FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Springhill Mining Disaster

The Springhill mining disaster is the term often used to refer to three separate Canadian mining disasters which occurred in 1891, 1956, and 1958 in different mines within the Springhill coal field, in close proximity to the town of Springhill in Cumberland County, Nova Scotia. 1891 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Springhill is a small Canadian town in Cumberland County, Nova Scotia. ... Cumberland County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Official languages English Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant-Governor Myra Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 11 10 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 12th 55,283 km² 3. ...


The mines in the Springhill Coal Field were established in the 19th century and by the early 1880s were being worked by the Cumberland Coal and Railway Company and the Springhill and Parrsboro Coal and Railway Company. These entities merged in 1884 to form the Cumberland Railway and Coal Company whose investors were later bought out by the industrial conglomerate Dominion Coal Company (DOMCO) in 1910. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... 1884 is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar). ... -1...


Following the third disaster in 1958, the operator Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation (DOSCO) shut their mining operations in Springhill and they were never reopened. Today the mines, among the deepest works in the world and filled with water, provide Springhill's industrial park with a source of geothermal heat. 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Folk musicians Ewan MacColl and Peggy Seeger composed the much-recorded song "The Ballad of Springhill" based on the 1958 disaster. Ewan MacColl (January 25, 1915 - October 22, 1989) was an English folk singer, songwriter, socialist, actor, poet, playwright, and record producer. ... Peggy Seeger (New York City, New York, June 17, 1935 -) is an American folk singer who also achieved renown in Britain, where she lived for more than 30 years as the wife of songwriter Ewan MacColl. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


1891 Explosion

Springhill's first mining disaster, the 1891 Explosion, occurred at approximately 12:30pm AST on Saturday, February 21, 1891 in the Number 1 and Number 2 collieries which were joined by a connecting tunnel at the 1300 foot level (below the surface) when an explosion caused by accumulated coal dust swept through both shafts killing 125 miners and injuring dozens more. February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1891 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Rescue efforts throughout that afternoon and evening were made easier by the lack of fire in No. 1 and No. 2 but in the end 57 women were widowed and 169 children lost their fathers. The scale of the disaster was unprecedented in Nova Scotian or Canadian mining history and the subsequent relief funds saw contributions from across the country and the British Empire, including Her Majesty Queen Victoria. The British Empire was, at one time, the foremost global power and the largest empire in history. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and Empress of India from 1 January 1877, until her death. ...


A subsequent board of inquiry determined that sufficient gas detectors in working order had been present in the 2 collieries, however the ignition source of the explosion was never determined, despite investigators having pinpointed its general location.


1956 Explosion

The 1956 Explosion occurred on November 1, 1956 when a mine train hauling a load of fine coal dust up to the surface of the 25-year old Number 4 colliery to remove it from the pithead encountered a heavy flow of ventilation air being forced down the shaft by fans on the surface. The flow of air disturbed the dust on the ascending train cars so that it spread throughout the air of the shafts of No. 4. Before the train reached the surface, several of the cars broke loose and ran back down the slope of No. 4, derailing along the way and hitting a power line, causing it to arc and ignite the coal dust at the 5500 foot level (below the surface). November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The resulting explosion blew up the slope to the surface where the additional oxygen created a massive blast which levelled the bankhead on the surface - where the coal is hauled out from the mine in an angled shaft into a vertical building (the coal is then dropped into railway cars). The majority of devastation occurred to the surface buildings but many miners were trapped in the shaft with the derailed train cars and fallen support timbers and other items damaged by the explosion.


In a show of heroics, Draegermen (rescue miners) and barefaced miners (no breathing equipment) entered the 6100 foot deep shaft of No. 4 to aid their co-workers. In total 88 miners were rescued and 39 were killed in the explosion. Media coverage of the 1956 explosion was largely overshadowed by the Soviet invasion of Hungary on October 24, 1956 however Canadian and local media did offer extensive coverage of the second Springhill mining disaster. State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics/ Communist state Area  - Total  - % water Largest on the planet 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following the rescue effort, No. 4 and the connecting No. 2 collieries were sealed for several months to deprive the fires of oxygen. Upon reopening, the bodies of miners who remained below the surface were recovered and the mine returned to operation.


