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Encyclopedia > Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
"Спутник-1"

Organization: Council of Ministers of the USSR
Major contractors: OKB-1, Soviet Ministry of Radiotechnical Industry
Mission type: Atmospheric studies
Satellite of: Earth
Launch date: October 4, 1957, 19:28:34 UTC (22:28:34 MSK)
Launch vehicle: Sputnik Rocket
Decay: January 4, 1958
Mission duration: 3 months
NSSDC ID: 1957-001B
Webpage: NASA NSSDC Master Catalog
Mass: 83.6 kg (184.3 lb.)
Semimajor axis: 6,955.2 km (4,321.8 miles)
Eccentricity: .05201
Inclination: 65.1°
Orbital period: 96.2 minutes
Apoapsis: 7310 km from centre, 939 km (583 miles) from surface
Periapsis: 6586 km from centre, 215 km (134 miles) from surface
Orbits: 1,440
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Sputnik 1 (Russian: "Спутник-1", "Satellite-1", or literally "Co-traveler-1" byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i.e. "Простейший Спутник-1", or Elementary Satellite-1)) was the first artificial satellite to be put into geocentric orbit. Launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, it was the first of a series of satellites collectively known as the Sputnik program. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 732 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1094 × 896 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sputnik 1 - Source (NSSDC Master Catalog by NASA). ... This article or section should be merged with Peoples Commissar Sovnarkom (Russian language СовНарКом, the abbreviation of the phrase Совет Народных Комиссар&#1086... S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (also known as RKK Energiya) is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Moscow Time (Russian: ) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 Semyorka was the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile and was deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War from 1959 to 1968. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... NASA logo The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is a department in NASAs Solar System Exploration Division. ... In astrodynamics, under standard assumptions any orbit must be of conic section shape. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... Geocentric orbit refers to the orbit of any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... “Sputnik” redirects here. ...


The satellite helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. Because the satellite's body was filled with pressurized nitrogen, Sputnik 1 also provided the first opportunity for meteorite detection, as a loss of internal pressure due to meteoroid penetration of the outer surface would have been evident in the temperature data sent back to Earth. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so-called Space Race within the Cold War. “Air” redirects here. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Sputnik-1 was set in motion during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1 at the 5th Tyuratam range in Kazakh SSR (now at the Baikonur Cosmodrome). The satellite traveled at 29,000 kilometers (18,000 mi) per hour and emitted radio signals at 20.005 and 40.002 MHz[1] which were monitored by amateur radio operators throughout the world. The signals continued for 22 days until the transmitter batteries ran out on October 26, 1957.[2] Sputnik 1 burned up as it fell from orbit upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, after traveling about 60 million km (37 million miles) and spending 6 months in orbit. The International Geophysical Year or IGY was an international scientific effort that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958. ... Gagarins Start (Russian: ) is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome, used for the Soviet space program and managed by the Russian Federal Space Agency since 1991. ... Tyuratam is a station on the main Moscow to Tashkent railway, located in Kazakhstan. ... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ğarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD display and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is a hobby that uses various types of radio broadcasting equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... “Air” redirects here. ...

Contents

Before the launch

Satellite construction project

The history of the Sputnik 1 project dates back to May 27, 1954, when Sergei Korolev addressed Dmitry Ustinov, then Minister of Defense Industries, proposing the development of an artificial satellite of the Earth and forwarding him a report by Mikhail Tikhonravov with an overview of similar projects abroad.[3] Tikhonravov emphasized that an artificial satellite is an inevitable stage in the development of rocket equipment, after which interplanetary communication would become possible.[4] On July 29, 1955 the U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower announced through his press secretary that the United States would launch an artificial satellite during the International Geophysical Year (IGY).[5] A week later, on August 8, the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU approved the idea of creating an artificial satellite.[6] On August 30, Vasily Ryabikov, the head of the State Commission on R-7 rocket test launches, held a meeting where Korolev presented calculation data on the spacecraft to be sent to the Moon. They decided to develop a three-stage version of the R-7 rocket for satellite launches.[7] is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (Серге́й Па́влович Королёв) (December 30, 1906– January 14, 1966) was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the space race, known only as the chief designer during his lifetime. ... Dimitri Fyodorovich Ustinov (October 17, 1908–December 20, 1984) was Defense Minister of the Soviet Union from 1976 until his death. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... The International Geophysical Year or IGY was an international scientific effort that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 Semyorka was the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile and was deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War from 1959 to 1968. ...


