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Encyclopedia > Spore
Spores produced in a sporic life cycle.

In biology, a spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersion and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and some protozoans.[1] Look up spore in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Drawn by self for Biological life cycle Cut-&-merge halves Image:Zygotic_meiosis. ... Image File history File links Drawn by self for Biological life cycle Cut-&-merge halves Image:Zygotic_meiosis. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... Protozoa (in Greek protos = first and zoon = animal) are single-celled creatures with nuclei that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ...


Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporophyte. Once conditions are favorable, the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which eventually go on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to create a new sporophyte. This cycle is known as alternation of generations, but a better term is "biological life cycle", as there may be more than one phase and so it cannot be an alternation. Haploid spores produced by mitosis (known as mitospores) are used by many fungi for asexual reproduction. Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Not to be confused with miosis. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a sporophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains a total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... “Life on Earth” redirects here. ... Mitosis is the process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes to generate two identical cells. ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... A gamete is a specialized germ cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... Sporic or diplohaplontic life cycle. ... Mitosis is the process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes to generate two identical cells. ... Conidia on conidophores Conidia, or conidiospores, are asexual, non-motile spores of a fungus; they are also called mitospores due to the way they are generated through the cellular process of mitosis. ...


Spores are the units of asexual reproduction as a single spore develops into a new organism. By contrast, gametes are the units of sexual reproduction as two gametes need to fuse to create a new organism.


The term spore may also refer to the dormant stage of some bacteria or archaea; however these are more correctly known as endospores and are not truly spores in the sense discussed in this article. The term can also be loosely applied to some animal resting stages. Fungi that produce spores are known as sporogenous, and those that do not are asporogenous. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota Archaea are a major division of microorganisms. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ...


The term derives from the ancient Greek word σπορα, meaning seed. Note: This article contains special characters. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Classification

Spores can be classified in several ways.

By function

Fern sori, clusters of meiosporangia on the underside of the leaf
Fern sori, clusters of meiosporangia on the underside of the leaf

Diaspores are dispersal units of fungi, mosses, ferns, fern allies, and some other plants. In fungi, chlamydospores are thick-walled resting spores, and zygospores are thick-walled resting spores (hypnozygotes) of zygomycetous fungi which are produced by sexual gametocystogamy and can give rise to a conidiophore ("zygosporangium") with asexual conidiospores. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Diaspore from Slovakia Diaspore is a native aluminium hydroxide, AlO(OH), crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with goethite and manganite. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Fern ally is a general term covering a somewhat diverse group of vascular plants that are not flowering plants and not true ferns. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Chlamydospore is the thick-walled big resting spore of several kinds of fungi. ... A zygospore is a sexual part of a fungus, a chlamydospore that is created by the nuclear fusion of haploid hyphae of different mating types. ... It has been suggested that Biparental zygote be merged into this article or section. ... Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, are a division of fungi. ...


By spore-producing structure

In fungi and fungus-like organisms, spores are often classified by the structure in which meiosis and spore production takes place, such as a telium, ascus, basidium, or oogonium, which produce teliospore, ascospores, basidiospores, and oospores, respectively. Since fungi are often classified according to their spore-producing structures, these spores are often characteristic of a particular taxon of the fungi, such as Ascomycota or Basidiomycota. An ascus (plural asci) is the spore-bearing container produced in the ascocarps of ascomycete fungi. ... Basidium is a cell on which the spores of the mushroom are produced. ... An oogonium is a female gametogonium. ... Teliospore (sometimes called teleutospore) is the thick-walled resting spore of some fungi (rusts and smuts), from which the basidium arises. ... An ascospore is a spore contained in an ascus or that was produced inside an ascus. ... A basidiospore is a spore produced by mushrooms of Fungi division Basidiomycota. ... A thick-walled sexual spore that develops from a fertilized oosphere in some algae and fungi. ... Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores... Classes Subdivision Teliomycotina    Urediniomycetes Subdivision Ustilaginomycotina    Ustilaginomycetes Subdivision Hymenomycotina    Homobasidiomycetes- mushrooms    Heterobasidiomycetes- jelly fungi The Division Basidiomycota is a large taxon within the Kingdom Fungi that includes those species that produce spores in a club-shaped structure called a basidium. ...


By origin during life cycle

Megaspore (macrospore) formation in plants.
Megaspore (macrospore) formation in plants.
Microspore formation in plants.
Microspore formation in plants.

