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Encyclopedia > Sport rowing
A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. The rower on the left of the photo, or the bow of the boat is rowing "starboard" or "bowside". The rower on the right of the photo and closest to the stern of the boat is rowing "port" or "strokeside" .
A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. The rower on the left of the photo, or the bow of the boat is rowing "starboard" or "bowside". The rower on the right of the photo and closest to the stern of the boat is rowing "port" or "strokeside" .
Racing shells stored in a boathouse (Picture taken on August 2000, in the Tel Aviv Rowing Club, Israel).
Racing shells stored in a boathouse (Picture taken on August 2000, in the Tel Aviv Rowing Club, Israel).

In the context of sports, rowing is a system of competition that refines the rowing of boats into a discipline. In the United States, high school and collegiate rowing are also sometimes known as crew. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1809x1206, 625 KB) The GB Pair (Toby Garbett & Rick Dunn) rowing at Henley Royal Regatta 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1809x1206, 625 KB) The GB Pair (Toby Garbett & Rick Dunn) rowing at Henley Royal Regatta 2004. ... In rowing, a coxless pair consists of a pair of rowers, each having one oar, one on the stroke side and one on the bow side. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 479 KB)This is a picture I took August 20th, 2000 of a boathouse in Israel This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 479 KB)This is a picture I took August 20th, 2000 of a boathouse in Israel This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Boathouse Row on the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia, USA. Rowing boats stored inside a boathouse in Israel. ... Rowing in the Amstel River by a student rowing club. ... Rowing is the oldest intercollegiate sport in the United States. ...


Rowing is a speed and endurance sport in narrow boats (called shells or fine boats), where the athlete sits on a sliding seat above the water level and faces backwards (toward the stern), using oars to move the boat. This may be done on a river, lake, sea, or other large body of water. Look up Athlete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The River Thames in London River running into Harrietville Trout Farm A river is a large natural waterway. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sunset at sea Look up Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There are two forms of rowing:

  • In sweep-oar rowing, each rower has only one oar and holds it with both hands. In sweep boats each rower is referred to either as port (strokeside, if port rigged) or starboard (bowside, if port rigged) which refers to whether his oar extends to the port (rower's right) or starboard (rower's left) side of the boat.
  • In sculling, each rower has two oars (one in each hand), and because of this symmetry the rowers are not referred to as "port" or "starboard" (in UK bow and stroke siders).

The relative obscurity of rowing has helped it develop an introspective atmosphere, where long hours, early mornings on the river, and the physical pain of the event are the price of being a part of the rowing community. The intense focus of top rowers on their sport is unusual even by the standard of similarly excellent competitors in other sports.


One piece of equipment commonly used when training for rowing is the "indoor rower" (a.k.a. "ergometer", "ergo", "erg machine" or "erg"). Erging has become popular as a sport in its own right with numerous indoor competitions (and the annual World Championship CRASH-B Sprints in Boston) during the winter off-season. A row of Concept2 Model C indoor rowers An indoor rower is a machine used to simulate the action of watercraft rowing for the purpose of exercise or training for rowing. ... The CRASH-B Sprints is the world championship for indoor rowing raced over 2,000 m. ...

Contents


History

Rowing boats (or similar vessels) have been around for centuries, but before the 18th century, there is little mention of boat races. In the 13th century, Venetian festivals called regata included boat races among others. Nowadays, rowing competitions are still called regattas (with a second 't' added). Country Italy Region Veneto Province Venice (VE) Mayor Massimo Cacciari (since April 18, 2005) Elevation m Area 412 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 271,251  - Density 646/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Veneziani Dialing code 041 Postal code 30100 Frazioni Chirignago, Favaro Veneto, Mestre... A regatta is a boat race or series of boat races. ...

The finish of the Doggett's Coat and Badge. Painting by Thomas Rowlandson.
Enlarge
The finish of the Doggett's Coat and Badge. Painting by Thomas Rowlandson.

The first modern rowing races, in the second half of the 18th century, were races between watermen (professional river taximen) on the River Thames in England. One such race, called the Doggett's Coat and Badge was first held in 1715 and is still held each summer. Subsequently, rowing became extremely popular both as an amateur and professional sport, often with thousands of spectators for events. Amateurs took up competitive rowing in 1811, when students at Eton College (a boys' prep school) began rowing a ten-oared barge and the first recorded race between students took place in 1817. Graduates of Eton went on to Oxford and Cambridge, where they organized College boat clubs. The Boat Race between Oxford University and Cambridge University first took place in 1829 and was the second intercollegiate sporting event (following the first Varsity Cricket Match by 2 years). It began as a two mile competition but is today competed for four miles. The Boat Race continues to be a popular British sporting event. Image File history File links The finish of the Doggetts Coat and Badge rowing race. ... Image File history File links The finish of the Doggetts Coat and Badge rowing race. ... The Doggetts Coat and Badge is the prize for one of the oldest rowing races. ... Thomas Rowlandson (July 1756 - April 22, 1827) was an English caricaturist. ... The Thames (pronounced []) is a river flowing through southern England and connecting London with the sea. ... The Doggetts Coat and Badge is the prize for one of the oldest rowing races. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a prestigious and internationally known Public School for boys. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge (often called Cambridge University, or just Cambridge), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Boat Race Logo The Boat Race is a rowing race between the rowing clubs of the University of Oxford (Oxford University Boat Club) and the University of Cambridge (Cambridge University Boat Club). ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge (often called Cambridge University, or just Cambridge), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


