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Encyclopedia > Sponge
Sponge
Fossil range: Ediacaran - Recent

Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: "Porifera" (Paraphyletic)
Grant in Todd, 1836
Classes

Calcarea
Hexactinellida
Demospongiae Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... The Pinacoderm is the outer most layer of cells (pinacocytes) in the Phylum Porifera (sponges) , equivalent to the epidermis in other organisms. ... A spongocoel is the large, central cavity of the animals in Phylum Porifera. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Osculum is a large opening to the outside, in which the current of water exits after passing through the large cavity (spongocoel) of a sponge. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Sponge (disambiguation). ... Look up sponge in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Ediacaran[5][6]  â€¢  â€¢  | Neoproterozoic (last æon of the Precambrian) Phanerozoic Axis scale: millions of years ago. ... Marine sponge. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Robert Edmond Grant (1793-1874), born in Edinburgh and educated at Edinburgh University as a doctor, became one of the foremost biologists of the early 19th century at Edinburgh and subsequently a professor at London University, particularly noted for his influence on Charles Darwin. ... Robert Bentley Todd (1809-1860) was a physician who is best known for describing the condition postictal paralysis in his Lumleian Lectures in 1849 now known as Todds palsy. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... Orders Subclass Calcinea Clathrinida Leucettida Murrayonida Subclass Calcaronea Baerida Leucosolenida Lithonida Sycettida The calcareous sponges of class Calcarea are members of the animal phylum Porifera, the cellular sponges. ... LOSER sponges are sponges with a skeleton made of four- and/or six-pointed silaceous spicules, often referred to as glass sponges. ... Demosponges are the largest class of Phylum Porifera. ...

The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus "pore" and ferre "to bear") are animals of the phylum Porifera (pronounced /pɒˈrɪfərə/). Porifera translates to "Pore-bearer". They are primitive, sessile, mostly marine, water dwelling filter feeders that pump water through their bodies to filter out particles of food matter. Sponges represent the simplest of animals. With no true tissues (parazoa), they lack muscles, nerves, and internal organs. Their similarity to colonial choanoflagellates shows the probable evolutionary jump from unicellular to multicellular organisms. However, recent genomic studies suggest they are not the most ancient lineage of animals, but may instead be secondarily simplified. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see phyla. ... Look up sessile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Filter feeders (also known as suspension feeders) are animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized structure, such as the baleen of baleen whales. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... This article is about the biological unit. ... The choanoflagellates are a group of flagellate protozoa. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ...


There are over 5,000 modern species of sponges known, and they can be found attached to surfaces anywhere from the intertidal zone to as deep as 8,500 m (29,000 feet) or further. Though the fossil record of sponges dates back to the Neoproterozoic Era, new species are still commonly discovered. The rocky shoreline of Newport, Rhode Island showing a clear line where high tide occurs. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from 1,000 to 542 +/- 0. ...

Contents

Anatomy and morphology

Sponge in Tide pool
Sponge in Tide pool
Aphrocallistes vastus (Cloud sponge) is a type of glass sponge. They are very fragile, as they are made out of tiny glass crystals (hydrated silica dioxide).
Aphrocallistes vastus (Cloud sponge) is a type of glass sponge. They are very fragile, as they are made out of tiny glass crystals (hydrated silica dioxide).[1]

Sponges have several cell types: A tide pool on Gabriola Island, British Columbia showing ochre sea stars Tide pools (also tidal pools or rock pools) are rocky pools by oceans that are filled with seawater. ...

  • Choanocytes (also known as "collar cells") function as the sponge's digestive system, and are remarkably similar to the protistan choanoflagellates. The collars are composed of microvilli and are used to filter particles out of the water. The beating of the choanocytes’ flagella creates the sponge’s water current.
  • Porocytes are tubular cells that make up the pores into the sponge body through the mesohyl.
  • Pinacocytes which form the pinacoderm, the outer epidermal layer of cells. This is the closest approach to true tissue in sponges
  • Myocytes are modified pinacocytes which control the size of the osculum and pore openings and thus the water flow.
  • Archaeocytes (or amoebocytes) have many functions; they are totipotent cells which can transform into sclerocytes, spongocytes, or collencytes. They also have a role in nutrient transport and sexual reproduction.
  • Sclerocytes secrete calcareous siliceous spicules which reside in the mesohyl.
  • Spongocytes secrete spongin, collagen-like fibers which make up the mesohyl.
  • Collencytes secrete collagen.
  • Spicules are stiffened rods or spikes made of calcium carbonate or silica which are used for structure and defense.
  • Cells are arranged in a gelatinous non-cellular matrix called mesohyl