Meiospores are the product of meiosis (the critical cytogenetic stage of sexual reproduction), meaning that they are haploid, and give rise to a haploid daughter cell(s) or a haploid individual. An example is the parent of gametophytes of the higher vascular plants (angiosperms and gymnosperms)—the microspores (give rise to pollen) and megaspores (or macrospores) (give rise to ovules) found in flowers and cones; these plants accomplish dispersal by means of seeds. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about a biological reproductive structure; for the video game, see Spore (video game). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Spores produced in a sporic life cycle. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with miosis. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia The gymnosperms (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, the sporophylls usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up flower in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mature female European Black Pine cone Male cones of a pine A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


A mitospore (conidium, conidiospore) is an asexually produced propagule, the result of mitosis. Most fungi produce mitospores. Mitosporic fungi are also known as anamophic fungi (compare teleomorph or deuteromycetes). Conidia on conidophores Conidia, or conidiospores, are asexual, non-motile spores of a fungus; they are also called mitospores due to the way they are generated through the cellular process of mitosis. ... Conidia Conidia are asexual spores of a fungus. ... Mitosis is the process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes to generate two identical cells. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Fungi are placed into particular taxa based on reproductive similarities. ... The Deuteromycota are a form division of the fungi, including those fungi in which sexual reproduction is unknown. ...


By motility

Spores can be differentiated by whether they can move or not. Zoospore can move by means of one or more flagella, and can be found in some algae and fungi. Aplanospore cannot move, but may potentially grow flagella. Autospore cannot move and cannot develop flagella. Ballistospore are actively discharged from the body of a fungal fruit (such as a mushroom). Statismospore are not actively discharged from the fungal fruit body, similarly to a puffball. Mobility is the ability and willingness to move or change; this can depend on motor skills; mobility aids may be needed such as a walking stick, walker, mobile standing frame, power operated vehicle/scooter, wheelchair or white cane for visual impairment. ... A motile asexual spore utilizing a flagellum for locomotion. ... // A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a long, slender projection from the cell body, composed of microtubules and surrounded by the plasma membrane. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Mushroom(s) are the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting bodies of fungi typically produced above ground on soil or on their food sources. ... An agaricoid puffball, Podaxis pistillaris, the False Shaggy Mane Puffball emitting spores A puffball is a member of any of a number of groups of fungus in the division Basidiomycota. ...


Parlance

In common parlance, the difference between "spore" and "gamete" (both together called gonites) is that a spore will germinate and develop into a sporeling, while a gamete needs to combine with another gamete before developing further. However, the terms are somewhat interchangeable when referring to gametes. A gamete is a specialized germ cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... A sporeling is a young plant or fungus produced by a germinated spore, similar to a seedling derived from a germinated seed. ...


A chief difference between spores and seeds as dispersal units is that spores have very little stored food resources compared with seeds, and thus require more favorable conditions in order to successfully germinate. Seeds, therefore, are more resistant to harsh conditions and require less energy to start mitosis. Spores are usually produced in large numbers to increase the chance of a spore surviving. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mitosis is the process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes to generate two identical cells. ...


The endospores of certain bacteria are often incorrectly called spores, as seen in the 2001 anthrax attacks where the media called anthrax endospores "anthrax spores". Unlike eukaryotic spores, endospores are primarily a survival mechanism, not a reproductive method, and a bacterium only produces a single endospore. An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its FBI case name, occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001 (a week after the September 11, 2001 attacks). ...


Diaspores

In the case of spore-shedding vascular plants such as ferns, wind distribution of very light spores provides great capacity for dispersal. Also, spores are less subject to animal predation than seeds because they contain almost no food reserve; however they are more subject to fungal and bacterial predation. Their chief advantage is that, of all forms of progeny, spores require the least energy and materials to produce. Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants Equisetophyta Lycopodiophyta Psilotophyta Pteridophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants are plants in the Kingdom Plantae (also called Viridiplantae) that have specialized tissues for conducting water. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ...


Vascular plant spores are always haploid and vascular plants are either homosporous or heterosporous. Plants that are homosporous produce spores of the same size and type. Heterosporous plants, such as spikemosses, quillworts, and some aquatic ferns produce spores of two different sizes: the larger spore in effect functioning as a "female" spore and the smaller functioning as a "male". Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Species See text Spikemoss refers to any plant of the genus Selaginella in the family Selaginellaceae. ... Species See text. ... Look up Female in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex. ...


Under high magnification, spores can be categorized as either monolete spores or trilete spores. In monolete spores, there is a single line on the spore indicating the axis on which the mother spore was split into four along a vertical axis. In trilete spores, all four spores share a common origin and are in contact with each other, so when they separate each spore shows three lines radiating from a center pole. Magnification is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not physical size. ...


Fungal spores

Parasitic fungal spores may be classified into internal spores, which germinate within the a host, and external spores, also called environmental spores, released by the host to infest other hosts. [2]


See also

Sporic or diplohaplontic life cycle. ... A bioaerosol is a biological aerosol. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a sporophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains a total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Spore-like structures that form within the family Gigasporaceae. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.pollenplus.com/spores/faq.html
  2. ^ [1]



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