On January 30, 1956, the Council of Ministers of the USSR approved practical work on an artificial satellite of the Earth. This satellite, named "Object D", was planned to be completed in 1957-58; it would have a mass of 1,000 to 1,400 kg (2,200 to 3,090 lb) and would carry 200 to 300 kg (440 to 660 lb.) of scientific instruments.[8] The first test launch of "Object D" was scheduled for 1957.[4] According to that decision, work on the satellite was to be divided between institutions as follows:[9] is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section should be merged with Peoples Commissar Sovnarkom (Russian language СовНарКом, the abbreviation of the phrase Совет Народных Комиссар&#1086...

  • USSR Academy of Sciences was responsible for the general scientific leadership and research instruments supply
  • Ministry of Defense Industry and its main executor OKB-1 were assigned the task of creating the satellite as a special carrier for scientific research instruments
  • Ministry of Radiotechnical Industry would develop the control system, radiotechnical instruments and the telemetry system
  • Ministry of Ship Building Industry would develop gyroscope devices
  • Ministry of Machine Building would develop ground launching, refueling and transportation means
  • Ministry of Defense was responsible for conducting launches

By July 1956 the draft was completed and the scientific tasks to be carried out by a satellite were defined. They should include measuring density of the atmosphere, its ion composition, corpuscular solar radiation, magnetic fields, cosmic rays, etc. Data valuable for creating future oriented satellites was also planned to be collected. A ground observational complex was developed, that would collect information transmitted by the satellite, observe the satellite's orbit, and transmit commands to the satellite. Such a complex should include up to 15 measurement stations. Due to the limited time frame, they should have means designed for rocket R-7 observations. Observations were planned for only 7 to 10 days and orbit calculations were expected to be not quite accurate.[10] Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (also known as RKK Energiya) is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components. ... Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ... A gyroscope For other uses, see Gyroscope (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, the space surrounding moving electric charges, changing electric fields and magnetic dipoles contains a magnetic field. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ...


Unfortunately, the complexity of the ambitious design and problems in following exact specifications meant that some parts of 'Object D', when delivered for assembly, simply did not fit with the others, causing costly delays. By the end of 1956 it became clear, that plans for 'Object D' were not to be fulfilled in time due to difficulties creating scientific instruments and the low specific impulse produced by completed R-7 engines (304 sec instead of the planned 309 to 310 sec). Consequently the government re-scheduled the launch for April 1958.[4] Object D would later fly as Sputnik 3. Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. ... Sputnik 3 (Russian: , Satellite 3) was a Soviet satellite launched on May 15, 1958 from Baikonur cosmodrome by a modified R-7/SS-6 ICBM. It was a research satellite to explore the upper atmosphere and the near space. ...


Fearing the U.S. would launch a satellite before the USSR, OKB-1 suggested the creation and launch of a satellite in April-May 1957, before the IGY began in July 1957. The new satellite would be simple, light (100 kg), and easy to construct, forgoing the complex, heavy scientific equipment in favour of a simple radio transmitter. On February 15, 1957 the Council of Ministers of the USSR approved this, providing for launching the simplest unoriented Earth satellite, designated 'Object PS' for checking the possibility of its observation in orbit and for receiving signals transmitted by the satellite.[11] Launch of two satellites PS-1 and PS-2 with two R-7 rockets (8K71) was allowed, but only after one or two successful R-7 test launches.[11] S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (also known as RKK Energiya) is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Launch vehicle preparation and launch site selection

