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Encyclopedia > Spurge
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Spurge
Euphorbia cotinifolia ssp. cotinoides
Euphorbia cotinifolia ssp. cotinoides
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily: Euphorbioideae
Tribe: Euphorbieae
Subtribe: Euphorbiinae
Genus: Euphorbia
L.
Species
See full list.

Spurges (Euphorbia) are a very diverse worldwide genus of plants, belonging to the spurge family or Euphorbiaceae. Consisting of about 2160 species spurges are one of the largest genera in plant kingdom. Euphorbia cotinifolia1. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Family Achariaceae Family Balanopaceae Family Bonnetiaceae Family Caryocaraceae Family Chrysobalanaceae Family Clusiaceae Family Ctenolophonaceae Family Dichapetalaceae Family Elatinaceae Family Erythryloxaceae (coca family) Family Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Family Euphroniaceae Family Goupiaceae Family Humiriaceae Family Hypericaceae (St Johns wort family) Family Irvingiaceae Family Ixonanthaceae Family Lacistemaceae Family Linaceae (flax family... Genera See text Ref: Euphorbiaceae in The Families of Flowering Plants, as of 2002-07-13 The Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is a large family of flowering plants with 280 genera and around 6000 species. ... Tribes Euphorbieae Hippomaneae Hureae Pachystromateae Stomatocalyceae The Euphorbioideae is a subfamily of the family Euphorbiaceae. ... Subtribes and genera Subtribe Anthosteminae Anthostema Dichostemma Subtribe Euphorbiinae Euphorbia Chamaesyce Cubanthus Elaeophorbia Endadenium Monadenium Pedilanthus Synadenium Subtribe Neoguillauminiinae Calycopeplus Neoguillauminia Euphorbieae is a tribe of plant of the family Euphorbiaceae. ... Species See full list. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician, zoologist and gay rights campaigner[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Here is an alphabetical list of the species belonging to the genus Euphorbia, of the family Euphorbiaceae. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is 1) a rank or 2) a taxon in that rank. ... Genera See text Ref: Euphorbiaceae in The Families of Flowering Plants, as of 2002-07-13 The Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is a large family of flowering plants with 280 genera and around 6000 species. ...

Contents

Origin of the name

The common name spurge derives from the Middle English / Old French: espurge, to purge, due to the use of the plants sap as purgative.
The botanical name Euphorbia derives from the Greek Euphorbus, physician of king Juba II of Numidia (52-50 BC - 23 AD), in whose honour – or in allusion to his swollen belly – a certain plant he might have used, possibly Euphorbia resinifera, was named (Euphorbia regisjubae - King Juba's euphorbia - honors the king's contributions to natural history and his role in bringing the genus to notice). In 1753 Carolus Linnaeus assigned the name to the entire genus (Spec. Pl. (ed. 1): 450). Type species is Euphorbia antiquorum L.. In science, a common name is any name by which a species or other concept is known that is not the official scientific name. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300 A.D. It was known at the time as the langue doïl to distinguish it from the langue... A laxative is a preparation used for the purpose of encouraging defecation, or the elimination of feces. ... A botanical name is a formal name conforming to the ICBN. As with its zoological and bacterial equivalents it may also be called a scientific name. Botanical names may be in one part (genus and above), two parts (species) or three parts (below the rank of species). ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... Juba II Juba II (Iuba in Latin; Ιóβας (Ιóβα) or Ιουβας in Greek)[1] or Juba II of Numidia (52-50 BC - 23 AD) was a king of Numidia and then later moved to Mauretania. ... Binomial name Euphorbia resinifera Resin spurge (Euphorbia resinifera) is a plant native to Morocco. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician, zoologist and gay rights campaigner[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Type specimens When a new species is discovered, more important than creating a new and unique name for the species is developing a reasonably detailed description. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician, zoologist and gay rights campaigner[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...


