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Encyclopedia > Spring (hydrosphere)
A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan.

A spring is a point where groundwater flows out of the ground, and is thus where the aquifer surface meets the ground surface. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (594 × 792 pixel, file size: 746 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://upload. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (594 × 792 pixel, file size: 746 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://upload. ... This article is about the island in Michigan. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Look up spring in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ...


Dependent upon the constancy of the water source (rainfall or snowmelt that infiltrates the earth), a spring may be ephemeral (intermittent) or perennial (continuous). In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... Vegetation gives off heat, resulting in this circular snowmelt pattern. ... An ephemeral river is one in which lasts only a few days. ... A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river that flows continuously all year round. ...

Contents

Formation

Water issuing from an artesian spring rises to a higher elevation than the top of the confined aquifer from which it issues. When water issues from the ground it may form into a pool or flow downhill, in surface streams. Sometimes a spring is termed a seep. An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ... A seep is a wet place, where a liquid, usually water, has oozed from the ground to the surface. ...


Minerals become dissolved in the water as it moves through the underground rocks. This may give the water flavour and even carbon dioxide bubbles, depending upon the nature of the geology through which it passes. This is why spring water is often bottled and sold as mineral water, although the term is often the subject of deceptive advertising. Springs that contain significant amounts of minerals are sometimes called 'mineral springs'. Springs that contain large amounts of dissolved sodium salts, mostly sodium carbonate, are called 'soda springs'. Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... This balancing rock, Steamboat Rock stands in Garden of the Gods park in Colorado Springs, CO The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms, and is in a gaseous state in the atmosphere of the Earth. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Commercialism redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ...

A stream carrying the outflow of a spring to a nearby primary stream is called a spring branch. The cool water of a spring and its branch may harbor species such as certain trout that are otherwise ill-suited for a warmer local climate.

Water emanating from karst topography is another type of spring, often called a resurgence as much of the water may come from one or more sinkholes at a higher altitude. Karst springs generally are not subjected to as great a degree of ground filtering as spring water which may have continuously passed through soils or a porous aquifer. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x345, 87 KB) Summary Description: Fly fishing in the Maramec Spring branch in Missouri Source: Photographed in April 2005 by Kbh3rd Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x345, 87 KB) Summary Description: Fly fishing in the Maramec Spring branch in Missouri Source: Photographed in April 2005 by Kbh3rd Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou subsp Trout is the common name given to a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmon family, Salmonidae. ... Karst topography is a three-dimensional landscape shaped by the dissolution of a soluble layer or layers of bedrock, usually carbonate rock such as limestone or dolomite. ... Devils Hole near Hawthorne, Florida, USA. A sinkhole, also known as a sink, shake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline (in the Slovene language dolina means valley) or cenote, is a natural depression or hole in the surface topography caused by the removal of soil or bedrock, often both, by... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ...


Classification

Springs are often classified by the volume of the water they discharge. The largest springs are called "first-magnitude," defined as springs that discharge water at a rate of at least 100 cubic feet per second (2800 L/s). The scale for spring flow is as follows:

Magnitude Flow (ft³/s, gal/min, pint/min) Flow (L/s)
1st Magnitude > 100 ft³/s 2800 L/s
2nd Magnitude 10 to 100 ft³/s 280 to 2800 L/s
3rd Magnitude 1 to 10 ft³/s 28 to 280 L/s
4th Magnitude 100 US gal/min to 1 ft³/s (448 US gal/min) 6.3 to 28 L/s
5th Magnitude 10 to 100 gal/min 0.63 to 6.3 L/s
6th Magnitude 1 to 10 gal/min 63 to 630 mL/s
7th Magnitude 1 pint to 1 gal/min 8 to 63 mL/s
8th Magnitude Less than 1 pint/min 8 mL/s
0 Magnitude no flow (sites of past/historic flow)

See also

Water Portal

Image File history File links Drinking_water. ... The River Bourne at Winterbourne Gunner, a typical chalk stream Chalk stream is a term generally applied to the winterbournes, streams and rivers of the Southern England Chalk Formation in Hampshire, Wiltshire, and Dorset, England although it could well be used for similar watercourses elsewhere. ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... Strokkur geyser, Iceland A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ... Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ... A seep is a wet place, where a liquid, usually water, has oozed from the ground to the surface. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle. ... Cable tool water well drilling rig in Kimball, West Virginia. ...

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