Sponges have three body types: asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid. Choanocytes (also known as collar cells) are cells that line the interior body walls of sponges that contain a central flagellum surrounded by a collar of microvilli. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... The choanoflagellates are a group of flagellate protozoa. ... The microvilli (singular: microvillus) are structures that increase the surface area of cells by approximately 600 fold (human), thus facilitating absorption and secretion. ... For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). ... Porocytes are tubular cells which make up the pores of a sponge. ... The mesohyl, formerly knowen as mesenchyme, is a gelatinous matrix within a sponge. ... Pinacocytes are epidermal cells which make up the pinacoderm in sponges. ... The Pinacoderm is the outer most layer of cells (pinacocytes) in the Phylum Porifera (sponges) , equivalent to the epidermis in other organisms. ... Totipotency is the ability of a single cell, usually a stem cell, to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism, including extraembrionic tissues. ... Sclerocytes are spicule secreting cells, found in sponges. ... Sclerocytes are spicule secreting cells, found in sponges. ... Calcareous formed from or containing a high proportion of Calcium carbonate. ... A horny, sulfur-containing protein related to keratin that forms the skeletal structure of certain classes of sponges (American Heritage Dictionary, 2006) Proteinaceous comounds of which the spicules in Demospongiae are composed (Cartage, 2006) ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Spicules Spicules are skeletal structures that occur in most sponges. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Silver gulls will often mob predators who approach their nesting site. ... In biology, the word matrix is used for the material between animal or plant cells, or generally the material (or tissue) in which more specialized structures are embedded, and also specifically for one part of the mitochondrion. ... Asconoid is one of three possible body plans for sponges, which form the phylum Porifera in kingdom Animalia. ...


Asconoid sponges are tubular with a central shaft called the spongocoel. The beating of flagella forces water into the spongocoel through pores in the body wall. Choanocytes line the spongocoel and filter nutrients out of the water. A spongocoel is the large, central cavity of the animals in Phylum Porifera. ...


Syconoid sponges are similar to asconoids. They have a tubular body with a single osculum, but the body wall is thicker and more complex than that of asconoids and contains choanocyte-lined radial canals that empty into the spongocoel. Water enters through a large number of dermal ostia into incurrent canals and then filters through tiny openings called prosopyles into the radial canals. Their food is ingested by the choanocytes. Syconoids do not usually form highly branched colonies as asconoids do. During their development, syconoid sponges pass through an asconoid stage.


Leuconoid sponges lack a sperm and instead have flagellated chambers, containing choanocytes, which are led to and out of via canals.


It should be noted that these 3 body grades are useful only in describing morphology, and not in classifying sponge species.


Physiology

Sponges have no true circulatory system; instead, they create a water current which is used for circulation. Dissolved gases are brought to cells and enter the cells via simple diffusion. Metabolic wastes are also transferred to the water through diffusion. Sponges pump remarkable amounts of water. Leuconia, for example, is a small leuconoid sponge about 10 cm tall and 1 cm in diameter. It is estimated that water enters through more than 80,000 incurrent canals at a speed of 6cm per minute. However, because Leuconia has more than 2 million flagellated chambers whose combined diameter is much greater than that of the canals, water flow through chambers slows to 3.6cm per hour.[2] Such a flow rate allows easy food capture by the collar cells. All water is expelled through a single osculum at a velocity of about 8.5 cm/second: a jet force capable of carrying waste products some distance away from the sponge. For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... Metabolic wastes or excretes are substances left over from metabolic processes, which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or have lethal effect), and must therefore be excreted. ... Osculum is a large opening to the outside, in which the current of water exits after passing through the large cavity (spongocoel) of a sponge. ...


Taxonomy

A sponge in Papua New Guinea
A sponge in Papua New Guinea

Sponge taxonomy is an area of active research, with molecular studies improving our understanding of their relationship with other animals.


Sponges are among the simplest animals. They lack gastrulated embryos, extracellular digestive cavities, nerves, muscles, tissues, and obvious sensory structures, features possessed by all other animals. In addition, sponge choanocytes (feeding cells) appear to be a homologous to choanoflagellates, a group of unicellular and colonial protists that are believed to be the immediate precursors of animals. The traditional conclusion is that sponges are the basal lineage of the animals, and that features such as tissues developed after sponges and other animals diverged. Sponges were first assigned their own subkingdom, the Parazoa, but more recent molecular studies suggested that the sponges were paraphyletic to other animals, with the eumetazoa as a sister group to the most derived:[3] The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... It has been suggested that epiboly be merged into this article or section. ... Gut redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Choanocytes (also known as collar cells) are cells that line the interior body walls of sponges that contain a central flagellum surrounded by a collar of microvilli. ... The choanoflagellates are a group of flagellate protozoa. ... This article is about the animal. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


most Demosponges Subclasses Homoscleromorpha Tetractinomorpha Ceractinomorpha See text for orders. ...