Description

The plants are annual or perennial herbs, woody shrubs or trees with a caustic, poisonous milky sap (latex). The roots are fine or thick and fleshy or tuberous. Many species are more or less succulent, thorny or unarmed. The main stem and mostly also the side arms of the succulent species are thick and fleshy, 15-91 cm (6-36 inches) tall. The deciduous leaves are opposite, alternate or in whorls. In succulent species the leaves are mostly small and short-lived. The stipules are mostly small, partly transformed into spines or glands, or missing. Peas are an annual plant. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə()b, or əb; see pronunciation differences) are plants grown for any purpose other than food, wood or beauty. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tree (disambiguation). ... The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... Succulent plants, such as this Aloe, store water in their fleshy leaves Succulent plants, also known as succulents or fat plants, are water-retaining plants adapted to xerophilic climatic or soil conditions. ... “Foliage” redirects here. ... The lanceolate-linear, paired stipules of Hibiscus kokio In botany, stipule refers to outgrowths borne on either side of the base of a leafstalk (or petiole). ... Raised thorns on the stem of the wait-a-bit climber Prickles on rose stems Thorns of the Ocotillo A spine is a rigid, pointed surface protuberance or needle-like structure on an animal, shell, or plant, presumably serving as a defense against attack by predators. ... A gland is an organ in an animals body that synthesizes a substance for release such as hormones, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland). ...


Like all members of the family Euphorbiaceae, all spurges have unisexual flowers. In Euphorbia these are greatly reduced and grouped into cyathia called pseudanthia. There are also (monoecious) species with male and female flowers on the same plant and those (dioecious) with male and female flowers occurring on different plants. It is not unusual for the central cyathia of a cyme to be purely male, and for lateral cyathia to carry both sexes. Sometimes young plants or those growing under unfavourable conditions are male only, and only produce female flowers in the cyathia with maturity or as growing conditions improve. The bracts are often leaf-like, sometimes brightly coloured and attractive, sometimes reduced to tiny scales. The fruits are three (rarely two) compartment capsules, sometimes fleshy but almost always ripening to a woody container that then splits open (explosively). The seeds are 4 angled, oval or spherical with or without a caruncle. A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... The very special Pseudanthia in the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) are known as Cyathia. ... A pseudanthium (Greek: false flower) is a special type of inflorescence, in which several flowers are grouped together to form a flower-like structure. ... Plant sexuality deals with the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. ... In biology, Dioecious is an adjective which indicates the exisistence of separate sexes in a species of organisms. ... Cyme can refer to: Cyme, a botanical term a for a class of flower clusters (see inflorescence) characterized by the terminal flower in the cluster blooming first. ... Toothed bracts on Rhinanthus minor In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, from the axil of which a flower or flower stalk arises; or a bract may be any leaf associated with an inflorescence. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Flowers and fruit (capsules) of the ground orchid, Spathoglottis plicata. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Elaiosomes (elaios- oil, some- body) are fleshy structures that are attached to the seeds of many plant species. ...


Xerophytes and succulents

In the genus Euphorbia succulence in the species has often evolved divergently and to differing degrees. Sometimes it is difficult to decide, and it is a question of interpretation, whether or not a species is really succulent or "only" xerophytic. In some cases, especially with geophytes, plants closely related to the succulents are normal herbs. About 850 species are succulent in the strictest sense. If one includes slightly succulent and xerophytic species, this figure rises to about 1000, representing about 45% of all Euphorbia species. A xerophyte is a plant that survives or thrives in areas with very little free moisture. ... A storage organ is a part of a plant specifically modified for storage of energy (generally in the form of starch) or water. ...


