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Encyclopedia > Spring and Autumn Period
History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
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  Western Zhou
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IMPERIAL
Qin Dynasty 221 BCE–206 BCE
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304–439 CE
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907–960 CE
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907–1125 CE
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960–1279 CE
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MODERN
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Republic of China
(on Taiwan) Image File history File links History_of_China. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Xia Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsia-chao), ca. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Boundaries of the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050 - 771 BC) in China The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1122 BC to 256 BC (ref) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (Traditional Chinese: 戰國時代; Simplified Chinese: 战国时代; Pinyin: Zhànguó Shídài) covers the period from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huang 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BCE - 206 BCE) was preceded... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD  - Abdication to Cao... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The Kingdom of Wu (Chinese: 吳, pinyin: wú) refers to a nation and several states throughout Chinese history of around the same region in China. ... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ... The Jìn Dynasty (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; 265–420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Middle Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1279) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou Dynasty 960  - Battle of Yamen; the end of Song rule 1279 Population  - Peak est. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The Western Xia Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Western Xia) or the Tangut Empire was a state that existed from 1032 up to 1227 in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 Ukhaatu Khan History  - establishing the Yuan Dynasty 1271  - Fall of Dadu September 14, 1368 Population  - 1330 est. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling Chinese Dynasties. ... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ... The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ...


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Spring and Autumn
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The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: 春秋時代; Pinyin: Chūnqiū Shídài) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). Its name comes from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 BC and 481 BC, which tradition associates with Confucius. // Note: dates prior to 841 BC are provisional and subject to dispute. ... Below is a table of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... A method of making astronomical observation instruments at the time of Qing Dynasty. ... The Chinese education was accompanied with the birth of Chinese civilization. ... Chen (陳 Trần) was a minor state of the Spring and Autumn Period in Ancient China. ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚) was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). ... Huáguó (滑国) referred to a vassal state of Western Zhou that existed in what is now Henan, whose ruling elites belonged to the royal family but which was destroyed by the State of Qin in 627 BC[citation needed]. The population were the earlier Hua of the Spring and Autumn... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... Lu ( Chinese: 魯國; pinyin: ) was an ancient state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Shu (蜀) was an ancient state in Sichuan, China. ... Sòng (宋國) was a state during the Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Period (770 - 476 BC). ... This article is about the Spring and Autumn state. ... State of Yan (small seal script, 220 BC) Yan (Pinyin: yān, simplified Chinese/traditional Chinese: 燕) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Zheng (é„­) was a Zhou city-state in the middle of ancient China, modern Henan Province. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋 ChÅ«n QiÅ«, also known as 麟經 Lín JÄ«ng) is the official chronicle of the state of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged on annalistic principles. ... Lu or LU may stand for: Lehigh University, prestigious private 4-year university in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC Events and Trends 728 BC - Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis and receives the submission of the rulers... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 486 BC 485 BC 484 BC 483 BC 482 BC _ 481 BC _ 480 BC... Confucius (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu, lit. ...


During the Springs and Autumns, China was ruled by a feudal system. The Zhou dynasty kings held nominal power over a small Royal Domain, centred on their capital (modern Luoyang), and granted fiefdoms over the rest of China to several hundreds of hereditary nobles (Zhuhou 诸侯), descendants of members of the Zhou clan, close associates of the founders of the dynasty, or local potentates. The most important feudal princes (known later as the twelve princes, 十二诸侯) met during regular conferences, where important matters, such as military expeditions against foreign groups or offending nobles were decided. During these conferences, one prince was sometimes declared hegemon (伯 and then 霸), and took the leadership over the armies of all feudal states. Boundaries of the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050 - 771 BC) in China The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1122 BC to 256 BC (ref) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


As the era unfolded, larger states annexed or claim suzerainty over smaller ones. By the 6th century, most small states had disappeared, and a few large and powerful principalities dominated China. Some southern states, such as Chu and Wu, claimed independence from the Zhou. Wars were undertaken to oppose some of these states (Wu and Yue). In the state of Jin, six powerful families fought for supremacy, and a series of civil wars resulted in the splitting of Jin into three smaller states by the beginning of the fifth century.


At that time, the control Zhou kings exerted over feudal princes was greatly reduced, the feudal system crumbled, and the Warring States Period began. Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (Traditional Chinese: 戰國時代; Simplified Chinese: 战国时代; Pinyin: Zhànguó Shídài) covers the period from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part...