Calcareous sponges Orders Subclass Calcinea Clathrinida Leucettida Murrayonida Subclass Calcaronea Baerida Leucosolenida Lithonida Sycettida The calcareous sponges of class Calcarea are members of the animal phylum Porifera, the cellular sponges. ...




Homoscleromorpha demosponges



Eumetazoa subgroups Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria Eumetazoa is a clade comprising all major animal groups except sponges. ...




Either way, sponges have long been considered useful models of the earliest multicellular ancestors of animals. However, a phylogenomic study in 2008 of 150 genes in 21 genera[4] suggests that the ctenophora are the most basal lineage of the 21 taxa sampled, and that sponges—or at least those lines of sponges investigated so far—are not primitive, but secondarily simplified, having lost tissues and other eumetazoan characteristics from their common ancestor. Classes Tentaculata Nuda Ctenophores are jellyfish-like animals commonly called comb jellies, sea gooseberries, sea walnuts, or Venus girdles. ...


Sponges are traditionally divided into classes based on the type of spicules in their skeleton. The three classes of sponges are bony (Calcarea), glass (Hexactenellida), and spongin (Demospongiae). Some taxonomists have suggested a fourth class, Sclerospongiae, of coralline sponges, but the modern consensus is that coralline sponges have arisen several times and are not closely related.[5] In addition to these four, a fifth, extinct class has been proposed: Archaeocyatha. While these ancient animals have been phylogenetically vague for years, the current general consensus is that they were a type of sponge.[citation needed] This article is about the skeletal structure. ... Orders Subclass Calcinea     Clathrinida     Murrayonida Subclass Calcaronea     Leucosoleniida     Lithonida The Calcareous sponges belong to the Class Calcarea and are characterized by spicules made out of calcium carbonate (calcite). ... LOSER sponges are sponges with a skeleton made of four- and/or six-pointed silaceous spicules, often referred to as glass sponges. ... Demosponges are the largest class of Phylum Porifera. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Archeocyatha, also called Archaeocyathids, were sessile, reef-building marine organisms that lived during the Lower Cambrian period (500-600 million years ago). ...


Although 90% of modern sponges are demosponges, fossilized remains of this type are less common than those of other types because their skeletons are composed of relatively soft spongin that does not fossilize well. Demosponges are the largest class of Phylum Porifera. ...


Geological history

Fossil sponge Raphidonema faringdonense from the Cretaceous of England
Fossil sponge Raphidonema faringdonense from the Cretaceous of England
Sponge borings and encrusters on a modern bivalve shell, North Carolina.
Sponge borings and encrusters on a modern bivalve shell, North Carolina.

The fossil record of sponges is not abundant. Some fossil sponges have worldwide distribution, while others are restricted to certain areas. Sponge fossils such as Hydnoceras and Prismodictya are found in the Devonian rocks of New York state. In Europe the Jurassic limestone of the Swabian Alb are composed largely of sponge remains, some of which are well preserved. Many sponges are found in the Cretaceous Lower Greensand and Chalk Formations of England, and in rocks from the upper part of the Cretaceous period in France. A famous locality for fossil sponges is the Cretaceous Faringdon Sponge Gravels in Faringdon, Oxfordshire in England. An older sponge is the Cambrian Vauxia. Sponges have long been important agents of bioerosion in shells and carbonate rocks. Their borings extend back to the Ordovician in the fossil record. Photograph of the fossil sponge Raphidonema taken by Dlloyd. ... Photograph of the fossil sponge Raphidonema taken by Dlloyd. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... A view on the Swabian Alb, with its typical hills and a juniper meadow The Albtrauf, which forms the western border of the Swabian Alb The Swabian Jura (German: Schwäbische Alb) is a plateau in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, extending 220 km from southwest to northeast and 40 to... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... The Chalk Formations of Europe are thick deposits of chalk, a soft porous white limestone, deposited in a marine environment during the upper Cretaceous Period. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... , The Folly, from the A420 Faringdon market place All Saints church, Faringdon Numerous borings in a Cretaceous cobble, Faringdon, England; these are excellent examples of fossil bioerosion. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Species  ? Vauxia is an extinct genus of large sponge. ... Bioerosion describes the erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ...