Latex

The latex (milky sap) of spurges acts as a deterrent for herbivores as well as a wound healer. Usually it is white, but in rare cases (e.g. E. abdelkuri ) yellow. As it is under pressure, it runs out from the slightest wound and congeals within a few minutes of contact with the air. Among the component parts are many di- or tri-terpen esters, which can vary in composition according to species and in some cases the variant may be typical of that species. The terpen ester composition determines if the latex is slightly or very caustic and irritating to the skin, and especially if in contact with mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth) can produce extremely painful inflammation. In experiments with animals it was found that the terpen ester resiniferatoxin had an irritating effect 10,000 to 100,000 times stronger than capsaicin, the "hot" substance found in chillies. Several terpen esters are also known to be carcinogenic. A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... General formula of a carboxylate ester. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is a natural, high-potency ligand that activates the capsaicin receptor in a subpopulation of primary afferent sensory neurons involved in nociception (the transmission of physiological pain). ... The chemical compound capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... The chile pepper (also chili or chilli; from Spanish chile) is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family (Solanaceae). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Therefore handling spurges needs to be done with caution. Latex coming in contact with the skin should be washed off immediately and thoroughly. Partially or completely congealed latex is often no longer soluble in water, but can be removed with an emulsion (milk, hand-cream). With inflammation of a mucous membrane a doctor needs to be consulted. If cutting large succulent spurges in a greenhouse, it has been noticed that vapours from the latex spread and can cause severe irritation to the eyes and air passages several metres away. Caution is therefore required and for example ensure sufficient ventilation. Small children and domestic pets should never come into contact with spurges.


Distribution

The genus is primarily found in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and the Americas, but also in temperate zones worldwide. Succulent species are mostly originated from Africa, the Americas and Madagascar. The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ...


Uses

Several spurges are grown as garden plants, among them the poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) and the succulent Euphorbia trigona. E. pekinensis (Chinese: 戟; pinyin: dàjǐ) is used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is regarded as one of the 50 fundamental herbs. Several Euphorbia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), including the Giant Leopard Moth. Binomial name Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Herbology is the art of combining medicinal herbs. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Superfamilies Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Acanthopteroctetoidea Alucitoidea Axioidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidea Choreutoidea Cossoidea Drepanoidea Epermenioidea Eriocranioidea Galacticoidea Gelechioidea Geometroidea Gracillarioidea Hedyloidea Hepialoidea Heterobathmioidea Hyblaeoidea Immoidea Incurvarioidea Lasiocampoidea Lophocoronoidea Micropterigoidea Mimallonoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Neopseustoidea Nepticuloidea Noctuoidea Palaephatoidea Pterophoroidea Pyraloidea Schreckensteinioidea Sesioidea Simaethistoidea Thyridoidea Tineoidea Tischerioidea Tortricoidea Urodoidea Whalleyanoidea Yponomeutoidea Zygaenoidea The order Lepidoptera... Binomial name Ecpantheria scribonia (Stoll, 1790) The Giant Leopard Moth (Ecpantheria scribonia) is a moth of the family Arctiidae. ...


Taxonomy

Simplified diagram of relations in subtribe Euphorbiinae
Simplified diagram of relations in subtribe Euphorbiinae

Image File history File links Euphorbiinae_tree. ... Image File history File links Euphorbiinae_tree. ...

Subtribe Euphorbiinae

According to recent DNA studies [1][2][3] the so called satellite genera around the huge genus Euphorbia in subtribe Euphorbiinae nest deep within Euphorbia. Consequently these satellites, namely the never generally accepted genus Chamaesyce as well as the smaller genera Elaeophorbia, Endadenium, Monadenium, Synadenium and Pedilanthus were transferred to Euphorbia by Steinmann & Porter (2002), Steinmann (2003) and Bruyns & al. (2006). Besides the yet remaining satellite genus Cubanthus which is closely related to Pedilanthus and hence will very likely be transferred to Euphorbia as well in the near future, the entire subtribe Euphorbiinae now consist of genus Euphorbia. Species Cubanthus umbelliformis etc. ...