In America, there is also a sizable rowing community. Ports such as Boston, New York, and Philadelphia required the building of many small rowing boats, and competition was inevitable. The first American race took place on the Schuylkill River in 1762 between 6-oared barges. As the sport gained popularity, clubs were formed and scullers began racing for prizes. Professionals were rowing against clubs and each other before the civil war. Races were often round trips to a stake and back, so that the start and finish could be watched. The public flocked to such events, and rowing was as popular in America during the 1800s as other professional sports are today. In 1824, ferrymen from the Whitehall Landing at Manhattan's Battery raced a crew from the British frigate HMS Hussar for $1,000. Thousands bet on the event and the Americans won. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University. The Harvard-Yale Regatta is the oldest intercollegiate sporting event in the United States having been contested every year since 1852 (except for occasional breaks due to major wars, such as World War II and the US Civil War). The oldest inter-high school competition in the United States also occurred on the water, in the form of a race in six man boats between two New England boarding schools: Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, and Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts. The oldest continuous rowing club in America is the Detroit Boat Club, in Detroit, Michigan. Container ship being unloaded at Conley Terminal. ... New York Harbor is a geographic trem that refers collectively to the bays and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson and adjacent rivers in the vicinity of New York City. ... A port in the US state of Pennsylvania strategically located at the center of the Northeast Corridor. ... The Schuylkill River, pronounced SKOO-kull (IPA: ), is a river in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Ten ships of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Hussar, after the hussar. ... Yale redirects here. ... The Yale-Harvard Boat Race or Harvard-Yale Regatta is an annual rowing race between Yale and Harvard universities. ... High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... A boarding school is a school where some or all students not only study but also live, amongst their peers but away from their home and family. ... The Academy Building Phillips Exeter Academy (also called Exeter, Phillips Exeter, or PEA) is a co-educational independent boarding school for grades 9-12 (also offers a post-graduate year), located on 471. ... Squamscott River Falls in 1907, Exeter, NH Exeter is a town located in Rockingham County, New Hampshire. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... {{Infobox Private School| background = #f0f6fa| border = #ccd2d9| name = Phillips Academy| image = | motto = Non Sibi (Not for Ones Self) Finis Origine Pendet (The End Depends Upon the Beginning)| established = 1778| type = Private, Boarding| religion = none| head_name = Head of school| head = Barbara L. Chase| city = Andover| state = MA| country = USA| campus... Andover is a town located in Essex County, Massachusetts. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... The Detroit Boat Club, established in 1839, is the oldest sport rowing club in the United States. ...


Rowing today is governed by the FISA, which has organized World Rowing Championships since 1962. Rowing has also been conducted at the Olympic Games since 1900 (canceled at the first modern Games in 1896 due to bad weather). no The Fédération Internationale des Sociétés dAviron, or FISA for short, is the International Rowing Federation which is the governing body for international rowing. ... The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were held in 1896 in Athens, Greece. ...


Strong rowing nations include Great Britain, the United States, Italy, France, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, Australia, and Romania. Well-known rowers of recent years include Sir Steve Redgrave (UK), who won Olympic golds in five successive Olympics in the coxed four, coxless pair and the coxless four (often referred to as a straight four); Sir Matthew Pinsent (UK), who won golds in four successive Olympics, two with Redgrave in the coxless pair and two more (once with Redgrave) in the coxless four; James Tomkins (Australia), three times Olympic gold medalist, twice in the coxless four and once in the coxless pair, also the only man to have won World Championships in every sweep oar event; Rob Waddell (New Zealand) and Xeno Müller (Switzerland), opponents in the single sculls; Ekaterina Karsten (Belarus) in women's single sculls; and Kathrin Boron (Germany) in women's double sculls and quadruples. Sir Stephen Geoffrey Redgrave CBE (born on 23 March 1962, in Marlow, England) is a British rower who won a gold medal at five consecutive Olympic Games from 1984 to 2000, as well as an additional bronze medal in 1988. ... Sir Matthew Pinsent (born 10 October 1970) is a British rowing champion and four-time Olympic gold medallist. ... James Tomkins (born 19 August 1965) is an Australian rower and Olympic gold medallist. ... Rob Waddell, nicknamed V-12, (born 7 January 1975) is a New Zealand rower, yachtsman and rugby player. ... Xeno Müller (born 7 August 1972 in Zurich, Switzerland) is a Swiss rower and Olympic gold medallist. ... Ekaterina Karsten (Belarusian: Кацярына Карстэн, Kaciaryna Karsten; Russian: Екатерина Карстен; born June 2, 1972) is a famous rower from Minsk, Belarus, an Olympic... Kathrin Boron (born November 4, 1969, Eisenhüttenstadt, Germany) is a German sculler, and four-times Olympic gold medalist. ...


Equipment

Boats

Main article: Racing shell

Racing boats (usually called "shells") are long, narrow, and semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually carbon-fiber reinforced plastic) for strength and weight advantages. In watercraft, a shell or racing shell is an extremely narrow, and often disproportionately long, rowing boat specifically intended for racing or exercise. ... A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. ... Carbon fiber reinforced plastic or (CFRP or CRP), is a strong, light and very expensive composite material or fiber reinforced plastic. ...


There are a large number of different types of boats. They are classified using:

  • Number of rowers. In all forms of modern competition the number is either 1, 2, 4, or 8.
  • Position of coxswain. Boats are either coxless ("straight"), bow-coxed (also called bowloaders), or stern-coxed.

Although sculling and sweep boats are generally identical to each other (except having different riggers), they are referred to using different names: The coxswain (pronounced cox-ən; often called the cox) is the person in charge of a boat, particularly its navigation and steering. ... A bowloader is a crew shell (a type of boat used in sport rowing) in which the coxswain lies semi-supine in the bow, as opposed to the normal seated position at the stern. ...

  • Sweep: straight pair (2-), coxed pair (2+), straight four (4-), coxed four (4+), eight (8+) (always coxed)
  • Sculling: single (1x), double (2x),triple (3x) (not very common) quad (4x), octuple (8x) (very rare, always coxed, and mainly for juniors)

Oars

Main article: Oar (sport rowing)

Oars are used to propel the boat which are long (250–300 cm) poles with one flat end about 50 cm long and 25 cm wide, called the blade. An oar is often referred to as a "blade" in the case of sweep oar rowing and as a "scull" in the case of sculling. A sculling oar is shorter and has a smaller blade area than the equivalent sweep oar. Two hatchet sculls. ...

Two hatchet sculls. The "blades" are at the top of the picture and the handles are at the bottom.
Two hatchet sculls. The "blades" are at the top of the picture and the handles are at the bottom.

Classic oars were made out of wood, but modern oars are made from synthetic material, the most common being carbon fiber. The most common makes are Concept2, Croker, and Dreher. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1390x1853, 688 KB) A set of Croker sculling oars. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1390x1853, 688 KB) A set of Croker sculling oars. ... A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Generally, synthetic means pertaining to synthesis, i. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... The Concept2 Logo A row of Model C indoor rowers Concept2 are a manufacturer of rowing equipment. ... Croker Oars was started by Howard Croker in Sydney Australia. ... Axel Dreher (born September 17, 1972) is a German economist. ...