Main article: R-7 rocket

The two-stage R-7 rocket was initially designed as an ICBM by OKB-1. The decision to build it was made by the CPSU Central Committee and the Council of Ministers of the USSR on May 20, 1954.[12] A special reconnaissance commission selected Tyuratam as a place for the construction of a rocket proving ground (the 5th Tyuratam range, usually referred to as "NIIP-5", or "GIK-5" in the post-Soviet time). The selection was approved on February 12, 1955 by the Council of Ministers of the USSR, but the site would not be completed until 1958.[13] Actual work on the construction of the site began on July 20 by military building units. On June 14, 1956 Sergei Korolev decided to adapt the R-7 rocket to the 'Object D',[14] that would later be replaced by the much lighter 'Object PS'. R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 (Semyorka) was the worlds first ICBM and was deployed by the Soviet Union. ... The second stage of a Minuteman III rocket A multistage (or multi-stage) rocket is a rocket that uses two or more stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 (Semyorka) was the worlds first ICBM and was deployed by the Soviet Union. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (also known as RKK Energiya) is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components. ... The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... Proving Ground is a term for a military installation or reservation where weapons or other military technology are experimented or tested, or where military tactics are tested. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The first launch of an R-7 rocket (8K71 No.5L) occurred on May 15, 1957. The flight was controlled until the 98th second, but a fire in a strap-on rocket led to an unintended crash 400 km from the site.[15] Three attempts to launch the second rocket (8K71 No.6) were made on June 10-11, which failed due to a mistake made during the rocket's assembly.[16] The unsuccessful launch of the third R-7 rocket (8K71 No.7) took place on July 12.[15] During the flight the rocket began to rotate about its longitudinal axis and its engines were automatically turned off. The packet of stages was destroyed 32.9 seconds into the flight. The stages fell 7 km from the site and exploded.[17] is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aircraft flight controls allow a pilot to adjust and control the aircrafts flight attitude. ...


The launch of the fourth rocket (8K71 No.8), on August 21 at 15:25 Moscow Time[15], was successful. Its head part separated, reached the defined region, entered the atmosphere, and was destroyed at a height of 10 km due to thermodynamic overload after traveling 6,000 km. On August 27 TASS the USSR issued a statement on the launch of a long-distance multistage ICBM. The launch of the fifth R-7 rocket (8K71 No.9), on September 7,[15] was also successful, but the head part was also destroyed in the atmosphere,[17] and hence needed a long redesign to completely fit its military purpose. The rocket, however, was already suitable for scientific satellite launches and this "time-out" of the rocket's military exploitation was used to launch the PS-1 and PS-2 satellites.[18] is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Moscow Time (Russian: ) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... TASS can refer to one of the following: The transliteration of the Russian abbreviation for the Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 22 a modified R-7 rocket, named Sputnik Rocket (Russian: ракета-носитель Спутник) and indexed as 8K71PS, with the satellite PS-1, arrived at the proving ground and preparations for the launch began.[19] As the R-7 was designed to carry the much heavier Object D, its adaptation to PS-1 reduced its initial mass from 280 to 272.83 tons and its mass at the moment of take-off was 267 tons; its length with PS-1 was 29.167 meters and the thrust at the moment of start was 3.90 MN.[20] is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Laws. ... In physics, the newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force, named after Sir Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics. ...


Observational complex

The measurement complex at the proving ground for monitoring launch vehicle parameters from its start onward was completed prior to the first R-7 rocket test launches in December 1956. It consisted of six static stations: IP-1 through IP-6, with IP-1 situated at a distance of 1 km from the launch pad.[18] The main monitoring devices of these stations were telemetry and trajectory measurement stations, "Tral," developed by OKB MEI. They received and monitored data from the "Tral" system transponders mounted on the R-7 rocket;[21] an on-board system that provided precise telemetric data about Sputnik's launch vehicle. The data was useful even after the satellite's separation from the second stage of the rocket; Sputnik's location was calculated from the data on second stage's location (which followed Sputnik at a known distance) using nomograms developed by P.E. Elyasberg. [22] An OKB (Russian: Опытное конструкторское бюро - Opytnoe Konstructorskoe Byuro - Experimental Design Bureau) was, during the Soviet era, an engineering design team. ... An Ontario Highway 407 toll transponder In telecommunication, the term transponder (short-for Transmitter-responder and sometimes abbreviated to XPDR, XPNDR or TPDR) has the following meanings: An automatic device that receives, amplifies, and retransmits a signal on a different frequency (see also broadcast translator). ... Smith chart which shows how the complex impedance of a transmission line varies along its length This article is about the graphical devices called nomograms. ...


