to 1968. ...


Sputnik 2 was launched on November 3, 1957 and carried the first living passenger into orbit, a dog named Laika. The mission planners did not provide for the safe return of the spacecraft or its passenger, making Laika the first orbital casualty. This mission was promptly dubbed "Muttnik" by US humorists.[3] Sputnik 2 (Russian: , Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal - a dog named Laika. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... For other uses, see Laika (disambiguation). ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... A passenger is a term broadly used to describe any person who travels in a vehicle, but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination. ... A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident, injury, or trauma. ...


The first attempt to launch Sputnik 3, on February 3, 1958, failed, but the second on May 15 succeeded, and it carried a large array of instruments for geophysical research. Its tape recorder failed, however, making it unable to measure the Van Allen radiation belts. Sputnik 3 (Russian: , Satellite 3) was a Soviet satellite launched on May 15, 1958 from Baikonur cosmodrome by a modified R-7/SS-6 ICBM. It was a research satellite to explore the upper atmosphere and the near space. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Sony reel-to-reel tape recorder. ... Van Allen radiation belts The Van Allen Radiation Belt is a torus of energetic charged particles (plasma) around Earth, held in place by Earths magnetic field. ...


Sputnik 4 was launched two years later, on May 15, 1960. Crew None Mission Parameters Mass: 1,477 kg Perigee: 280 km Apogee: 675 km Inclination: 65. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sputnik 5 was launched on August 19, 1960 with the dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, 2 rats and several plants on board. The spacecraft returned to earth the next day and all animals were recovered safely. Sputnik 5 was a USSR artificial Earth satellite from the Sputnik space program, launched on August 19, 1960. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belka and Strelka orbited the Earth and returned safely on Korabl-Sputnik-2 During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used a number of dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible. ... This article is about the rodent. ... This article is about rats. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...


Sputnik 40 and Sputnik 41

Sputnik 40, also called Sputnik PS2, Radio Sputnik 17 (RS-17) and Mini-Sputnik, was a 13-scale model amateur radio satellite launched from the Mir space station on 3 November 1997 to commemorate the 40th anniversary of Sputnik 1. The spacecraft body resembled Sputnik 1 and was built by students at the Polytechnic Laboratory of Nalchik in Kabardino-Balkaria. The transmitter was built by students from Jules Reydellet College in Réunion, with technical support from AMSAT-France. Its batteries expired on 29 December 1998 and the VHF transmitter fell silent.[4][5][6] Its international designator is 1997-058C, United States Space Command object 24958.[7] OSCAR is an acronym for Orbital Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Capital Nalchik Area - total - % water Ranked 83rd - 12,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 60th - est. ... AMSAT is both a generic name for amateur radio satellite organizations world-wide, but in particular is the name of the Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation of North America (AMSAT-NA) with headquarters at Silver Spring, Maryland, near Washington DC. Other national organizations exist, such as AMSAT Germany (AMSAT-DL), AMSAT... The United States Air Force Space Command (USAFSPC or AFSPC) is a major command of the U.S. Air Force with headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. ...


Sputnik 41 (RS-18, designator 1998-62C, object 25533[8]) was launched a year later, on 10 November 1998. It also carried a transmitter. is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


See also

Spaceflight Portal

Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (Серге́й Па́влович Королёв) (December 30, 1906– January 14, 1966) was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the space race, known only as the chief designer during his lifetime. ... Donald Bruce Gillies (October 15, 1928 - July 17, 1975) was a Canadian mathematician and computer scientist, known for his work in game theory, computer design, and minicomputer programming environments. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... // None Mass: 4,563 kg Perigee: 166 km Apogee: 232 km Inclination: 64. ... Sputnik 7 was the first Soviet attempt at launching prode to explore Venus. ... Sputnik 8 was identical in design and construction to Sputnik 7, with minor adjustments to the fourth stage Zond rocket. ... Sputnik 19 (also known as Alpha Pi 1) was a Soviet Venera-type spacecraft intended to make a landing on Venus. ... Sputnik 20 (also known as 1962 Alpha Tau 1) was intended to be a Venus landing mission. ... Sputnik 21 was an unsuccessful Venus flyby mission launched on 12 September 1962 by the Soviet Union. ...

References

  1. ^ Hamlin, Jesse. "How Herb Caen Named a Generation", San Francisco Chronicle, November 26, 1995. Retrieved on 2007-09-30. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ A Brief History of Animals in Space. NASA. Retrieved on 8 August 2007.
  4. ^ Sputnik: First Artificial Satellite. Retrieved on 18 December 2006.
  5. ^ Tiny Beeping Model Tossed From Station. Space Today Online. Retrieved on 18 December 2006.
  6. ^ Radio Sputnik 17. AMSAT. Retrieved on 18 December 2006.
  7. ^ SPACEWARN Activities, SPX-529. NASA. Retrieved on 18 December 2006.
  8. ^ SPACEWARN Activities, SPX-543. NASA. Retrieved on 18 December 2006.

is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Dickson, Paul, Sputnik: The Shock of the Century, Walker & Company (June 26, 2007), ISBN 978-0802713650

Paul Dickson (born in Yonkers, NY) is a freelance writer of more than 45 non-fiction books, mostly on (American) English language and popular culture. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Three recent historical articles are noteworthy for their research and debunking of common misinformation:

Other sites on Sputnik
Sputnik in music
Don Mitchell may refer to: Don Mitchell (actor), an American actor best known for his role in the TV series Ironside Don Mitchell (geographer), a notable geographer Don Mitchell (politician), former Mayor and alderman of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, former Saskatchewan New Democratic Party leadership candidate, and current New Democratic Party... Asif Azam Siddiqi (b. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... Sputnik 2 (Russian: , Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal - a dog named Laika. ... Sputnik 3 (Russian: , Satellite 3) was a Soviet satellite launched on May 15, 1958 from Baikonur cosmodrome by a modified R-7/SS-6 ICBM. It was a research satellite to explore the upper atmosphere and the near space. ... Crew None Mission Parameters Mass: 1,477 kg Perigee: 280 km Apogee: 675 km Inclination: 65. ... Sputnik 5 was a USSR artificial Earth satellite from the Sputnik space program, launched on August 19, 1960. ... // None Mass: 4,563 kg Perigee: 166 km Apogee: 232 km Inclination: 64. ... Sputnik 7 was the first Soviet attempt at launching prode to explore Venus. ... Sputnik 8 was identical in design and construction to Sputnik 7, with minor adjustments to the fourth stage Zond rocket. ... Crew None Mission Parameters Mass: 4,700 kg Perigee: 173 km Apogee: 239 km Inclination: 64. ... Crew None Mission Parameters Mass: 4,695 kg Perigee: 164 km Apogee: 230 km Inclination: 64. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sputnik program (0 words)
The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites.
Sputnik 5 was launched on August 19, 1960 with the dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants on board.
Sputnik 40 (Object 24958/97058C) was a 1/3 scale model amateur radio AMSAT satellite launched from the Mir space station on 3 November 1997 to commemorate the 40th anniversary of Sputnik 1.
Science Fair Projects - Sputnik program (463 words)
The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites.
Sputnik 2 was launched some months later, and carried the first living passenger, a dog named Laika.
Sputnik 5 was launched into orbit on August 19, 1960 with the dogs Belka and Strelka (Russian for "Squirrel", or more likely "Whitey" from Russian "belyj", which means "white", and "Little Arrow"), 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants on-board.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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