Contents

Beginning of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty

After the Zhou capital was sacked by western barbarian tribes, crown prince Ji Yijiu (姬宜臼) fled to the east. During the flight from the western capital to the east, the king relied on the nearby lords of Qi (齊), Zheng (鄭) and Jin (晉) for protection from barbarians and rebellious lords. He moved the Zhou capital from Zongzhou (Hao) to Chengzhou (Luoyang) in the Yellow River valley. King Ping of Zhou (before 771 BC - 720 BC) (ch. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... Zheng (é„­) was a Zhou city-state in the middle of ancient China, modern Henan Province. ... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... Hao can have several different meanings: Used in reference to Chinese culture, hao is the word for a courtesy name. Hao is also the name of a coral atoll in the central part of the Tuamotu Archipelago. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Yellow River (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáng Hé ; Wade-Giles: Hwang-ho, sometimes simply called the River in ancient Chinese) is the second longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the seventh longest in the world, at 3,395 miles long [1]. Originating in the...


The fleeing Zhou elite did not have strong footholds in the eastern territories; even the crown prince's coronation had to be supported by those states to be successful. With the Zhou domain greatly reduced, i.e. to Luoyang and nearby areas, the court could no longer support six groups of standing troops (六軍, liù jūn). Subsequent Zhou kings had to request help from neighbouring powerful states for protection from raids and for resolution of internal power struggles. The Zhou court would never regain its original authority; instead, it was relegated to being merely a figurehead of the feudal states. Though the king de jure retained the Mandate of Heaven, de facto the title held no real power. Mandate of Heaven (天命 PÄ«nyÄ«n: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese sovereignty concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. ...


Rise of the hegemonies

The first nobility to help the Zhou kings was the Duke Zhuang of Zheng (鄭莊公) (r. 743 BC-701 BC). He was the first to establish the hegemonical system (bà 霸), which was intended to retain the old proto-feudal system. Traditional historians justified the new system as a means of protecting weaker civilized states and the Zhou royalty from the intruding "barbarian" tribes. Located in the south, north, east and west, the barbarian tribes were, respectively, the Man, Yi, Rong and Di. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC Events and Trends February 26 747 BC - Nabonassar becomes king of Assyria 747 BC - Meles becomes king... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ...

Urbanisation during the Spring and Autumn period.
Urbanisation during the Spring and Autumn period.

The newly powerful states were more eager to maintain aristocratic privileges over the traditional ideology of supporting the weak ruling entity during times of unrest (匡扶社稷 kuāng fú shè jì), which had been widely propagated during imperial China to consolidate power into the ruling family. In 771 BC the Zhou Dynasty was forced to flee from barbarian attack and shifted the capital east to Chengzhou (near present Luoyang). ... In 771 BC the Zhou Dynasty was forced to flee from barbarian attack and shifted the capital east to Chengzhou (near present Luoyang). ...


Dukes Huan of Qi (r. 685 BC-643 BC) and Wen of Jin (r. 636 BC-628 BC) made further steps in installing the overlordship system, which brought relative stability, but in shorter time periods than before. Annexations increased, favoring the several most powerful states, including Qin, Jin, Qi and Chu. The overlord role gradually drifted from its stated intention of protecting weaker states; the overlordship eventually became a system of hegemony of major states over weaker satellites of Chinese and "barbarian" origin. Lord Huan of Qi (齊桓公, Qí Huán Gōng, died 643 BC) was the best-known ruler of the state of Qi in the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC Events and Trends 689 BC - King Sennacherib of Assyria sacks Babylon 687 BC - Gyges becomes king of... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC Events and Trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic... Duke Wen of Jin (晉文公) (697 BC - 628 BC) lead the state of Jin in the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history from 636 BC to 628 BC. His name was Ji Chonger (姬重耳) and he was the son of Duke Xian (晉獻公). He was nicknamed Chonger (重耳), although there is... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC Events and Trends 637 BC - Josiah becomes king of Judah. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC Events and Trends 627 BC - Death of Assurbanipal, king of Assyria; he is succeeded by Assur_etel_ilani (approximate... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚) was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). ...


The great states used the pretext of aid and protection to intervene and gain advantages over the smaller states during their internal quarrels. Later overlords were mostly derived from these great states. They proclaimed themselves master of their territories, without even recognizing the petty figurehead of Zhou. Establishment of the local administration system (Jun and Xian), with its officials appointed by the government, gave states better control over the dominion. Taxation facilitated commerce and agriculture more than proto-feudalism.