Competition

Rowers may take part in the sport for their leisure or they may row competitively. There are different types of competition in the sport of rowing. In the US all types of races are referred to as "regattas" whereas this term is only used in the UK for head-to-head races.


Rowing is unusual in the demands it places on competitors. The standard world championship race distance of 2,000 m is long enough to have a large endurance element, but short enough (typically 5.5 to 7.5 minutes) to feel like a sprint. This means that rowers have some of the highest power outputs of athletes in any sport. At the same time the motion involved in the sport compresses the rowers' lungs, limiting the amount of oxygen available to them. This requires rowers to tailor their breathing to the stroke, typically inhaling and exhaling twice per stroke, unlike most other sports such as cycling where competitors can breathe freely. The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance transparent (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... This road bicycle is built using lightweight, shaped aluminium tubing and carbon fiber stays and forks. ...


Head-to-head

Races that are held in the spring and summer are head-to-head - all the boats start at the same time from a stationary position and the winner is the boat that crosses the finish line first. The number of boats in a race varies between two and six. Regulation length races (including the Olympics and the World Rowing Championships) are 2,000 m long, however occasionally the distance will be 1,000 m, or some intermediate distance dictated by the local body of water. As exceptions, two traditional races: the annual Boat Race between Oxford and Cambridge and the Harvard-Yale Boat Race cover courses of approximately four miles (roughly 6.5 km). The Henley Royal Regatta is also raced upon a non-standard distance, although much shorter than the Boat Race or the Harvard-Yale Boat Race at only 1 mile, 550 yards (2,112 meters). Dashes (sprint regattas in the UK) are normally 500 m long, and certainly less than 1,000 m. The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... Boat Race Logo Exhausted crews at the finish of the 2002 Boat Race The Boat Race is a rowing race between the rowing clubs of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904) The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. ... The Yale-Harvard Boat Race is an annual rowing race between Yale and Harvard universities. ... A race taking place at Henley Regatta 2004 Henley Royal Regatta is a rowing event held every year on the river Thames by the town of Henley-on-Thames, England. ... Boat Race Logo Exhausted crews at the finish of the 2002 Boat Race The Boat Race is a rowing race between the rowing clubs of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. ... The Yale-Harvard Boat Race is an annual rowing race between Yale and Harvard universities. ...


Masters rowers (rowers older than 27) generally race a 1,000 m distance. Finish times for Masters races may also have handicapped times, depending on the age span of the athletes participating.


In general, the competition is organized in a series of rounds, with the fastest boats in each heat qualifying for the next round. The losing boats from each heat may be given a second chance to qualify through a repechage. Examples are the World Rowing Championships which offers multi-lane heats and repechages and Henley Royal Regatta which has two crews competing side by side in each round, in a straightforward knockout format, and does not offer repechages. Repechage (French, pronounced re-pe-shage, literally re-fishing) is a practice amongst ladder competitions that allows participants that failed to meet qualifying standards by a small margin to continue to the next round. ... The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... A race taking place at Henley Regatta 2004 Henley Royal Regatta is a rowing event held every year on the river Thames by the town of Henley-on-Thames, England. ... A single-elimination tournament, also called a knockout or sudden death tournament, is a type of tournament where the loser of each match is immediately eliminated from winning the championship or first prize in the event. ...


Head races

Head races take place from autumn (fall) to early spring (depending on local conditions). Boats begin with a rolling start at intervals of 10-20 seconds, and race against the clock. Distances usually vary from 2,000 m to 7,000 m although there are rowing marathons at 26 miles (over 50,000 m) and there is at least one 115 mile (185075 m) event in Oregon, the CPR. Examples of head races are the 3 mile (4,828 m) Head of the Charles in Boston, Massachusetts in October, the 4¼ mile (6,840 m) Head of the River Race on the Thames, the head of the Trent in Peterborough, Ontario along the Trent-Severn Waterway, the head of the Rideau in Ottawa, Ontario, London in March, and the 3¼ mile (5,000m) Head of the Lake through the Montlake Cut in Seattle, Washington. A head race is a type of rowing race. ... Fall redirects here. ... With regards to time, an interval is the duration between two events or occurrences of similar events. ... The Head of the Charles Regatta is a rowing race held annually on the Charles River, which separates Boston, Massachusetts from Cambridge. ... Nickname: City on a Hill, Beantown, The Hub of the Universe (The State House, according to Oliver Wendell Holmes, is the hub of the Solar System), Athens of America Location in Massachusetts Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas Menino (D) Area    - City 232. ... Crews racing under Hammersmith Bridge at HORR 2005 The Head of the River Race (HORR) is a rowing race held annually on the Thames in London from Mortlake to Putney. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... Peterborough (2004 population 74,600 and the metropolitan population numbers 112,000) is a city on the Otonabee River in central-eastern Ontario, Canada, 125km northeast of Toronto. ... Lock One on the Trent-Severn Waterway This article is not about the British company Severn Trent Water. ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario County Established 1850 as Bytown City Mayor Bob Chiarelli Governing body Ottawa City Council MPs / MPPs See list (includes Senators) Area    - City 2,778. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom. ... Montlake Cut, looking west The Montlake Cut is the easternmost section of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, which passes through the city of Seattle, linking Lake Washington to Puget Sound. ... Nickname: The Emerald City Location of Seattle in King County and Washington Coordinates: ) 47°36′N 122°19′W Country State County United States Washington King County Incorporated December 2, 1869 Mayor Greg Nickels Area    - City 369. ...