Selected Euphorbia species

See List of Euphorbia species for complete list. Here is an alphabetical list of the species belonging to the genus Euphorbia, of the family Euphorbiaceae. ...

Binomial name Euphorbia albomarginata Torr. ... Binomial name Euphorbia amygdaloides Close-up of the flowers Wood Spurge is a European plant in the genus Euphorbia. ... Binomial name Euphorbia bulbispina Rauh & Razaf. ... Binomial name Euphorbia cyparissias Cypress Spurge is a plant in the genus Euphorbia, which is native to Europe and was introduced in North America. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Euphorbia esula L. Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula), also known as Wolfs Milk, or Wolfs-milk is a flowering plant native to North America. ... Euphorbia Frankiana at the Berkeley Botanical Gardens Euphorbia franckiana is a perennial plant. ... Binomial name Euphorbia helioscopia L. Sun Spurge, also known as Madwomans Milk (Euphorbia helioscopia) is a plant part of the Spurge genus that grows in the meadows of Europe. ... Binomial name Euphorbia heterophylla L. The Fireplant, Euphorbia heterophylla, is a native plant of Mexico, and spreads from California to east Texas and to much of Central America. ... Binomial name Euphorbia labatii Rauh & Bard. ... Binomial name Euphorbia lactea Roxb. ... Binomial name Euphorbia lathyris L. Euphorbia lathyris (Caper Spurge, Gopher Spurge, Gopher Plant or Mole Plant) is a weed that is often used as an ornamental plant and also to protect a garden from gophers. ... Binomial name Euphorbia maculata Euphorbia maculata, variously called Spotted spurge or Prostrate spurge, is an annual plant in the family Euphorbiaceae, native to North America. ... {{Taxobox | color = lightgreen | name = Euphorbia maritae | image = Euphorbia maritae. ... Diversity About 1600 species worldwide Species Selected species: Euphorbia aaron-rossii - Marble Canyon spurge Euphorbia acanthothamnos - Greek spiny spurge Euphorbia agraria - urban spurge Euphorbia albomarginata - rattlesnake weed Euphorbia alluaudii Euphorbia amygdaloides - wood spurge Euphorbia antisyphilitica - wax plant, candelilla Euphorbia bicolor - snow-on-the-prairie Euphorbia bilobata - blackseed spurge Euphorbia... Binomial name Euphorbia myrsinites L. The myrtle spurge (Euphorbia myrsinites), also known as creeping spurge or donkey tail, is a succulent species of spurges (family Euphorbiaceae). ... Binomial name Euphorbia peplis L. The Purple spurge (Euphorbia peplis) is small plant, with very wide distribution growing as a garden weed, in the USA, France, Australia and other countries in temperate and sub-tropical regions. ... Binomial name Euphorbia peplus L. Euphorbia peplis , the Petty spurge is small plant, with very wide distribution commonly found in cultivated land and gardens in the UK, Europe, USA, France, Australia, New Zealand and other countries in temperate and sub-tropical regions. ... Binomial name Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ... Binomial name Euphorbia resinifera Resin spurge (Euphorbia resinifera) is a plant native to Morocco. ... Binomial name Euphorbia tirucalli Euphorbia tirucalli, pencil tree, or milk bush is a shrub that grows in semi-arid tropical climates. ... Binomial name Euphorbia tithymaloides L. Euphorbia tithymaloides (Redbird cactus or Devils backbone; syn. ... Binomial name Euphorbia virosa Euphorbia virosa is a plant of the spurge family Euphorbiaceae. ...

Subgenera

The genus Euphorbia is one of the largest and most complex genera of flowering plants and several botanists have made unsuccessfully attempts to subdivide the genus into numerous smaller genera. Now according to the mentioned DNA studies Euphorbia can be divided into 4 subgenera, each containing several not yet sufficiently studied sections and groups. It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ...