The three states of Qin, Jin and Qi not only optimized their own strength, but also repelled the southern state of Chu, whose rulers had proclaimed themselves kings. The Chu armies gradually intruded into the Yellow River Basin. Framing Chu as the "southern barbarian", Chu Man, was merely a pretext to warn Chu not to intervene into their respective spheres of influence. Chu intrusion was checked several times in three major battles with increasing violence - the Battle of Chengpu, the Battle of Bi and the Battle of Yanling; this resulted in the restorations of the states of Chen and Cai. Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚) was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). ... Combatants States of Jin, Qi, Qin, Song States of Chu, Chen, Cai, Shen, Xi Commanders Hu Mao, Hu Yan, Xian Zhen, Xi Zhen, Xu Chen, Luan Zhi Ziyu, Zishang, Zixi Strength 700 chariots (Jin) Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown, 100 chariots and 1000 warriors captured The Battle of Chengpu (城濮之戰) was a... The Battle of Bi or Pi was fought in 595 BC, between the armies of Chu and Tsin. ... The Battle of Yanling or Yen-ling was fought in 575 BC between the armies of Chu and Tsin at Yen-ling. ... Chen (陳 Trần) was a minor state of the Spring and Autumn Period in Ancient China. ...


Interstate relations

See main article: Interstate relations during the Spring and Autumn period. Certain patterns emerged to govern the conduct of relations among the states of the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China. ...


During the period a complex system of interstate relations developed. It was partially structured upon the Western Zhou system of feudalism, but elements of realpolitik were emerging. A collection of interstate customary norms and values, which can perhaps be loosely termed international law, was also evident. As the operational and cultural areas of states expanded and intersected, diplomatic encounters increased. Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics)) is a term that is synonomous to Machiavellianism and is used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than ideological notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions. Realpolitik is usually used pejoratively as a term to imply politics imposed... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Changing tempo of war

After a period of increasingly exhaustive warfare, Qi, Qin, Jin and Chu finally met for a disarmament conference in 579 BC, where the other states essentially became satellites. In 546 BC, Jin and Chu agreed to yet another truce. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC Events and Trends 579 BC - Servius Tullius succeeds the assassinated Lucius Tarquinius Priscus as king of Rome. ...


During the relatively peaceful 6th century BC, the two coastal states in today's Zhejiang, Wu and Yue, gradually grew in power. After defeating and banishing King Fu Chai of Wu, King Gou Jian of Yue (r. 496 BC-465 BC) became the last recognized overlord. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the Spring and Autumn state. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... King Fu Chai of Wu (吳王), named Wu Fu Chai (吳夫差) (reigned 495 BC - 473 BC), was the last king of Wu, a state in ancient China; he reigned towards the end of the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Historical drawing of King Gou Jian of Yue King Gou Jian of Yue (越王) (reigned 496 BC - 465 BC) was the king of the Kingdom of Yue (present-day Shanghai, northern Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu) near the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, named Luo Gou Jian (雒句踐). Gou Jian was... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 499 BC 498 BC 497 BC - 496 BC - 495 BC 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC...


This era of peace was only a prelude to the maelstrom of the Warring States Period. The four powerful states were all in the midst of power struggles. Six elite landholding families waged war on each other in Jin. The Chen family was eliminating political enemies in Qi. Legitimacy of the rulers was often challenged in civil wars by various royal family members in Qin and Chu. Once all these power strugglers firmly established themselves in their dominions, the bloodshed among states would continue in the Warring State Period. The Warring States Period officially started in 403 BC when the three remaining elite families in Jin - Zhao, Wei and Han - partitioned the state; the impotent Zhou court was forced to recognize their authority. Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (Traditional Chinese: 戰國時代; Simplified Chinese: 战国时代; Pinyin: Zhànguó Shídài) covers the period from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC - 403 BC - 402 BC 401 BC...


List of overlords, or Ba (霸)

Traditionally, the Five Overlords of Spring and Autumn Period (春秋五霸 Chūn Qiū Wǔ Bà) include:

While some other historians suggest that the Five Overlords include: Lord Huan of Qi (齊桓公, Qí Huán Gōng, died 643 BC) was the best-known ruler of the state of Qi in the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. ... Duke Wen of Jin (晉文公) (697 BC - 628 BC) lead the state of Jin in the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history from 636 BC to 628 BC. His name was Ji Chonger (姬重耳) and he was the son of Duke Xian (晉獻公). He was nicknamed Chonger (重耳), although there is... King Zhuang of Chu (楚莊王) (died 591 BC) was leader in the state of Chu in the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. ... Duke Mu (穆公) (died 621 BC), born Ying Renhao (嬴任好), was a ruler of the State of Qin from 659 or 660 to 621 BC in China. ... Duke Xiang of Song (宋襄公) (died 637 BC) was the leader in the state of Song in the Spring and Autumn Period. ...