Bumps races

A third type of race is the bumps race, as held in Oxford (known as Torpids and Eights Week), Cambridge (known as the Lent Bumps and the May Bumps), between the London medical schools (the United Hospitals Bumps) on the Tideway and at Eton College and Shrewsbury School, (which are the only schools in Britain to continue this tradition). In these races, crews start lined up along the river at set intervals, and all start at the same time. The aim is to catch up with the boat in front, and avoid being caught by the boat behind. If a crew overtakes or makes physical contact with the crew ahead, a bump is awarded. As a result damage to boats and equipment is common during bumps racing. To avoid damage the cox of the crew being bumped may concede the bump before contact is actually made. The next day, the bumping crew will start ahead of any crews that have been bumped. Bumps races take place over several days, and the positions at the end of the last race are used to set the positions on the first day of the races the next year. Oxford and Cambridge Universities hold bumps races for their respective colleges twice a year, and there are also Town Bumps races in both cities, open to non-university crews. Oxford's races are organised by City of Oxford Rowing Club [1] and Cambridge's are organised by the Cambridgeshire Rowing Association. Bump races are very rare in the United States. Corpus bumps Girton at the 2005 May Bumps in Cambridge A bumps race is a form of rowing race in which a number of boats chase each other in single file; each boat attempts to catch the boat in front without being caught by the boat behind. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... At Oxford University, Torpids is one of two bumping races held in the year, the other being Eights. ... At Oxford University, Eights Week constitutes the main intercollegiate rowing event of the year, and happens in May. ... Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904) The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. ... 1st & 3rd Trinity 1st Women about to overbump Girton in the womens 1st division on day 3 of the 2005 Lent Bumps The Lent Bumps (also Lent Races, Lents) are a set of rowing races held on the River Cam in Cambridge. ... 1st & 3rd Trinity II about to bump Caius II to go top of the 2nd division on day 2 of the 2005 May Bumps The May Bumps (also May Races, Mays) is a rowing race held on the River Cam in Cambridge. ... Downstream from Teddington Lock, the Thames is subject to tides and is known as the Tideway. This stretch of the Thames is just under 160 km long. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a prestigious and internationally known Public School for boys. ... Shrewsbury School (founded 1552) is a leading British Independent School (sometimes called Public School) located in Shrewsbury in the county of Shropshire. ... The Cambridgeshire Rowing Association is based in Cambridge, UK. It is the umbrella body for rowing in Cambridge and since 1868 has organisesd races such as the CRA Bumps as well as looking after the interests of local rowing by providing facilities and regular meetings to discuss issues. ...


Stake races

The stake format was often used in early American races. Competitors line up at the start, race to a stake, moored boat, or buoy some distance away, and return. The 180° turn requires mastery of steering. These races are popular with spectators because one may watch both the start and finish. Usually only two boats would race at once to avoid collision. The Green Mountain Head Regatta continues to use the stake format but is like a head race with a staggered start.


The crew

In all boats, except the single sculls, each rower is numbered in sequential order from the bow to the stern. The person who is seated on the first seat is always the bowman, or more commonly called just the bow. Note - there are some exceptions to this - UK coastal rowers number from stern to bow and this is also the standard in France and Spain.


In addition to this, certain crew members have other titles and roles:


Stroke (or strokeman)

The "stroke" is the rower closest to the stern of the boat. Everyone else follows the stroke's timing - placing their blades in and out of the water at the same time. The strokeman can communicate with the coxswain (when in a stern coxed boat) to give feedback on how the boat feels. During a race, it is the stroke's responsibility to establish a consistent rate and rhythm. (In coxed boats, the coxswain will assist the stroke in establishing the rate). Because of the great responsibilities, the rower in the stroke seat will usually be one of the most technically sound member of the boat. In smaller boats that do not have a coxswain, the stroke may also be responsible for steering since they are closest to the skeg (also known as a "fin") and can "get a point" from which the stroke can judge on the direction of the boat. In surfing, a skeg is a stabilizing fin located at the rear of the surfboard. ...


Seven

In an eight oared shell, the rower at seven sits behind stroke and is typcially both fit and skilled. The seven man or woman acts as a buffer between the stroke and the rest of the crew. The rower at seven closely follows the rhythm set by the strokeman which helps transmit this rhythm to the rest of the boat. If the strokeman increase or decrease the stroke rate it is essential that seven follow this change of rate so that it is translated to the rest of the crew.


Middle Crew (or "Engine Room")

The middle four rowers in an eight are called the "engine room" because they are often the most powerful and heaviest rowers in an eight. The rowers in the middle boat have less effect on the boat's stability then those on the perimeter. The boat's center of mass is in the middle and it is also where the boat is at its widest and has the most displacement. The movements and power application of the rowers in the middle have less effect on the boat's pitch, roll and yaw. Therefore, the rowers in the middle of the boat do not have to be as technically sound and can focus more on simply pulling as hard as they can. While none of the boat's crew can completely disregard their technique, it is common practice among crews to put the most technically proficient rowers at the bow and stern and the physically strongest rowers in the center. In physics, the center of mass (or centre of mass) of a system of particles is a specific point at which, for many purposes, the systems mass behaves as if it were concentrated. ... In fluid mechanics, displacement occurs when an object is immersed in a fluid, pushing it out of the way and taking its place. ... Flight dynamics is the study of orientation of air and space vehicles and how to control the critical flight parameters, typically named pitch, roll and yaw. ...


Bow (or bowman)

This is the rower closest to the bow of the boat. In coxless boats, they are usually responsible for steering and giving calls to the crew. The bow pair, which are the two rowers closest to the boat's bow, are more responsible for the stability (called "set") of the boat than any other pair of rowers. This is due to the dynamics of racing shells. Boats that are bow coxed (with the coxswain lying in the bow behind the bowman) rather than stern coxed (with the coxswain sitting in the stern opposite the Stroke) rely on communication between the bowman and the cox - as the cox cannot see boats coming up from behind. Bowmen tend to be the smallest of the rowers in the boat. In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ...


Coxswain (cox)

Main article: Coxswain (rowing)

The role of a coxswain is to: In a rowing crew, the coxswain (or simply the cox) is the member who sits in the stern (except in bowloaders) facing the bow, steers the boat, and coordinates the power and rhythm of the rowers. ...

  • Steer the boat
  • Provide motivation and encouragement to the crew
  • Inform the crew of where they are in relation to other crews and the finish line
  • Make any necessary race tactic calls

A boat without a cox is known as a coxless or "straight" boat. Besides the obvious single, straight pairs and fours are the most common coxless boats at regattas in the US. Because of their speed and lack of maneuverability, eights always have a cox.