An additional observational complex, established to track the satellite after its separation from the rocket, was completed by a group led by Colonel Yu.A.Mozzhorin in accordance with the General Staff directive of May 8, 1957. It was called the Command-Measurement Complex and consisted of the coordination center in NII-4 by the Ministry of Defence of the USSR (at Bolshevo) and seven ground tracking stations, situated along the line of the satellite's ground track. They were: NIP-1 (at Tyuratam station, Kazakh SSR, situated not far from IP-1), NIP-2 (at Makat station, Guryev Oblast), NIP-3 (at Sary-Shagan station, Dzhezkazgan Oblast), NIP-4 (at Yeniseysk), NIP-5 (at village Iskup, Krasnoyarsk Krai), NIP-6 (at Yelizovo) and NIP-7 (at Klyuchi).[18][23] The complex had a communication channel with the launch pad. Stations were equipped with radar, optical instruments, and communication means. PS-1 was not designed to be controlled, it could only be observed. Data from stations was transmitted by telegraphs into NII-4 where ballistics specialists calculated orbital parameters. The complex became an early prototype of the Soviet Mission Control Center [24] This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... This articles deals with the British ministry, see defence minister for other countries. ... Yubileyny (Russian: ) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located some six kilometers northeast of Moscow, on the Klyazma River. ... Ground track of the International Space Station for approximately two periods. ... Tyuratam is a station on the main Moscow to Tashkent railway, located in Kazakhstan. ... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Atyrau is a province of Kazakhstan. ... Karagandy is a province of Kazakhstan. ... Transfiguration Church was built in the 1750s. ... Krasnoyarsk Krai (Russian: ) (2002 pop. ... Yelizovo is a town in the Kamchatka Oblast, Russia. ... , Klyuchi (Russian: ) is a settlement in Kamchatka Krai, Russia, situated on the Kamchatka River, 30 km to the north of Klyuchevskaya Sopka. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Ballistics (gr. ... Mission Control Center (MCC) is a unit that manages aerospace flights. ...


Design

A picture of Sputnik 1 in the fall of 1957 as a technician puts finishing touches on it.

The chief constructor of Sputnik 1 at OKB-1 was M.S.Khomyakov.[25] The satellite was a 585 mm (23 in) diameter sphere, assembled from two hemispheres which were hermetically sealed using o-rings and connected using 36 bolts.[26] The hemispheres, covered with a highly polished 1mm-thick heat shield[27] made of aluminium-magnesium-titanium AMG6T ("AMG" is an abbreviation for "aluminium-magnesium" and "T" stands for "titanium", the alloy contains 6% of magnesium and 0.2% of titanium[28]) alloy, were 2mm-thick.[29] The satellite carried two antennas designed by the Antenna Laboratory of OKB-1 led by M.V.Krayushkin.[9] Each antenna was made up of two whip-like parts: 2.4 and 2.9 meters (7.9 and 9.5 ft) in length,[30] and had an almost spherical radiation pattern,[31] so that the satellite beeps were transmitted with equal power in all directions; making reception of the transmitted signal independent of the satellite's rotation. The whip-like pairs of antennas resembled four long "whiskers" pointing to one side, at equal 35 degrees angles with the longitudinal axis of the satellite.[32] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 603 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1005 × 1000 pixel, file size: 613 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Sputnik 1 (PS-1) satellite is shown here on a rigging truck in the assembly shop in the fall of 1957 as a technician puts... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 603 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1005 × 1000 pixel, file size: 613 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Sputnik 1 (PS-1) satellite is shown here on a rigging truck in the assembly shop in the fall of 1957 as a technician puts... Typical O-ring and application An O-ring is a loop of elastomer with a round (o-shaped) cross-section used as a mechanical seal. ... There are three kinds of fastener given the name bolt. ... In aeronautics, a heat shield is a protective layer on a spacecraft or ballistic missile that is designed to protect it from high temperatures, usually those that result from aerobraking during entry into a planets atmosphere. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... In telecommunication, the term radiation pattern has the following meanings: 1. ... Aircraft flight controls allow a pilot to adjust and control the aircrafts flight attitude. ...


The power supply, with a mass of 51 kg,[33] was in the shape of an octahedral nut with the radio transmitter in its hole.[34] It consisted of three silver-zinc batteries, developed at the All-Union Research Institute of Current Sources (VNIIT) under the leadership of N. S. Lidorenko. Two of them powered the radio transmitter and one powered the temperature regulation system.[33] They were expected to fade out in two weeks, but ended up working for 22 days. The power supply was turned on automatically at the moment of the satellite's separation from the second stage of the rocket.[32] A wall wart style variable DC power supply with its cover removed. ... A nut is a type of hardware fastener with a threaded hole. ... A Silver-oxide battery, also known as a silver-zinc battery, is a primary cell (although it may be used as a secondary cell with an open circuit potential of 1. ...