1958 Bump

The 1958 Bump which occurred on October 23, 1958 was the most severe "bump" in North American mining history and devastated the people of Springhill with the casualties it took, and devastated the town: the mines had been the town's economic lifeblood, and were never reopened following the disaster. October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A "bump" is caused when coal is totally removed from a stratum and the resulting geological stresses upon surrounding bedrock (shale, sandstone, etc. in most coal-bearing strata) can cause the surrounding pillars of the galleries to suddenly and catastrophically disintegrate, causing the shaft to collapse. This article is about the geologic use of the term, for other uses see Stratum (disambiguation) Interstate road cut through limestone and shale strata in eastern Tennessee In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes it...


The No. 2 colliery was one of the deepest mines in the world and extended 14,200 feet below the surface in a massive labyrinth of galleries off the main shafts. In the case of the No. 2 colliery, the mining techniques were changed 20 years before this disaster, from "room and pillar" to "long wall retreating" after reports documenting the increased danger of "bump" phenomena in the use of the former technique.


On October 23 a small bump occurred at 7:00pm ADT during the evening shift, but was ignored as this was a somewhat common occurrence. However just over an hour later at 8:06pm ADT an enormous bump "severely impacted the middle of the three walls that were being mined and the ends of the four levels nearest the walls."[1] October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ...


The bump spread as three distinct shock waves, resembling a small earthquake throughout the region, alerting residents on the surface for a wide area to the disaster. Draeger teams and teams of barefaced miners entered the No. 2 colliery to begin the rescue effort. The rescue teams encountered survivors at the 13,400 foot level walking or limping toward the surface. Gas released by the bump was encountered in increasing concentrations at the 13,800 foot level where the ceiling had collapsed and rescuers were forced to work down shafts that were in partial state of collapse or were blocked completely by debris. Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998 An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earths surface. ...


Any miners who weren't covered either in side galleries or some other shelter were immediately crushed during the bump, the coal faces having been completely destroyed. By 4:00am October 24, 1958 75 of the survivors were on the surface. Rescue teams continued working but the number of rockfalls and amount of debris slowed progress. October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Meanwhile the Canadian and international news media had made their way to Springhill. The disaster actually became famous for being the first major international event to appear in live television broadcasts (on the CBC). As the world waited and those on the surface kept their vigil, rescuers continued to toil below the surface trying to reach trapped survivors. Teams began to arrive from other coal mines on Cape Breton Island and Pictou County. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the countrys national radio and television broadcaster. ... Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Mikmaq: Unamakika), almost always just Cape Breton, is a large island on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... Pictou County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ...


After five and a half days (placing it around the morning of Wednesday, October 29, 1958) contact was established with a group of 12 survivors on the other side of a 160 foot rockfall. A rescue tunnel was dug and broke through to the trapped miners at 2:25am AST on Thursday, October 30, 1958. October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 63 days remaining. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On Friday, October 30, 1958 the rescue site was visited by various dignitaries including the Premier of Nova Scotia, Robert Stanfield and His Royal Highness Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh who had been at meetings in Ottawa. October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Official languages English Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant-Governor Myra Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 11 10 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 12th 55,283 km² 3. ... The Right Honourable Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC (April 11, 1914-December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (Philip Mountbatten, formerly Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark) (born 10 June 1921) is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ...


On Sunday, November 1, 1958 an additional group of survivors were found, however there would be no more in the following days. Instead bodies of the dead were hauled out in airtight aluminum coffins on account of the advanced stage of decomposition, accelerated by the earth's heat in the depths of the No. 2 mine at 13,000-14,000 feet below ground. November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Of the 174 miners in No. 2 colliery at the time of the bump, 74 were killed and 100 trapped but eventually rescued.