In the old days, the coxswain communicated to the crew through a megaphone that s/he wore strapped to her/his head. Starting in the late 1970s, a "cox box" or speaker & microphone system made it so that even the bowman could hear the coxswain's comands. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Lightweights

Main article: Lightweight rowing

Unlike most other sports, rowing has a special weight category called lightweight (Lwt for short). According to FISA, this weight category was introduced "to encourage more universality in the sport especially among nations with less statuesque people". The first lightweight events were held at the World Championships in 1974 for men and 1985 for women. Lightweight rowing was added to the Olympics in 1996. In rowing, lightweight (Lwt for short) is a special category where limits are placed on the maximum weight of competitors. ...


At international level the limits are:

  • Men: Crew average 70 kg (154.32 lb) - no rower over 72.5 kg (159.84 lb)
  • Women: Crew average 57 kg (125 lb) - no one over 59 kg (130 lb)

Different limits apply to US collegiate crews (see lightweight rowing article for more details). In rowing, lightweight (Lwt for short) is a special category where limits are placed on the maximum weight of competitors. ...


World championships and Olympics

At the end of each season, the FISA holds the World Rowing Championships with events in 23 different boat classes. The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... Rowing at the Summer Olympics has occurred since 1896. ... The Fédération Internationale des Sociétés dAviron, or FISA for short, is the International Rowing Federation which is the governing body for international rowing. ... The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ...


At the Olympic Games only select boat classes are raced (14 in total): The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...

  • Men: quad scull, double scull, single scull, eight, straight four, and straight pair
  • Lwt Men: straight four and double scull
  • Women: quad scull, double scull, single scull, eight, and straight pair
  • Lwt Women: double scull

Athletes generally consider the Olympic classes to be "premier" events and are more interested in rowing in these than at the World Championships. During Olympic years only non-Olympic boats compete at the World Championships.


Event nomenclature

The following short nomenclature is often used to indicate the type of boat: Nomenclature is a system of naming and categorizing objects in a given category. ...

  • The prefix indicates the type of event
    • M - men's (usually only used for lightweight men's events).
    • W - women's
    • L or Lt - lightweight
    • O - Open - generally crews between college and masters, but can be any age mix
    • B - under 23 years of age
    • J - (Junior) under 19 years of age
    • Mixed - a crew comprised of an equal number of men and women, usually applicable to Masters events only
    • Masters (or veteran - UK) - 27 years of age or greater. Masters events also include a letter designation indicating the average age of the crew:
      • A - 27-35 years of age (31-35 in the UK)
      • B - 36-42 years of age
      • C - 43-49 years of age
      • D - 50-54 years of age
      • E - 55-59 years of age
      • F - 60-64 years of age
      • G - 65-69 years of age
      • H - 70-74 years of age, and so forth.
  • For non-international events, there may be an experience category (i.e., N - Novice, S - Senior, E - Elite). The categories are different depending on the country.
  • The number of crew members (excluding cox)
  • "x" indicates a sculling boat
  • The last character shows if the boat is coxed (+) or coxless (-)

Examples:

  • 8+ men's coxed eight
  • W4- women's coxless four (or "straight four")
  • LM2- lightweight men's coxless pair
  • B1x men's single sculls under age 23
  • JW4x junior women's quad
  • Masters WC2x masters women's double sculls with average crew age between 43-49
  • Mixed Masters 8+ coxed eight with 4 women and 4 men as rowers and a coxswain of either gender

Rowing terminology

Main article: Rowing terms

In sport rowing, the following specialized terms are important in the corresponding aspects of the sport: // The athletes An 8 oared sweep racing shell (8+) Bow or Bow seat  The rower closest to the front or bow of a multi-person shell. ...

Anatomy of a stroke

  • The stroke begins with the oar out of the water with the blade feathered, or in other words with the face of the blade parallel to the water. The rower has legs straight, body leaning back, and arms in so that the oar handle is a few inches from the solar plexus. This is the beginning of what is called the recovery or the slide.
  • The rower extends the arms fully forward (i.e. toward the stern) while keeping the oar level, legs straight, and torso leaning back.
  • The rower leans the body forward, continuing to keep the oar level, and not bending the knees.
  • The rower bends the legs, bringing the sliding seat forward (i.e. toward the stern) on its rollers, while the oar remains level. Simultaneously throughout, the rower rotates the wrist of the inside hand (on a sweep oar. Both wrists on a scull), causing the face of the blade to form a 90 degree angle with the water. This is called squaring the blade or rolling up the blade. This should begin when the hands are passing over the ankles.
  • When the rower reaches the sternmost point of the slide, the end of the recovery, the blade is quickly and smoothly inserted into the water by a slight lifting of the hands. This is called the catch.
  • The rower levers the boat past the blade by straightening the legs while the body remains leaned forward and the arms remain straight. This is called the leg drive.
  • The rower continues pushing with the legs while the body leans back (i.e. towards the bow).
  • The rower completes the leg drive plus backwards lean and pulls the oar(s) to the chest by bending the arms. This is called the draw.
  • The rower pushes the oar handle down so the blade comes out of the water. This is known as the release or extraction or the finish.
  • The oar handle is rotated 90 degrees such that the blade is again parallel to the water. This action is referred to as feathering.
  • At this point the rower is in the same position as the beginning, torso leaning back, hands in the body, and legs extended.

Sweep rowers (one oar) and scullers (two oars) have similar stroke styles, with some differences to accommodate the number of oars held by the rowers. The most notable difference is the crossing of the hands required when sculling (usually achieved by passing one hand in front of the other so as to not upset the balance), as the handle length of the sculls is set to be a comfortable and powerful distance apart at the catch and finish. The solar plexus, also known as the celiac plexus, plexus cœliacus or plexus solaris, is an autonomous cluster of nerve cells (see Plexus) in the human body behind the stomach and below the diaphragm near the celiac artery in the abdominal cavity. ... Aft of the Soleil Royal, by Jean Bérain the Elder. ...


