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Encyclopedia > Sputnik 2
Sputnik 2
Sputnik 2
Organization: Soviet Union
Major Contractors: Korolev Design Bureau
Mission type: Earth Science
Satellite of: Earth
Launch Date: November 3, 1957 at 02:30:00 UTC
Launch Vehicle: R-7/SS-6 ICBM
Decay: April 14, 1958
Mission Duration: 162 days
NSSDC ID: 1957-002A
Webpage: NASA NSSDC Master Catalog
Mass: 508.3 kg
Semimajor Axis: 7,314.2 km
Eccentricity: .098921
Inclination: 65.33°
Orbital Period: 103.7 minutes
Apoapsis: 1,660 km
Periapsis: 212 km
Orbits: ~2,000
edit
Instruments
Dog Laika: Biological data
Geiger counters : Charged particles
Spectrophotometers: Solar radiation (ultraviolet and
x-ray emissions) and cosmic rays

Sputnik 2 (Russian: Спутник-2, Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal - a dog named Laika. It was a 4 meter high cone-shaped capsule with a base diameter of 2 meters. It contained several compartments for radio transmitters, a telemetry system, a programming unit, a regeneration and temperature control system for the cabin, and scientific instruments. A separate sealed cabin contained the experimental dog Laika. Image File history File links Sputnik 2 The image is a model on display at the Polytechnical Museum in Russia. ... S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (also known as RKK Energiya) is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with R-7 Semyorka. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105 in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NASA logo The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is a department in NASAs Solar System Exploration Division. ... In astrodynamics, under standard assumptions any orbit must be of conic section shape. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Laika, in 1957, became the first animal to be launched into orbit, paving the way for human spaceflight. ... Modern geiger counter. ... In physics, spectrophotometry is the quantitative study of spectra. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Earth orbit is an orbit around the planet Earth. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog Canis lupus is a type of canine, a mammal in the order Carnivora. ... Laika, in 1957, became the first animal to be launched into orbit, paving the way for human spaceflight. ... In communications and information processing, a transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an object (source) which sends information to an observer (receiver). ... Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ... Temperature control is a process in which the temperature of an object is measured and the passage of heat energy into or out of the object is adjusted to achieve a desired temperature. ... Laika, in 1957, became the first animal to be launched into orbit, paving the way for human spaceflight. ...


Engineering and biological data were transmitted using the Tral D telemetry system, which would transmit data to Earth for 15 minutes of each orbit. Two photometers were on board for measuring solar radiation (ultraviolet and x-ray emissions) and cosmic rays. Sputnik 2 did not contain a television camera (TV images of dogs on Sputnik 5 are commonly misidentified as Laika). Biological data is data collected from biological sources, which is stored or exchanged in a digital form. ... UV redirects here. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Crew None Mission Parameters Mass: 4,600 kg Perigee: 287 km Apogee: 324 km Inclination: 64. ...

Contents

Mission profile

Sputnik 2 was launched on an essentially unmodified ICBM R-7, similar to that used for Sputnik 1, to a 212 x 1660 km orbit with a period of 103.7 minutes. After reaching orbit the nose cone was jettisoned successfully but the Blok A core did not separate as planned. This inhibited the operation of the thermal control system. Additionally some of the thermal insulation tore loose so the interior temperatures reached 40 °C. It is believed Laika survived for only a few hours instead of the planned ten days because of the heat. The orbit of Sputnik 2 decayed and it reentered Earth's atmosphere on 14 April 1958 after 162 days in orbit. A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 (Semyorka) was the worlds first ICBM and was deployed by the Soviet Union. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite 1) was the first artificial satellite to be put into orbit, on October 4, 1957. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105 in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Passenger

Main article: Laika

The first being to enter orbit was a female part-Samoyed terrier originally named Kudryavka (Little Curly) but later renamed Laika ("Barker"). She weighed about 6 kg. The pressurized cabin on Sputnik 2 allowed enough room for her to lie down or stand and was padded. An air regeneration system provided oxygen; food and water were dispensed in a gelatinized form. Laika was fitted with a harness, a bag to collect waste, and electrodes to monitor vital signs. The early telemetry indicated Laika was agitated but eating her food. There was no capability of returning a payload safely to Earth at this time, so it was planned that Laika would be euthanized with a poisoned serving of food after about 10 days of orbiting the Earth. However, in October 2002 it was revealed by Russian sources that Laika had already died after a few hours from overheating and stress. The mission provided scientists with the first data on the behavior of a living organism in the space environment. Laika, in 1957, became the first animal to be launched into orbit, paving the way for human spaceflight. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Samoyed The Samoyed dog takes its name from the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia. ... The term harness has been used for many centuries for part of the collection of equipment known as horse tack, essential in the domestic, military, and agrarian use of horses. ... An electrode is a conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e. ... Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ, eu, good, θάνατος, thanatos, death) is the practice of terminating the life of a person or animal in a painless or minimally painful way. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Stress is the internal distribution of force per unit area that balances and reacts to external loads applied to a body. ...


Sputnik 2 and the Van Allen radiation belt

Sputnik 2 was not able to detect the Van Allen radiation belts as it traveled far enough to the north such that it was under most of the radiation belt while it was monitorable from the USSR. It carried no tape recorder. The Geiger counters did report an increase from 400-700 km but this was not interpreted as anything unusual. In Australia, Professor Harry Messel intercepted the signals but the Soviets would not provide the code and the Australians would not send the data. In 1958, with Sputnik 3, they began to cooperate and confirmed the findings of Explorers 1, 3, and 4. Van Allen radiation belts The Van Allen Radiation Belt is a torus of energetic charged particles (plasma) around Earth, held in place by Earths magnetic field. ... Modern geiger counter. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sputnik 3 (Russian: , Satellite 3) was a Soviet satellite launched on May 15, 1958 from Baikonur cosmodrome by a modified R-7/SS-6 ICBM. It was a research satellite to explore the upper atmosphere and the near space. ... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... Mission Description Explorer-III was nearly identical to Explorer I in design and mission. ... Explorer 4 was a US satellite launched on July 26, 1958. ...


External links

  • NSSDC Master Catalog: Spacecraft Sputnik 2
  • Sputnik 2 at Astronautix
Preceded by
Sputnik 1
Sputnik program Succeeded by
Sputnik 3

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sputnik (320 words)
Sputnik is the name for a series of artificial Earth satellites that were launched by the Soviet Union that began the Space Age.
Sputnik 1, a 184-pound (84-kilogram), 23-inch-diameter (58-centimeter) capsule, was launched on October 4, 1957, and took 96 minutes to circle the Earth.
Sputnik 2, launched on November 3, 1957, carried the dog Laika, the first living creature to travel into space and orbit the Earth.
Sputnik - MSN Encarta (561 words)
Sputnik 2 was launched on November 3, 1957, and weighed 508 kg (1100 lb).
The first three Sputnik satellites each carried instruments to measure the temperature and density of the earth's upper atmosphere, the electron density of the ionosphere, and the size and number of micrometeorites (tiny particles in space).
Sputniks 7 and 8, launched in February 1961, served as launching platforms for the Venera spacecraft, which were sent toward Venus.
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