The satellite had a one-watt, 3.5 kg[18] radio transmitting unit inside, developed by V. I. Lappo from NII-885,[32] that worked on two frequences, 20.005 and 40.002 MHz. Signals on the first frequency were transmitted in 0.3 sec pulses (under normal temperature and pressure conditions onboard), with pauses of the same duration filled by pulses on the second frequency.[35] Analysis of the radio signals was used to gather information about the electron density of the ionosphere. Temperature and pressure were encoded in the duration of radio beeps, which additionally indicated that the satellite had not been punctured by a meteorite. A temperature regulation system contained a fan, a dual thermal switch, and a control thermal switch.[32] If the temperature inside the satellite exceeded 36 °C the fan was turned on and when it fell below 20 °C the fan was turned off by the dual thermal switch.[31] If the temperature exceeded 50 °C or fell below 0 °C, another control thermal switch was activated, changing the duration of the of radio signal pulses.[32] Sputnik 1 was filled with dry nitrogen, pressurized to 1.3 atm.[36] For the pressure control the satellite had a barometric switch, activated when the pressure inside the satellite fell below 0.35 kg/cm² (approx. 0.34 atm), changing the duration of radio signal impulse.[36] For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fan. ... A thermal cutoff is an electrical safety device that interrupts electrical current flow when heated to a specific temperature. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Schematic drawing of a simple mercury barometer with vertical mercury column and reservoir at base A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... A kilogram-force per square centimeter (kgf/cm2), often just kilogram per square centimeter (kg/cm2), is a unit of pressure using metric units. ...


While attatched to the rocket, Sputnik 1 was protected by a cone-shaped payload fairing, with a height of 80 cm and an aperture of 48 degrees.[18] The fairing separated from both Sputnik 1 and the rocket at the same time when the satellite was ejected.[32] Tests of the satellite were conducted at OKB-1 under the leadership of O. G. Ivanovsky.[25] Sputnik 1 was launched by an R-7 rocket on October 4, 1957. It burned up upon re-entry on January 4, 1958. This article is about the geometric object, for other uses see Cone. ... The wing root of a simple aircraft, an American Aviation AA-1 Yankee, showing a wing root fairing A fairing is a structure whose primary function is to produce a smooth outline and to reduce drag. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 (Semyorka) was the worlds first ICBM and was deployed by the Soviet Union. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Launch and mission

Soviet 40 copecks stamp, showing satellite's orbit.
Soviet 40 copecks stamp, showing satellite's orbit.

The control system of the Sputnik Rocket was tuned to provide an orbit with parameters: perigee height - 223 km, apogee height - 1450 km, orbital period - 101.5 min.[37] A rocket trajectory with these parameters was calculated earlier by Georgi Grechko,[38] who completed the calculations after several nights of work on the large computer of the USSR Academy of Sciences.[18] Image File history File linksMetadata Sputnik-stamp-ussr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sputnik-stamp-ussr. ... 1998 Russian Federation one rouble coin. ... Georgi Mikhailovich Grechko (Russian: Георгий Михайлович Гречко; born May 25, 1931 in Leningrad) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on three space flights: Soyuz 17, Soyuz 26, and Soyuz T-14. ... Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ...


The Sputnik Rocket was launched on October 4, 1957 at 19:28:34 UTC from the Site No.1 at NIIP-5.[39]. Processing of the information, obtained from the "Tral" system showed[18] that the side boosters separated 116.38 seconds into the flight and the second stage engine was shut-down 294.6 seconds into the flight.[37] At this moment the second stage with PS-1 attached had a height of 223 km above Earth's surface, a velocity of 7,780 m/s and velocity vector inclination to the local horizon was 0 degrees 24 minutes. This motion resulted in an orbit with initial parameters: perigee height - 223 km, apogee height - 950 km, initial orbital period - 96.2 minutes.[37] ... Gagarins Start (Russian: ) is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome, used for the Soviet space program and managed by the Russian Federal Space Agency since 1991. ...


After 314.5 seconds PS-1 separated from the second stage[37] and at the same moment at the small "Finnish house" of IP-1 station Junior Engineer-Lieutenant V.G.Borisov heard the "Beep-beep-beep" signals from the radio receiver R-250. Reception lasted for two minutes, while PS-1 was above the horizon. There were many people in the house, both military and civil, and they were probably the first to celebrate the event.[40][18] After 325.44 seconds a corner reflector on the second stage was opened, that also allowed measurement of its orbit parameters - like the working "Tral" system did.[27] Buoy in San Diego Harbor. ...