It is important to note that the rowing stroke differs slightly depending on location. For example, as opposed to the style of squaring here, 'gradual rollup', favored on the US East coast, some parts of the UK, and in Canada, the "flip catch" is sometimes favored . The flip catch has the rower flick the wrist near the very end of the recovery, speeding up the squaring of the blade. However, new rowers taught to do this can acquire a habit of diving their hands towards the gunnel rather than keeping them level, throwing off the set, or changing the yaw of the boat. In Canada, the drive is not as separated. When Canadian-style rowers catch, they push the legs down and lean back at the same time. This allows for an extremely large amount of power at the beginning of the stroke but lacks the consistency of the separated drive favored by other crews.


Coastal and ocean rowing

A Cornish pilot gig, a 6 crew boat returning from a race at Falmouth in Cornwall
A Cornish pilot gig, a 6 crew boat returning from a race at Falmouth in Cornwall

Coastal and ocean rowing is a type of rowing performed on the sea. Due to the harsher conditions encountered at sea, the boats are wider and more robust than those used on rivers and lakes. A Cornish pilot gig, a six crew boat returning from a race at Falmouth in Cornwall. ... Ocean rowing is the sport of rowing across oceans. ...  ©  This image is copyrighted. ...  ©  This image is copyrighted. ... The colourful lignup of gigs on St. ... Sunset at sea Look up Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The sport of Coastal and Offshore Rowing is thriving across Europe, though at present most British sea rowing is "traditional" fixed seat rowing and competition is of a regional nature. France is leading the development of modern sliding seat sea going boats, "Yoles", and National Competition here is well established with FISA, the Worldwide regulatory body for rowing encouraging the expansion of the sport to other countries.


However, in North America the sport of "open water" rowing relies on typically longer, lighter and faster boats while sharing an emphasis on safety. Open water racing in North America is very popular in New England, California, and Washington. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Surfboat rowing is a variant of ocean rowing, developed for surf lifesaving. It remains a prominent feature of Australian surf lifesaving clubs, and has become an important element of Australian cultural identity. A surfboat is an oar-driven boat designed to go out in heavy surf or severe waves. ...


Adaptive rowing

Main article: Adaptive rowing

Adaptive rowing is a special category of races for those with physical disabilities. Under FISA rules there are 3 classifications of adaptive rowers LTA (Legs, Trunk, Arms), TA (Trunk and Arms), and A (Arms only). Events are held at the World Rowing Championships and are also due to take place at the 2008 Summer Paralympics. Adaptive rowing is a special category of races for those with physical disabilities. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... See also: 2008 Summer Olympics The 2008 Summer Paralympic Games, the thirteenth Paralympics, will be held in Beijing, China from September 6 - 17, 2008. ...


Women's rowing

For most of its history, rowing has been a male dominated sport. Although rowing’s roots as a sport in the modern Olympics can be traced back to the original 1896 games in Athens, it was not until the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal that women were allowed to participate – well after their fellow athletes in similar sports such as swimming, athletics (track and field), cycling, and canoeing. At the 1896 Summer Olympics, rowing events were scheduled on the original program. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and the largest city of Greece. ... The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were held in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... City motto: Concordia Salus (Latin: Well-being through harmony) Province Québec Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area  - % water 366. ... Swimming is a technique that humans, and other animals, use to move through water using only movements of the body. ... A womens 400 metre hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ... This road bicycle is built using lightweight, shaped aluminium tubing and carbon fiber stays and forks. ... Canoeing is the recreational or sporting activity of paddling a canoe or kayak. ...


Notwithstanding its male domination, women’s rowing can be traced back to the early 1800s, and an image of a women’s double scull race made the cover of Harper’s Weekly in 1870. In 1927, the first rowing event for women between Oxford and Cambridge was held (for the first few years it was an exhibition, and it later became a race). And in 1954, the women's events were added to the European Rowing Championships. In 1988, the first Henley Women's Regatta was held. And in 1997, one of the last bastions of rowing was breached when Leander Club, under pressure from the British government, admitted women as members. An issue of Harpers Magazine from 1905 Another issue, from November 2004 Harpers Magazine (or simply Harpers) is a monthly magazine of politics and culture. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... The European Rowing Championships was an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... Henley Womens Regatta is a rowing regatta held at Henley-on-Thames, England. ... The Leander Club is based in Henley-on-Thames, and is the oldest rowing club in the world. ...


At international level, women’s rowing has traditionally been dominated by Eastern European countries, such as Romania, Russia, and Bulgaria, although other countries such as Germany, Netherlands, Canada, and New Zealand often field competitive teams. The United States also has often had very competitive crews, and in recent years these crews have become even more competitive given the surge in women’s collegiate rowing, and the establishment of the NCAA Rowing Championships for women. Rowing is the oldest intercollegiate sport in the United States. ... Division I The NCAA Division I Womens Rowing Championships are comprised of 312 total competitors (344 including spares) and three events (Varsity Eights, JV Eights, Fours). ...


Noted Female Rowers

Kathrin Boron (born November 4, 1969, Eisenhüttenstadt, Germany) is a German sculler, and four-times Olympic gold medalist. ... Georgina Evers-Swindell (born 10 October 1978) is a New Zealand rower. ... Caroline Evers-Swindell (born 10 October New Zealand rower. ... Katherine Grainger (born 11 December 1975) is a British rower. ... Ekaterina Karsten (Belarusian: Кацярына Карстэн, Kaciaryna Karsten; Russian: Екатерина Карстен; born June 2, 1972) is a famous rower from Minsk, Belarus, an Olympic... Silken Laumann is a Canadian rower, born on November 14, 1964 in Mississauga, Ontario Silken had early plans to compete as a gymnast due to her idol, Nadia Comaneci, although her size (5 feet 10 inches, 110 pounds, precluded those dreams. ... A legend of the modern Olympic Games she is the most decorated rower in the history of Olympics. ... Katrin Rutschow-Stomporowski (born April 2, 1975 in Waren, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a German rower and two-time Olympic gold medalist. ...