Aftermath and representations in popular culture

The aftermath of the 1958 Bump had a profound effect on the town but there were some interesting footnotes involving political and economic exploitation of survivors:

  • In the media crush at the pithead (the shaft entrance at the surface), reporters would rush to speak with survivors, particularly the 2 groups of miners who had been trapped until Thursday and Sunday respectively. In asking one of the miners what he wanted most, he replied "A 7-Up." Following this high-profile media event and unexpected "plug" the 7-Up company hired the miner as a spokesman.
  • Another miner was chosen as Canada's "Citizen of the Year".
  • Several miners and their rescuers were invited onto the Ed Sullivan Show.
  • The Governor of Georgia Marvin Griffin took advantage of the intense media coverage to promote tourism to his state by offering a group of survivors free vacations to Jekyll Island. However to the segregationist governor's chagrin, one of the rescued miners turned out to be black, resulting in a public relations nightmare.

Ewan MacColl and Peggy Seeger composed "The Ballad of Springhill" based on the 1958 disaster. [2] The song, originally performed by MacColl and Seeger as an a capella duet, was subsequently sung by popular folk revival group Peter, Paul, & Mary. Irish rock stars U2 drew international attention to the memory of the Springhill mining disaster when they included the song in the playlist for their Joshua Tree Tour in 1987. 7 Up (sometimes spelled Seven Up) is the brand name of a lemon-lime flavored soft drink marketed by Dr Pepper/Seven Up, Inc. ... The Ed Sullivan Show was an American television variety show that ran from June 20, 1948, to June 6, 1971, and was hosted by Ed Sullivan. ... This is a list of Governors of the state of Georgia, including governors of the British colony of Georgia. ... Samuel Marvin Griffin (September 4, 1907 - June 13, 1982) was a politician from the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Driftwood Beach on Jekyll Island Jekyll Island is an island off the coast of the U.S. state of Georgia, in Glynn County; it is one of the Sea Islands and one of Golden Isles of Georgia. ... It has been suggested that Apartheid outside South Africa be merged into this article or section. ... Ewan MacColl (January 25, 1915 - October 22, 1989) was an English folk singer, songwriter, socialist, actor, poet, playwright, and record producer. ... Peggy Seeger (New York City, New York, June 17, 1935 -) is an American folk singer who also achieved renown in Britain, where she lived for more than 30 years as the wife of songwriter Ewan MacColl. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A cappella music is vocal music or singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. ... A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors. ... Peter, Paul and Mary (often PP&M) was one of the most successful folk-singing groups of the 1960s. ... U2 is an Irish/English rock band featuring Bono (Paul David Hewson) on vocals, guitar and harmonica, The Edge (David Howell Evans) on guitar, piano and vocals, Adam Clayton on bass, and Larry Mullen, Jr. ... The rock band U2s Joshua Tree Tour took place during 1987, in support of their The Joshua Tree album. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


External links

  • Springhill Connection, Community Forum
  • 1891 Explosion - account from the March 20, 1891 "Springhill News"
  • 1956 Explosion - account from Dr. Arnold Burden
  • 1958 Bump - account from Dr. Arnold Burden
  • CBC Interactive website on the Springhill disasters
    • What's ahead for Springhill, CBC, 1960. Clip is a WMV file.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Springhill Mining Disaster (1443 words)
The Springhill Mining Disaster is the term often used to refer to three separate Canadian mining disasters which occurred in 1891, 1956, and 1958 in different mines within the Springhill coal field, in close proximity to the town of Springhill in Cumberland County, Nova Scotia.
The mines in the Springhill Coal Field were established in the 19th century and by the early 1880s were being worked by the Cumberland Coal and Railway Company and the Springhill and Parrsboro Coal and Railway Company.
The scale of the disaster was unprecedented in Nova Scotian or Canadian mining history and the subsequent relief funds saw contributions from across the country and the British Empire, including Her Majesty Queen Victoria.
Springhill mining disaster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1554 words)
The Springhill mining disaster is the term often used to refer to three separate Canadian mining disasters which occurred in 1891, 1956, and 1958 in different mines within the Springhill coal field, in close proximity to the town of Springhill in Cumberland County, Nova Scotia.
The mines in the Springhill Coal Field were established in the 19th century and by the early 1880s were being worked by the Cumberland Coal and Railway Company and the Springhill and Parrsboro Coal and Railway Company.
The scale of the disaster was unprecedented in Nova Scotian or Canadian mining history and the subsequent relief funds saw contributions from across the country and the British Empire, including Her Majesty Queen Victoria.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m