The designers, engineers and technicians who developed the rocket and satellite watched the launch from the range.[41] After the launch they ran to the mobile radio station to listen to signals from the satellite.[41] They waited about 90 minutes to ensure that the satellite had made one orbit and was transmitting, before Korolyov called Khrushchev.[42] The downlink telemetry included data on temperatures inside and on the surface of the sphere. Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union...


On the first orbit the Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) transmitted: "As result of great, intense work of scientific institutes and design bureaus the first artificial Earth satellite has been built".[43] The Sputnik 1 rocket booster (second stage of the rocket) also reached Earth orbit and was visible from the ground at night as a first magnitude object following the satellite. Korolyov had intentionally requested reflective panels placed on the booster in order to make it so visible.[42] The satellite itself, a small but highly polished sphere, was barely visible at sixth magnitude, and thus more difficult to follow optically. Ahead of Sputnik 1 flew the third object - the payload fairing, 80cm-long cone, i.e. a little bit bigger than the satellite. Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union at the USSR Cabinet of Ministers or TASS (Russian: ) was the central agency for collection and distribution of internal and international news for all Soviet newspapers, radio and television stations. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ...


Feedback

Further information: Space Race#Artificial satellites and Sputnik crisis
Our movies and television programs in the fifties were full of the idea of going into space. What came as a surprise was that it was the Soviet Union that launched the first satellite. It is hard to recall the atmosphere of the time. John Logsdon[44]

Teams of visual observers at 150 stations in the United States and other countries were alerted during the night to watch for the Soviet sphere at dawn and during the evening twilight. They had been organized in Project Moonwatch to sight the satellite through binoculars or telescopes as it passed overhead.[45] The USSR asked radio amateurs and commercial stations to record the sound of the satellite on magnetic tape.[45] For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... John Logsdon is chairman of the Space Policy Institute at George Washington University. ... Operation Moonwatch (also known as Project Moonwatch and, more simply, as Moonwatch) was an amateur science program formally initiated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in 1956 [1]. The SAO organized Moonwatch as part of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) which was probably the largest single scientific undertaking in history. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ...


At first the Soviet Union agreed to use equipment "compatible" with that of the United States, but later announced the lower frequencies.[45] The White House declined to comment on military aspects of the launch, but said it "did not come as a surprise."[46] On October 5 the Naval Research Laboratory announced it had recorded four crossings of Sputnik-1 over the United States.[45] U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower obtained photographs of the Soviet facilities from Lockheed U-2 flights conducted since 1956.[47] For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed Dragon Lady, is a single-engine, high-altitude aircraft flown by the United States Air Force. ...


Controversy surrounding re-entry

Long-standing official accounts state that, based on the degradation of Sputnik 1's orbit, the satellite re-entered the atmosphere on or about January 4, 1958, whereupon it is assumed to have burned up completely. The Sputnik 1 rocket booster re-entry was expected to occur somewhere above Alaska, or the West coast of North America, according to Soviet predictions in December 1957. [48] is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


There are dubious claims however, that certain components did survive: Per recent news reports, on the morning of December 8, 1957, Earl Thomas of Encino, California, was leaving his home to go to work, when he noticed something glowing beneath a tree in his back yard. The source turned out to be several pieces of plastic tubing, which he claimed matched structural diagrams of the Sputnik 1 satellite. A local Los Angeles radio DJ, Mark Ford of KDAY Radio, was at the same time offering a $50,000 reward for anyone who had found Sputnik, which reportedly had gone down in the L.A. area. When Thomas tried to claim the reward, he was met by a representative of the United States Air Force, who received the pieces Thomas found, and wrote a receipt on Air Force stationery. Later, after the radio station denied having offered a reward, Thomas brought the receipt back to the Air Force, where the sergeant on duty gave the pieces back to Thomas. The family wrote to government officials at all levels in an attempt to collect the reward, but were told that the government had not offered a reward. Of particular interest, however, was a reply from Colonel W.G. Woodbury of the Air Force, which includes the statement "At the time you recovered the Sputnik parts..." Currently, the disputed parts are in the possession of Bob Morgan, Thomas' son. An exhibit about the parts is currently on display at The Beat Museum, in the North Beach neighborhood of San Francisco. [49] is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... “Encino” redirects here. ...


Pop culture

Sputnik 1 resulted in a fashion trend now called the "Sputnik lamp", which usually consists of a metallic sphere with bars jutting out in multiple directions holding light bulbs or lamp globes at the ends. Most average around 8 to 15 bars, as opposed to the 4 antennae on Sputnik 1.