  • Esula
  • Rhizanthium
  • Chamaesyce

Literature

  • Schwartz, Herman (Ed.): The Euphorbia Journal Vol. 1 Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California, USA 1983. ISBN
  • Schwartz, Herman (Ed.): The Euphorbia Journal Vol. 2 Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California, USA 1984. ISBN
  • Schwartz, Herman (Ed.): The Euphorbia Journal Vol. 3 Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California, USA 1985. ISBN
  • Schwartz, Herman (Ed.): The Euphorbia Journal Vol. 4 Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California, USA 1987. ISBN
  • Schwartz, Herman (Ed.): The Euphorbia Journal Vol. 5 Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California, USA 1988. ISBN
  • Schwartz, Herman (Ed.): The Euphorbia Journal Vol. 6 Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California, USA 1989. ISBN-X
  • Schwartz, Herman (Ed.): The Euphorbia Journal Vol. 7 Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California, USA 1991. ISBN
  • Schwartz, Herman (Ed.): The Euphorbia Journal Vol. 8 Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California, USA 1992. ISBN
  • Schwartz, Herman (Ed.): The Euphorbia Journal Vol. 9 Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California, USA 1994. ISBN
  • Schwartz, Herman (Ed.): The Euphorbia Journal Vol. 10 Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California, USA 1996.
  • Eggli, Urs (Ed.): Sukkulentenlexikon Band 2: Zweikeimblättrige Pflanzen (Dicotyledonen) Eugen Ulmer Verlag, Germany 2002. ISBN
  • Singh, Meena: Succulent Euphorbiaceae of India New Delhi, India 1994 (Mrs. Meena Singh, A-162 Sector 40, NOIDA -, India)
  • Buddensiek, Volker Succulent Euphorbia plus Volker Buddensiek Verlag 2005, CD-ROM. ISBN
  • Noltee, Frans: Succulents in the wild and in cultivation, Part 2 Euphorbia to Juttadinteria 2001, CD-ROM. ISBN
  • Turner, Roger: Euphorbias - A Gardeners' Guide, Batsford, England, 1995. ISBN, pbk ed. 1998,.
  • Carter, Susan: New Succulent Spiny Euphorbias from East Africa, 1982. ISBN
  • Carter, Susan & Smith, A.L.: Flora of Tropical East Africa, Euphorbiaceae 1988. ISBN
  • Carter, Susan & Eggli,Urs: The CITES Checklist of Succulent Euphorbia Taxa (Euphorbiaceae) 1997. ISBN
  • Pritchard, Albert: Introduction to the Euphorbiaceae 2003. ISBN
  1. ^ Steinmann, V. W. & Porter, J. M.: Phylogenetic relationships in Euphorbieae (Euphorbiaceae) based on ITS and ndhF sequence data. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.): 453–490.
  2. ^ Steinmann, V. W.: The submersion of Pedilanthus into Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae). Acta Botanica Mexicana (2003), 65: 45-50
  3. ^ Bruyns, Peter V. & al.: The A new subgeneric classification for Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in southern Africa based on ITS and psbA-trnH sequence data. Taxon 55 (2) May 2006: 397–420

Roger Turner is a British garden designer and writer of gardening-related non-fiction books. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Euphorbia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Leafy Spurge (1380 words)
Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a creeping perennial that reproduces from seed and vegetative root buds.
Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a creeping, herbaceous perennial weed of foreign origin that reproduces from seed and vegetative root buds.
Leafy spurge is very competitive, one of the first plants to emerge each spring, and uses moisture and nutrients that otherwise would be available for more desirable vegetation.
Leafy Spurge (978 words)
Life duration/habit: Leafy spurge is an aggressive, persistent, deep-rooted perennial, growing to a height of 1 meter (3 ft) or taller.
Leafy spurge is extremely difficult to control by chemical means and almost impossible to control by cultural or physical methods in rangelands.
In short, leafy spurge is an economic and environmental catastrophe for ranchers, land managers and taxpayers in the U.S. and Canada.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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