Fossil sponges differ in size from 1 cm (0.4 inches) to more than 1 meter (3.3 feet). They vary greatly in shape, being commonly vase-shapes (such as Ventriculites), spherical (such as Porosphaera), saucer-shaped (such as Astraeospongia), pear-shaped (such as Siphonia), leaf-shaped (such as Elasmostoma), branching (such as Doryderma), irregular or encrusting.


Detailed identification of many fossil sponges relies on the study of thin sections.


Ecology and Reproduction

Modern sponges are predominantly marine, with some 150 species adapted to freshwater environments. Their habitats range from the inter-tidal zone to depths of 6,000 metres (19,680 feet). Certain types of sponges are limited in the range of depths at which they are found. Sponges are worldwide in their distribution, and range from waters of the polar regions to the tropical regions. Sponges are most abundant in both numbers of individuals and species in warmer waters.


Adult sponges are largely sessile, and live in an attached position. However, it has been noted that certain sponges can move slowly by directing their water current in a certain direction with myocytes. The greatest numbers of sponges are usually to be found where a firm means of fastening is provided, such as on a rocky ocean bottom. Some kinds of sponges are able to attach themselves to soft sediment by means of a root-like base. Sponges also live in quiet clear waters, because if the sediment is agitated by wave action or by currents, it tends to block the pores of the animal, lessening its ability to feed and survive.


Recent evidence suggests that a new disease called Aplysina red band syndrome (ARBS) is threatening sponges in the Caribbean.[1] Aplysina red band syndrome causes Aplysina to develop one or more rust-coloured leading edges to their structure, sometimes with a surrounding area of necrotic tissue so that the lesion causes a contiguous band around some or all of the sponge's branch.


Reproduction

Sponges can reproduce sexually or asexually. Sexual reproduction is a union that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. ... It has been suggested that Parthenogenesis be merged into this article or section. ...


Asexual reproduction is through internal and external budding. External budding occurs when the parent sponge grows a bud on the outside of its body. This will either break away or stay connected. Internal budding occurs when archaeocytes collect in the mesohyl and become surrounded by spongin. The internal bud is called a gemmule, and this is seen only in the freshwater sponge family, the Spongillidae. An asexually reproduced sponge has exactly the same genetic material as the parent. High magnification view of a budding yeast Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. ... A horny, sulfur-containing protein related to keratin that forms the skeletal structure of certain classes of sponges (American Heritage Dictionary, 2006) Proteinaceous comounds of which the spicules in Demospongiae are composed (Cartage, 2006) ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In sexual reproduction, sperm are dispersed by water currents and enter neighboring sponges. All sponges of a particular species release their sperm at approximately the same time.[citation needed] Fertilization occurs internally, in the mesohyl. Fertilized oocytes develop within the mesohyl. Cleavage stages are highly varied within and between groups, sometimes even within a single species. Larval development usually involves an odd type of morphogenetic movement termed an inversion of layers. When this occurs in some species (for example, in Sycon coactum ), the larva flips into the choanocyte chamber, and then can emerge via the water canal system and out through the osculum. For other uses, see Sperm (disambiguation). ...


Although sponges are hermaphroditic (both male and female), they are not self-fertile. Most sponges are sequential hermaphrodites, capable of producing eggs or sperm, but not both at the same time. In zoology, a hermaphrodite is a species that contains both male and female sexual organs at some point during their lives. ...


Use

By dolphins

In 1997, use of sponges as a tool was described in Bottlenose Dolphins in Shark Bay. A dolphin will attach a marine sponge to its rostrum, which is presumably then used to protect it when searching for food in the sandy sea bottom.[6] The behaviour, known as sponging, has only been observed in this bay, and is almost exclusively shown by females. This is the only known case of tool use in marine mammals outside of Sea Otters. An elaborate study in 2005 showed that mothers most likely teach the behaviour to their daughters.[7] This article is about the instrument. ... Binomial name Tursiops truncatus Montagu, 1821 The Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the most common and well-known dolphin species. ... Shark Bay is a world heritage site and a locality in the Gascoyne region of Western Australia. ... A rostrum (Latin for beak) is an anatomical structure resembling a birds beak, such as the snout of a crocodile or dolphin or the foremost extension of a crustaceans carapace. ... The seabed (also sea floor, seafloor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean. ... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae A Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), a member... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ...


By humans

Natural Sponges in Tarpon Springs, Florida
Natural Sponges in Tarpon Springs, Florida

Download high resolution version (1024x768, 249 KB)Natural Sponges in Tarpon Springs, Florida. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 249 KB)Natural Sponges in Tarpon Springs, Florida. ...