Replicas

One Sputnik 1 replica, built by French and Russian teenagers and hand-launched from Mir on November 3, 1997, died after two months in orbit.[47] Image File history File links Sputnik. ... Mir (Russian: ; lit. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


In 2003 a back-up unit of Sputnik 1 called "model PS-1" failed to sell on eBay.[50] It was offered while still on display in a science institute near Kiev. It is estimated that between four and twenty models were made for testing and as replicas. This article is about the online auction center. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


A Sputnik 1 model was given as a present to the United Nations and now decorates the entry Hall of its New York City Headquarters. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


What is thought to be a backup of Sputnik 1 now hangs at The Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington. The craft was manufactured by the Soviet Academy of Sciences and has battery acid remnants on the inside walls of the spherical shell, as well as fittings for the various components, suggesting that it was more than just a model [51]. For the Museum of Flight in East Lothian, Scotland, see Museum of Flight (Scotland). ...


Another replica is on display at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum. National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ...


A further replica is on display in the Space section of the Science Museum, London. Science Museum The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, Kensington, London, is part of the National Museum of Science and Industry. ...


Three accurate replicas of the Sputnik 1 titled "My Sputnik", were created by the artist and inventor Michael Joaquin Grey in 1990 and exhibited in art galleries and museums internationally.


Notes

  1. ^ Jorden, William J. "Soviet Fires Earth Satellite Into Space", New York Times, October 5, 1957. Retrieved on 2007-01-20. 
  2. ^ Sputnik. Vibrationdata.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  3. ^ (Russian) On the possibility of Earth's artificial satellite development, letter by Sergei Korolev, May 26, 1954
  4. ^ a b c (Russian) First artificial satellites, "Zenit", "Electron"
  5. ^ Korolev and Freedom of Space: February 14, 1955–October 4, 1957 at NASA
  6. ^ (Russian) On the creation of the Earth's artificial satellite, by the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU, August 8, 1955
  7. ^ G. S. Vetrov, Korolev And His Job. Appendix 2
  8. ^ (Russian) The Beginning
  9. ^ a b (Russian)On the Launch of the First Earth's artificial satellite in the USSR by Nikolai Lidorenko
  10. ^ (Russian) 40 Years of Space Era
  11. ^ a b Spacecrafts launched in 1957
  12. ^ (Russian) ICBM R-7 at Arms.ru
  13. ^ Origin of the test range in Tyuratam at Russianspaceweb.com
  14. ^ Sputnik-3 at Russianspaceweb.com
  15. ^ a b c d R-7 at Astronautix.com
  16. ^ R-7 Rocket at Energia
  17. ^ a b R-7 family of launchers and ICBMs at Russianspaceweb.com
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h (Russian) Creation and Launch of the First Earth's Satellite by V.Poroshkov
  19. ^ (Russian) 45th Anniversary of the First Start of Native ICBM R-7 at Ukrainian Aerospace Portal
  20. ^ Sputnik launch vehicle 8K71PS
  21. ^ Wonderful "Seven" and First Satellites at the website of OKB MEI
  22. ^ Yu.A.Mozzhorin Memories at the website of Russian state archive for scientific-technical documentation
  23. ^ http://www.missiles.ru/VPK-missiles-Tikhonov.htm
  24. ^ (Russian) Mission Control Center: Labour, Joys and Ordeals
  25. ^ a b (Russian)80th Anniversary of Oleg Genrikhovich Ivanovsky
  26. ^ (Russian) Space Era Start at BBC Russia
  27. ^ a b (Russian)PS-1 - The First Earth's Artificial Satellite
  28. ^ (Russian) Application of Aluminium Alloys in Construction, book by N.M.Kirsanov, Voronezh, 1960
  29. ^ Sputnik 1. Astronautix.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  30. ^ http://www.pnp.ru/chapters/events/events_4378.html
  31. ^ a b Satellite Sputnik-1
  32. ^ a b c d e f Sputnik Design at Russianspaceweb.com
  33. ^ a b (Russian) Fifty Space Years by A.Zheleznyakov
  34. ^ (Russian)Korolev:Facts and Myths, book by Yaroslav Golovanov
  35. ^ Form of Signals of the First Earth's Artificial Satellite - a document at the website of Russian state archive for scientific-technical documentation
  36. ^ a b Sputnik and Amateur Radio
  37. ^ a b c d (Russian) Main Results of the Launch of the Rocket with the First ISZ Onboard on October 4, 1957 - document signed by S.P.Korolev, V.P.Glushko, N.A.Pilyugin and V.P.Barmin, in the book by Vetrov "Korolev and His Job"
  38. ^ Secrets of 1957 Sputnik Launch Revealed at Foxnews
  39. ^ (Spanish)Sputnik 1
  40. ^ (Russian)How the First Sputnik Was Launched at Zemlya i Vselennaya magazine, No.5, 2002
  41. ^ a b World's first satellite and the international community's response. VoR.ru. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  42. ^ a b Red Moon Rising: Sputnik and the Hidden Rivalries That Ignited the Space Age by Matthew Brzezinski, 2007-11-14, ISBN 978-1410402790
  43. ^ (Russian) Спутник-1 - начало космической эры. Rustrana.ru (21.7.2005). Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  44. ^ David, Leonard (07:25 am ET 04 October 2002). Sputnik 1: The Satellite That Started It All. Space.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  45. ^ a b c d Sullivan, Walter. "Course Recorded", New York Times, October 5, 1957. Retrieved on 2007-01-20. 
  46. ^ "Senators Attack Missile Fund Cut", New York Times, October 6, 1957. Retrieved on 2007-01-20. 
  47. ^ a b Here Comes Sputnik!. Batnet.com (August 30, 1997). Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  48. ^ Charred debris questioned as pieces of Sputnik to go on tour. journalnow.com (February 18, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  49. ^ Have the Beatniks Found Sputnik?. The Beat Museum in North Beach. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  50. ^ Sputnik sale crashes. collectSPACE.
  51. ^ The Top Ten Sputniks. collectspace.com.]

