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Encyclopedia > Sputnik crisis
Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1

The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. The USA had believed itself to be the leader of space technology and thus a leader of missile development. The surprise Sputnik launch and the failure of the first two U.S. launch attempts proved it was not so. After this, the Space Race began, leading up to Project Apollo and the moon landings in 1969, which eventually ended the Sputnik crisis. Sputnik 1 Picture from NASA This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Sputnik 1 Picture from NASA This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants {{{combatant1}}} {{{combatant2}}} Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties {{{casualties1}}} {{{casualties2}}} {{{notes}}} The Cold War was the protracted geostrategic, economic and ideological struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their respective and emerging alliance partners. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite 1) was the first artificial satellite to be put into orbit, on October 4, 1957. ... A missile (CE pronunciation: ; AmE: ) is, in general, a projectile—that is, something thrown or otherwise propelled. ... Project Vanguard was the name of the United States program that was to have launched the first artificial satellite of the Earth. ... Titan II rockets launched 12 U.S. Gemini spacecraft in the 1960s. ... Apollo Program insignia Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1972. ... Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ...


The Sputnik crisis spurred a whole chain of U.S. initiatives, from large to small, many of them initiated by the Department of Defense. The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ...

  • Within 2 days, calculation of the Sputnik Orbit (joint work by UIUC Astronomy Dept. and Digital Computer Lab.)
  • By February 1958, the political and defense communities had recognized the need for a high-level Department of Defense organization to execute R&D projects and created the Advanced Research Projects Agency, which later became the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or DARPA.
  • On July 29, 1958, President Eisenhower formally brought the U.S. into the Space Race by signing the National Aeronautics and Space Act, creating NASA and later Project Mercury.
  • Education programs initiated to foster a new generation of engineers. One of the more remarkable and remembered things that came out of this was the concept of "New Math".
  • Dramatically increased support for scientific research. For 1959, Congress increased the National Science Foundation appropriation to $134 million, almost $100 million higher than the year before. By 1968, the NSF budget would stand at nearly $500 million.
  • The Polaris missile program.
  • Project management as an area of inquiry and an object of much scrutiny, leading up to the modern concept of project management and standardized project models such as the DoD Program Evaluation and Review Technique, PERT, invented for Polaris.
  • The decision by President Kennedy, who campaigned in 1960 on closing the "missile gap", to deploy 1000 Minuteman missiles, far more ICBMs than the Soviets had at the time.

The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, also known as UIUC and the U of I (the officially preferred abbreviation), is the flagship campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Donald Bruce Gillies (October 15, 1928 - July 17, 1975) was a Canadian mathematician and computer scientist, known for his work in game theory, computer design, and minicomputer programming environments. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... Titan II rockets launched 12 U.S. Gemini spacecraft in the 1960s. ... NASA logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Project Mercury was the United States first successful manned spaceflight program. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... New math is a term referring to a brief dramatic change in the way mathematics was taught in American grade schools during the 1960s. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... Polaris A-1 on launch pad in Cape Canaveral Polaris A-3 on launch pad in Cape Canaveral The Polaris missile was a submarine-launched, nuclear-tipped ballistic missile (SLBM) built during the Cold War by the United States Navy. ... Project Management is the discipline of defining and achieving targets while optimizing the use of resources (time, money, people, materials, energy, space, etc) over the course of a project (a set of activities of finite duration). ... A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. ... PERT network chart for a seven-month project with five milestones (10 through 50) and six activities (A through F). ... JFK redirects here. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) (the other type is the LG-118A Peacekeeper, which is to be phased out by 2005). ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sputnik program - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (445 words)
Sputnik 2 was launched on November 3, 1957 and carried the first living passenger, a dog named Laika.
Sputnik 5 was launched into orbit on August 19, 1960 with the dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants on-board.
Sputnik 40 (Object Object 24958/97058C) was a 1/3 scale model Amateur Radio AMSAT satellite launched from the MIR space station on 3 November 1997 to commemorate the 40th anniversary of Sputnik 1.
Sputnik crisis - definition of Sputnik crisis in Encyclopedia (314 words)
The Sputnik crisis was a turning point of the Cold War that begun on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite.
The surprise Sputnik launch and the failure of the first two U.S. launch attempts proved it was not so.
The Sputnik crisis spurred a whole chain of U.S. initiatives, from large to small, many of them initiated by the Department of Defense.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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