Order is not important. Duke Huan of Qi (齊桓公, Qí Huán Gōng, died 643 BC) was the best-known ruler of the state of Qi in the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. ... Duke Wen of Jin (晉文公) (697 BC - 628 BC) lead the state of Jin in the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history from 636 BC to 628 BC. His name was Ji Chonger (姬重耳) and he was the son of Duke Xian (晉獻公). He was nicknamed Chonger (重耳), although there is... King Zhuang of Chu (楚莊王) (died 591 BC) was leader in the state of Chu in the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. ... King Fu Chai of Wu (吳王), named Wu Fu Chai (吳夫差) (reigned 495 BC - 473 BC), was the last king of Wu, a state in ancient China; he reigned towards the end of the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Historical drawing of King Gou Jian of Yue King Gou Jian of Yue (越王) (reigned 496 BC - 465 BC) was the king of the Kingdom of Yue (present-day Shanghai, northern Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu) near the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, named Luo Gou Jian (雒句踐). Gou Jian was...


List of prominent states

The name following the name of the state is the capital (En., TC. and SC.).

Qi (state) 齊 - Linzi 臨淄 临淄
Chu (state) 楚 - Ying 郢 郢
Qin (state) 秦 - Xianyang 咸陽 咸阳
Jin (state)
Lu (state) 魯 - Qufu 曲阜 曲阜
Chen (state) 陳; - Wanqiu 宛丘; 宛丘
Cai (state) 蔡 - Shangcai 上蔡 上蔡
Cao (state) 曹
Song (state) 宋 - Shangqiu 商丘 商丘
Wei (Spring and Autumn state) 卫
Wu (state) 吳 - Gusu 姑蘇 姑苏
Yue (state) 越 - Kuaiji 會稽 会稽
Hua (state)
Zheng (state) 鄭 - Xinzheng 新鄭
Yan (state)

State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚) was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). ... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Xianyang (Simplified Chinese: 咸阳; Traditional Chinese: 咸陽; pinyin: ) was the capital of the state of Qin during the Warring States Period in Chinese history, and remained to be capital during the short-lived Qin Dynasty. ... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... Lu ( Chinese: 魯國; pinyin: ) was an ancient state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Qufu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chü1-fu4) is a city in Shandong Province, China. ... Chen (陳 Trần) was a minor state of the Spring and Autumn Period in Ancient China. ... Sòng (宋國) was a state during the Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Period (770 - 476 BC). ... This article is about the Spring and Autumn state. ... Suzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; ancient name: 吳) is a city on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Lake Taihu in the province of Jiangsu, China. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Huáguó (滑国) referred to a vassal state of Western Zhou that existed in what is now Henan, whose ruling elites belonged to the royal family but which was destroyed by the State of Qin in 627 BC[citation needed]. The population were the earlier Hua of the Spring and Autumn... Zheng (é„­) was a Zhou city-state in the middle of ancient China, modern Henan Province. ... State of Yan (small seal script, 220 BC) Yan (Pinyin: yān, simplified Chinese/traditional Chinese: 燕) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ...

List of important figures

Bureaucrats or Officers

Guan Zhong (管仲), statesman and advisor of Duke Huan of Qi and regarded by some modern scholars as the first Legalist.
Baili Xi (百里奚), famous prime minister of Qin.
Bo Pi, (伯噽)the corrupted bureaucrat under King He Lu and played important diplomatic role of Wu-Yue relations.
Wen Zhong文種 and Fan Li范蠡, the two advisors and partisans of King Gou Jian of his rally against Wu.
Zi Chan, (子产)leader of self-strengthening movements in Zheng

Influential scholars Guan Zhong (管仲) (died in 645 BC) was a politician in the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bo Pi was a bureaucrat in the state of Wu in the Spring and Autumn Period. ... This article is about the Spring and Autumn state. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Wen Zhong was an advisor in the state of Yue in the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Fan Li (范蠡) was an advisor in the state of Yue in the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Historical drawing of King Gou Jian of Yue King Gou Jian of Yue (越王) (reigned 496 BC - 465 BC) was the king of the Kingdom of Yue (present-day Shanghai, northern Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu) near the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, named Luo Gou Jian (雒句踐). Gou Jian was... Zi Chan (子產, 子产), also know as Gongsun Qiao (died 522 BC), was the most outstanding statesman of the State of Zheng in ancient China during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Zheng (鄭) was a Zhou city-state in the middle of ancient China, modern Henan Province. ...