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... An artists conception of a Soviet Buran space shuttle lifting off atop the Energia booster. ... Voronezh (Russian: ) is a large city in southwestern Russia, not far from Ukraine. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The FOX News Channel is a US cable and satellite news channel. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Spaceflight Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The ILLIAC I (Illinois Automatic Computer), a pioneering computer built in 1952 by the University of Illinois, was the first computer built and owned entirely by an educational institution. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ...

External links

Authentic recordings of the signal

  • Recording from Washington DC
  • Recording from German Ham Operator
  • Recording from Czechoslovakia

This Russian page contains signals which are probably the faster pulsations from Sputnik-2:

  • World's first satellite and the international community's response

A NASA history website on Sputnik contains this commonly copied recording, which is some pulse-duration-modulated signal of an unknown spacecraft:

  • NASA false Sputnik recording

History

Three recent historical articles are noteworthy for their research and debunking of common misinformation:

  • by Don Mitchell
  • by Asif Siddiqi
  • by Anatoly Zak

Other sites of interest:

  • Sputnik 1 Diary

Primary sources

  • Soviet documents
  • Newspaper accounts on radio ham operators

Miscellaneous

  • 1958 Video Newsreel of Russian Exhibition of Sputnik 1
  • 50th anniversary of the Earth's first artificial satellite launch. RIA Novosti Video
  • NASA on Sputnik 1
  • A joint Russian project of Ground microprocessing information systems SRC "PLANETA" and Space Monitoring Information Support laboratory (IKI RAN) dedicated to the 40th anniversary of Sputnik 1
  • International Sputnik Day
  • Top Ten Sputniks
  • Isachenkov, Vladimir. "Sputnik at 50: An improvised triumph", Associated Press, 2007-09-30. Retrieved on 2007-09-30. 
  • Dudney, Robert S. (October 2007). "When Sputnik Shocked the World". AIR FORCE MAGAZINE, Journal of the Air Force Assoc. 90 (10): pp.2-43. AFA. ISSN: 0730-6784. Retrieved on 2007-10-02. 
Preceded by
None
Sputnik program Succeeded by
Sputnik 2

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Sputnik” redirects here. ... Sputnik 2 (Russian: , Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal - a dog named Laika. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Sputnik 1 (1003 words)
Sputnik 1 (Спутник-1, Satellite 1) was the first artificial satellite to be put into orbit, on October 4, 1957.
Coming at the height of the Cold War, the launching of Sputnik caught the West by surprise, and in the U.S. led to a wave of self-recriminations, the beginning of the space race, and a movement to reform science education.
The Sputnik 1 spacecraft was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome at Tyuratam (370 km southwest of the small town of Baikonur) in Kazakhstan, then part of the Soviet Union.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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