Rowers of wider fame

Lewis Carroll. ... Julian Clary (25 May 1959) is British comedian known for his camp style. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Baron Pierre de Coubertin Pierre de Coubertin (January 1, 1863 – September 2, 1937), born as Pierre de Frédy, was a French pedagogue and historian, but is best known as the founder of the modern Olympic Games. ... Eakins Max Schmitt in a single scull Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins (July 25, 1844 - June 25, 1916) was a painter, photographer, sculptor, and fine arts educator. ... Spencer Herbert Gollan, was born at Ahuriri in New Zealand, he was famous as a race horse owner. ... Stephen William Hawking Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS (born 8 January 1942) is a theoretical physicist. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... In physics, Hawking radiation is thermal radiation thought to be emitted by black holes due to quantum effects. ... John B. Kelly, Sr. ... Grace Patricia Kelly (November 12, 1929 – September 14, 1982) was an Academy Award-winning American film actress who, upon marriage to Rainier III, Prince of Monaco on April 19, 1956, became Her Serene Highness The Princess of Monaco. ... William Thomson, Archbishop of York, has the same name as this man. ... Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904) The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Hugh Laurie as Dr. Gregory House James Hugh Calum Laurie (born June 11, 1959) is an English actor, comedian and writer. ... House, also known as House, M.D., is an American television series. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904) The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. ... Boat Race Logo Exhausted crews at the finish of the 2002 Boat Race The Boat Race is a rowing race between the rowing clubs of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... James Neville Mason (May 15, 1909 – July 27, 1984) was a three-time Academy Award nominated English actor who attained stardom in both British and American films. ... Full name Peterhouse Motto - Named after St Peters Church (now little St Marys Church) Previous names - Established 1284 Sister College Merton College Master The Lord Wilson of Tillyron Location Trumpington Street Undergraduates 271 Graduates 128 Homepage Boatclub Peterhouse is the oldest college in the University of Cambridge. ... Andrew Barton Banjo Paterson (February 17, 1864 - April 5, 1941) was a famous Australian bush poet, journalist and author. ... The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia with a metropolitan area population of over 4. ... Gregory Peck (April 5, 1916 – June 12, 2003) was an Oscar-winning American film actor. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, and by other names, see below) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ... James Stillman Rockefeller (June 8, 1902 - August 10, 2004) was a member of the prominent U.S. Rockefeller family. ... Yale redirects here. ... Dr. Spock (l) with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Yale redirects here. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician; the 27th President of the United States, the 10th Chief Justice of the United States; a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early twentieth century; a chaired professor at Yale Law...

Rowing in popular culture

Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a documentary and propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl that chronicles the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg. ... See also: 1934 in film 1935 1936 in film 1930s in film years in film film Events Judy Garland signs a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM). ... A Yank at Oxford is a 1938 film drama produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. ... See also: 1937 in film 1937 1939 in film 1930s in film years in film film // Events January — MGM announces that Judy Garland would be cast in the role of Dorothy in the upcoming Wizard of Oz motion picture. ... Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an Irish American Jazz Age novelist and short story writer. ... The Boy in Blue is a 1986 movie by Charles Jarrott. ... // Events April 12 - Actor Morgan Mason marries The Go-Gos Belinda Carlisle Actor Arnold Schwarzenegger marries television journalist Maria Shriver. ... Nicolas Cage (born Nicolas Kim Coppola on January 7, 1964 and often called Nic Cage) is an Academy Award-winning American actor, director and producer. ... Edward Ned Hanlan (1855-1908) was a professional rower from Toronto, Canada. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... With Honors (1994) is a dramatic comedy starring Joe Pesci and Brendan Fraser. ... This is a list of film-related events in 1994. ... Moira Kelly in The West Wing. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... True Blue (1996) is a film based on the book True Blue: Oxford Boat Race Mutiny. ... This is a list of film-related events in 1996. ... Boat Race Logo Exhausted crews at the finish of the 2002 Boat Race The Boat Race is a rowing race between the rowing clubs of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. ... Enemy of the State is a 1998 film written by David Marconi, directed by Tony Scott, and starring Will Smith, Gene Hackman, Jon Voight, and Lisa Bonet. ... This is a list of film-related events in 1998. ... Willard Christopher Smith, Jr. ... The Skulls was a 2000 film starring Joshua Jackson, Paul Walker, and Leslie Bibb; and directed by Rob Cohen. ... This is a list of film-related events in 2000. ... Joshua Carter Jackson (born June 11, 1978) is an actor in American television and movies. ... Hill Harper in a screen shot from ABCS The Court Hill Harper (born Frank Hill Harper on May 17, 1973 in Iowa City, Iowa), is an American film, television and stage actor. ... Commander in Chief is a television drama focusing on the presidential administration and family of Mackenzie Allen (portrayed by Geena Davis), the first female President of the United States(Higly unlikely), who ascends to the role after the previous chief executive, Teddy Bridges (played by Will Lyman), dies in office... This is a list of television-related events in 2005. ... Virginia Elizabeth Geena Davis is a Golden Globe and Academy Award-winning American actress. ... Oxford Blues is a 1984 film. ... // Events The Walt Disney Company founds Touchstone Pictures to release movies with subject matter deemed inappropriate for the Disney name. ... Rob Lowe (2003) Robert Rob Lowe (born March 17, 1964) is an American actor who was a member of the Brat Pack. ... Promotional poster for How High How High (2001) is a comedy film, directed by Jesse Dylan, which is a feature film debut for him. ... This is a list of film-related events in 2001. ... Redman (born Reginald Noble on April 17, 1970 in Newark, New Jersey), is an African-American rapper who became popular as an artist on the Def Jam label in the early 1990s. ... Method Man (born Clifford Smith, April 1, 1971 in Staten Island, New York) is an American rapper and member of the hip hop collective, Wu-Tang Clan. ...

Governing bodies, clubs, and companies for rowing

Governing bodies

See also: :Category:Rowing governing bodies

The Amateur Rowing Association (ARA) is the governing body in the United States of Rowingdom for the sport of rowing. ... no The Fédération Internationale des Sociétés dAviron, or FISA for short, is the International Rowing Federation which is the governing body for international rowing. ... Rowing Australia (RA) is the governing body for the sport of rowing in Australian. ... Rowing Canada Aviron (RCA) is a non-profit organization recognized by the Government of Canada and the Canadian Olympic Committee as the national governing body for the sport of rowing in Canada. ... Rowing New Zealand is the sport governing body for rowing in New Zealand. ... The Scottish Amateur Rowing Association (SARA) is the governing body for the sport of rowing in Scotland. ... USRowing is the national governing body for the sport of rowing in the United States. ...