Confucius(孔子), leading figure in Confucianism
Laozi (老子)or Lao tse, founder of Daoism
Mozi, known as Motse (墨子 Mò Zǐ) or "Mocius" (also "Micius") to Western scholars, founder of Mohism

Historians Confucius (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu, lit. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Mozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Mo Tzu, Lat. ... Founded by Mozi, Mohism (墨家), or Moism, is a Chinese philosophy that evolved at the same time as Confucianism, Taoism and Legalism (Hundred Schools of Thought). ...

Confucius(孔子), the editor of Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋)

Engineers Confucius (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu, lit. ... The Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋 Chūn Qiū, also known as 麟經 Lín Jīng) is the official chronicle of the state of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged on annalistic principles. ...

Mozi(墨子)
Lu Ban(鲁班)

Wielders Mozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Mo Tzu, Lat. ... Lu Ban (Chinese: 鲁班; Pinyin: LÇ” Bān, ?-?) was a famous architect of ancient China. ...

Ou Ye Zi, literally means Ou the wielder and mentor of the couple Gan Jiang and Mo Ye

Entrepreneurs and Commercial personnel Ou Ye Zi (Chinese: 欧冶子; Pinyin: ÅŒu YÄ› Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Ou Yeh TzÅ­) was a legendary master of sword-making in the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Gan Jiang (Chinese: 干将; pinyin: ) was a blacksmith of China in the Spring and Autumn Period famous for making swords with his wife Mo Ye. ...

Fan Li

Generals, military leaders and authors Fan Li (范蠡) was an advisor in the state of Yue in the Spring and Autumn Period. ...

Rang Ju, elder contemporary and possibly mentor of
Sun Tzu, (孙子)the author of The Art of War

Assassins Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ...

Yao Li, (要离)sent by He Lu to kill Qing Ji(庆忌).
Zhuan Zhu,(专渚) sent by He Lu to kill his cousin King Liao
Mo Xie
See also: Hundred Schools of Thought

Yao Li was an assassin in the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Zhuan Zhu (died in 515 BC) was an assassin in the Spring and Autumn Period. ... The Hundred Schools of Thought (諸子百家 Pinyin: zhū zǐ bǎi jiā) was an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China that lasted from 770 BCE to 222 BCE. Coinciding with the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, and also known as the Golden Age of Chinese thought...

List of important events

770 B.C. - the nobilities of the Zhou realm supported King Píng of Zhou (周平王) as the new king of the Zhou Dynasty. King Píng moved the capital to luò yì (雒邑). The era of Eastern Zhou, or Spring Autumn, began. King Píng appointed the son of the nobility Yíng Qí (贏其) to the northwestern part of the Zhou realm. He was named Duke Xiāng of Qin (秦襄公). The kingdom of Qin (秦) was born.


763 B.C. - Duke Zhuang of Zheng (鄭莊公) attacked and destroyed the barbarian kingdom of hú (胡國). Duke Zhuang relied on his famous officer Zhài Zhòng (祭仲). The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


750 B.C. - Duke Wén of Jin (晉文侯), Jī Chóu (姬仇), attached and destroyed the kingdom of Yú Chén Zhou (余臣周)


704 B.C. - Duke of Chǔ (楚), Mǐ Xióng Tōng (羋熊通), saw the weakened power of the King of Zhou as an opportunity to break free from being a tributary state of the Zhou Dynasty and claimed the title of king himself. He announced the kingdom of Chǔ (楚國) and called himself King Wu of Chu (楚武王).


701 B.C. - Duke Zhuang of Zheng (鄭莊公) died. His son Jī Hū (姬忽) succeeded the title of Duke and was known as Duke Zhāo of Zheng (鄭昭公). Because Lady Yōng (雍氏) of Song (宋國) was married to Duke Zhuang of Zheng and had a son named Ji Tū (姬突), the King of Song thought that he could extend influence in Zheng by helping to support a new ruler who had relations with Song. Zhài Zhòng (祭仲), who had the respect and influence in the state of Zheng, was lured and captured by Song and was forced to support Jī Tū as the successor to the throne


  Results from FactBites:
 
Eastern Zhou History, China Zhou Dynasty, Spring and Autumn Period & Warring States Period (877 words)
The Spring and Autumn period began when the capital was moved to Luoyi in 770 BC and named after the Spring and Autumn Annals written by Confucius.
The period was one of turbulence and great changes took place in the economy, politics, military affairs and culture.
According to recorded history, during the Spring and Autumn Period, there were over 480 wars, 52 vassal states were vanquished, and 36 kings were killed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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