Skeleton as absorbent

Main article: Sponge (tool)

In common usage, the term sponge is applied to the skeleton of the animal, from which the tissue has been removed by maceration and washing, leaving just the spongin scaffolding. Calcareous and siliceous sponges are too harsh for similar use. Commercial sponges are derived from various species and come in many grades, from fine soft "lamb's wool" sponges to the coarse grades used for washing cars. For other uses, see Sponge (disambiguation). ... Maceration is a bone preparation technique whereby parts of a vertebrate corpse are left to rot inside a closed container at near-constant temperature, to get a clean skeleton. ... A horny, sulfur-containing protein related to keratin that forms the skeletal structure of certain classes of sponges (American Heritage Dictionary, 2006) Proteinaceous comounds of which the spicules in Demospongiae are composed (Cartage, 2006) ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


The manufacture of rubber-, plastic- and cellulose-based synthetic sponges has significantly reduced the commercial sponge fishing industry in recent years. This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ...


The luffa "sponge", also spelled loofah, commonly sold for use in the kitchen or the shower, is not derived from an animal sponge, but from the locules of a gourd (Cucurbitaceae). Species (Angled luffa, Ridged Luffa) (Smooth luffa, Egyptian luffa) (Sponge cucumber) and others A luffa sponge whose coarse texture helps with skin polishing. ... Genera Abobra Acanthosicyos Actinostemma Alsomitra Ampelosycios Anacaona Apatzingania Apodanthera Bambekea Benincasa Biswarea Bolbostemma Brandegea Bryonia Calycophysum Cayaponia Cephalopentandra Ceratosanthes Chalema Cionosicyos Citrullus Coccinia Cogniauxia Corallocarpus Cremastopus Ctenolepis Cucumella Cucumeropsis Cucumis Cucurbita Cucurbitella Cyclanthera Dactyliandra Dendrosicyos Dicoelospermum Dieterlea Diplocyclos Doyerea Ecballium Echinocystis Echinopepon Edgaria Elateriopsis Eureiandra Fevillea Gerrardanthus Gomphogyne Gurania Guraniopsis...


Antibiotic compounds

Sponges have medicinal potential due to the presence of antimicrobial compounds in either the sponge itself or their microbial symbionts.[8] For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacteria. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ...


Bibliography

  • C. Hickman Jr., L. Roberts and A Larson (2003). Animal Diversity, 3rd, New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-234903-4. 
  • New disease threatens sponges, Practical Fishkeeping

References

  1. ^ Department of Biological Sciences - Studies in Life Sciences, University of Alberta: Glass Sponge Ecology, accessed March 16, 2008
  2. ^ See Hickman and Roberts (2001) Integrated principles of zoology — 11th ed., p.247
  3. ^ Sperling, E.A.; Peterson, K.J. (2007). "Poriferan paraphyly and its implications for Precambrian paleobiology". J Geol Soc London. Retrieved on 2008-04-07. 
  4. ^ Dunn et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452: 745. doi:10.1038/nature06614. 
  5. ^ R. C. Brusca and G. J. Brusca (2003). Invertebrates. Second Edition. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates. 
  6. ^ Smolker, R.A., et al.. "Sponge-carrying by Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins: Possible tool-use by a delphinid }". 
  7. ^ Krutzen M, Mann J, Heithaus MR, Connor RC, Bejder L, Sherwin WB (2005). "Cultural transmission of tool use in bottlenose dolphins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (25): 8939–8943. 
  8. ^ See e.g. Teeyapant R, Woerdenbag HJ, Kreis P, Hacker J, Wray V, Witte L, Proksch P. (1993) Antibiotic and cytotoxic activity of brominated compounds from the marine sponge Verongia aerophoba. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. C, Journal of biosciences 48:939–45.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ...

Further reading

  • Berguist, P. R. 1998. "The Porifera" (pp. 10-27), in D. T. Anderson (ed.) Invertebrate Zoology. (A brief treatment)
  • Berguist, P. R. 1978. Sponges Hutchinson, London.

Dame Professor Patricia Rose Bergquist, DBE, Fellow RSNZ (born 10 March 1933) is a widely-known expert on anatomy and taxonomy from New Zealand. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Tarpon Springs is a city in Pinellas County, Florida, United States. ...

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The sponge is first moistened with water and then inserted into the vagina before intercourse.
If the sponge cannot be removed, or if it breaks into pieces and you cannot remove all of them, see your clinician immediately to have it removed.
Sponge users may be at slightly increased risk of toxic shock syndrome, which is also associated with the prolonged use of highly absorbent tampons.
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