Notable Clubs

See also: :Category:Rowing clubs

The following clubs are noted for having produced a significant number of Olympic class rowers:


For USA Collegiate teams that have won Olympic medals, see College rowing (United States) ANL Flag Founded in 1856, Associação Naval de Lisboa is the oldest sport club of Portugal and one of the 30 oldest nautic clubs in Europe. ... Der Hamburger und Germania Ruder Club is a rowing club in Hamburg, Germany. ... The Detroit Boat Club, established in 1839, is the oldest sport rowing club in the United States. ... Imperial College Boat Club is the rowing club for Imperial College London and has its boat house on the River Thames in Putney, London, United Kingdom. ... Lausanne-Sports Aviron is a Swiss rowing club. ... The Leander Club is based in Henley-on-Thames, and is the oldest rowing club in the world. ... London Rowing Club is a rowing club in London, England. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Mercantile Rowing Club is based in Melbourne, Australia. ... Neptune logo Neptune Rowing Club, founded in 1908, is located on the River Liffey at Islandbridge, Dublin. ... The Amsterdam Student Rowing club (ASR) Nereus, (Dutch De Amsterdamsche Studenten Roeivereniging (ASR) Nereus) was founded in 1885 by Mr. ... The New York Athletic Club was founded in 1868 and is located in New York City. ... Algemene Utrechtse Studenten Roeivereniging ORCA (A.U.S.R. ORCA) Orcas logo The General Utrecht Student Rowing Club ORCA, The Netherlands, located on the Merwedekanaal at Utrecht (city). ... The Petone Rowing Club (PRC) is located on the Petone foreshore, in the harbor of Wellington, New Zealand. ... The Ratzeburg Rowing Club was founded in 1953 and is located in the town of Ratzeburg, Germany. ... Seeclub Küsnacht (SCK) is located on the eastern side of lake zurich in the town of Küsnacht. ... Thames Rowing Club is based on the River Thames in Putney, London, United Kingdom. ... The UTS tower on Broadway The University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), is a university in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... Rowing is the oldest intercollegiate sport in the United States. ...


Companies

See also: :Category:Rowing companies
  • Maas Boats, open water racing shells
  • Concept2, indoor rowers and blades
  • Empacher, German manufacturer of racing shells
  • Eton Racing Boats, UK manufacturer of racing shells
  • Vespoli, major manufacturer of racing shells in the US
  • Filippi, large Italian racing shell manufacturer
  • Pocock, large US west coast rowing shell manufacturer
  • Kaschper, Canadian shell manufacturer
  • Hudson Boatworks, Canadian shell manufacturer
  • Fluidesign, Canadian shell manufacturer
  • KIRS, Kiwi International Rowing Skiffs
  • Lola Aylings, British maker of the XST
  • Resolute Racing Shells, Small yet elite racing shell manufacturer
  • Craftsbury Outdoor Center, noted sculling training camp
  • Calm Waters Rowing, Virginia sculling school

The Concept2 Logo A row of Model C indoor rowers Concept2 are a manufacturer of rowing equipment. ... External links Empacher Official Site Empacher-USA Empacher Canada Categories: Germany-related stubs | Rowing ... Eton Racing Boats logo. ... Vespoli logo Vespoli is a manufacturer of racing shells for rowing. ... Filippi Boats are an Italian manufacturer of rowing racing shells. ... Pocock Rowing is a Seattle, Washington-based racing shells manufacturer, founded in 1911. ... Categories: Stub | Rowing ... Resolute Racing Shells is a manufacture of high performance racing boats for sport rowing. ...

See also

Rowing is the oldest intercollegiate sport in the United States. ... Boat Race Logo The Boat Race is a rowing race between the rowing clubs of the University of Oxford (Oxford University Boat Club) and the University of Cambridge (Cambridge University Boat Club). ... The Yale-Harvard Boat Race or Harvard-Yale Regatta is an annual rowing race between Yale and Harvard universities. ... The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... The Rowing World Cup is an international rowing competition organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... The Junior World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... The Canadian Secondary School Rowing Association (CSSRA)[2] is an organization which governs high school rowing in Canada. ... This is a list blade images of national teams, rowing clubs, schools and universities. ...

External links

  • FISA — The Official World Rowing Website (See FISA).
  • The ARA— The national governing body for rowing in England and responsible for the Great Britain Team
  • USRowing— The United States Governing Body for Rowing.
  • RegattaCentral— Regatta search and listings. Official registrar for USRowing.
  • Rachel Quarrell's Rowing Service — UK rowing news and information site.
  • David Buddulph's Rowing Pages — widely used and revered source of extremely useful rowing information
  • Row2k.com — World wide Rowing information site with news, results and photographs.
  • Virtual Library: Rowing.
  • Tideway slug — UK rowing news, gossip and humour.
  • rec.sport.rowing on Google Groups.
  • Physics of Rowing — A somewhat advanced math based approach to the physics of rowing.
  • Row Row Row your Boat - At which maximum speed? — A simple derivation of the maximum speed of rowing boats
  • Coxswain.com — Coxie.com is an interactive forum for coxswains and rowers alike. Articles, downloads and message board.
  • Rowing Computer Research — How rowing really works.
  • Rowing New Zealand — NZ rowing news and information site
  • The Rowing Wiki — A wiki for more technical rowing information
  • Interscholastic Rowing Homepage of New England Interscholastic (High School level) Rowing Association
  • Palestinian Rowing Federation — Palestian Rowing Federation Home Page
  • "America's Oldest Intercollegiate Athletic Event" by John Venezianao, Sports Information Director, Harvard University Sports Information Director.
  • Rowing pace calculator — Includes world record percentages and rowing calorie expenditure.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rowing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (101 words)
Watercraft rowing, rowing as a form of propulsion.
Rowing exercise, structured exercise similar to rowing boats.
Ocean rowing, the sport of rowing across oceans
Sport rowing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4943 words)
Rowing is a speed and endurance sport in narrow boats (called shells or fine boats), where the athlete sits on a sliding seat above the water level and faces backwards (toward the stern), using oars to move the boat.
The first modern rowing races, in the second half of the 18th century, were races between watermen (professional river taximen) on the River Thames in England.
An oar is often referred to as a "blade" in the case of sweep oar rowing and as a "scull" in the case of sculling.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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